Crow in November 2014
|Sheryl Suzanne Crow|
February 11, 1962 |
Kennett, Missouri, U.S.
|Origin||Los Angeles, California, U.S.|
Sheryl Suzanne Crow (born February 11, 1962) is an American musician, singer, songwriter, and actress. Her music incorporates elements of pop, rock, country, and blues. She has released ten studio albums, four compilations, a live album, and has contributed to a number of film soundtracks. Her songs include "All I Wanna Do" and "If It Makes You Happy." She has sold more than 50 million albums worldwide. Crow has garnered nine Grammy Awards (out of 32 nominations) from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences.
In addition to her own work, Crow has performed with the Dixie Chicks, the Rolling Stones, Jerry Lee Lewis, Stevie Nicks, Michael Jackson, Steve Earle, Prince, Eric Clapton, Luciano Pavarotti, Willie Nelson, Smokey Robinson, John Mellencamp, B.B. King, George Strait, Tony Bennett, Kid Rock, Sting, and Zucchero Fornaciari, among others. She has also performed backing vocals for Tina Turner, Don Henley, Stevie Nicks, Belinda Carlisle, Bob Dylan, Joe Cocker, Neal Schon, and Michael Jackson.
As an actress, Crow has appeared on various television shows including 30 Rock, Cop Rock, GCB, Cougar Town, Jon Stewart and Stephen Colbert's Rally to Restore Sanity and/or Fear, as well as One Tree Hill.
Sheryl Suzanne Crow was born in Kennett, Missouri, the daughter of Bernice (née Cain), a piano teacher, and Wendell Wyatt Crow, a lawyer and trumpet player. Her great-grandfather was congressman Charles A. Crow (1873-1938). She has two older sisters named Kathy and Karen and a younger brother named Steven.
While studying at Kennett High School, Crow was a majorette and an all-state track athlete, medaling in the 75-meter low hurdles. She also joined the 'pep club', the National Honor Society, and the National FFA Organization, and was crowned Paperdoll Queen in a celebrity-judged beauty contest during her senior year. She then enrolled at the University of Missouri in Columbia and received a Bachelor of Arts degree in music composition, performance, and education. While at the university, she sang in the local band Cashmere. She was a member of the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority, Sigma Alpha Iota International Music Fraternity for Women, and the Omicron Delta Kappa Society as well as working as a 'Summer Welcome' orientation leader. Crow was later awarded honorary doctorates from the University of Missouri and Southeast Missouri State University in Cape Girardeau.
Crow has stated that her musical inspirations are not restricted to one genre--she likes anything with a drum beat. In 2008, she told Ellen DeGeneres that "If it didn't have a drum beat, you can just forget about it!"
After graduating from the University of Missouri, Crow worked as a music teacher at Kellison Elementary School in Fenton, Missouri. Teaching during the day gave her the opportunity to sing in bands on the weekends. She was later introduced to local musician and record producer Jay Oliver. He had a studio in the basement of his parents' home in St. Louis and helped her by using her in advertising jingles. Her first jingle was a 'back to school' spot for the St Louis department store Famous-Barr. Soon after she sang in commercial jingles for McDonald's and Toyota. She was quoted in a 60 Minutes segment as saying she made $40,000 on her McDonald's ad alone.
Crow toured with Michael Jackson as a backing vocalist during his Bad World Tour 1987-89 and often performed with Jackson on "I Just Can't Stop Loving You". She also recorded background vocals for performances for a number of established artists such as Stevie Wonder, Belinda Carlisle and Don Henley.
Crow also sang in the short-lived Steven Bochco drama Cop Rock in 1990 and her song "Heal Somebody" appeared in the film Bright Angel. In 1991 her recording of "Welcome To The Real Life' featured on the soundtrack to the Brian Bosworth action film, Stone Cold. Later that year her performance of "Hundreds of Tears" was included in the Point Break soundtrack and she sang a duet with Kenny Loggins on the track "I Would Do Anything", from his album Leap of Faith.
In 1992, Crow recorded her first attempt at a debut album with Phil Collins' record producer Hugh Padgham. The self-titled debut album was due to be released on September 22, 1992, but Crow and her label mutually decided that the album did not merit release. Crow described it as "too produced" and "slick". However, a handful of cassette copies of the album were leaked, along with press folders for album publicity. This album has been widely dispersed via file sharing networks and fan trading. In the meantime, Crow's songs were recorded by major artists such as Celine Dion, Tina Turner and Wynonna Judd.
She then began dating Kevin Gilbert and joined him in an ad hoc group of musicians known to themselves as the "Tuesday Music Club." Group members Gilbert, David Baerwald, and David Ricketts (both formerly of David & David), Bill Bottrell, Brian MacLeod, and Dan Schwartz share songwriting credits with Crow on her debut album, Tuesday Night Music Club.
The group existed as a casual songwriting collective prior to its association with Crow but rapidly developed into a vehicle for her debut album after her arrival. Her relationship with Gilbert became acrimonious soon after the album was released, and disputes arose about songwriting credits.
Crow appeared in the "New Faces" section of Rolling Stone in 1994. Tuesday Night Music Club featured many of the songs written by Crow's friends, including the second single, "Leaving Las Vegas". The album was slow to garner attention, until "All I Wanna Do" became an unexpected smash hit in the fall of 1994. As she later stated in People, she found an old poetry book in a used book store in the L.A. area and used a poem as lyrics in the song. The singles "Strong Enough" and "Can't Cry Anymore" were also released, with the first song ("Strong Enough") charting at No. 5 on Billboard and "Can't Cry Anymore" hitting the Top 40.Tuesday Night Music Club went on to sell more than 7 million copies in the U.S. and U.K. during the 1990s. The album also won Crow three Grammy Awards, in 1995: Record of the Year, Best New Artist and Best Female Vocal Performance. She performed at the 1994 and 1999 Woodstock Festivals, as well as the Another Roadside Attraction in 1997.
In 1996, Crow released her self-titled second album. The album had songs about abortion, homelessness and nuclear war. She produced the album herself and also played a variety of instruments, from various guitars, bass or pedal steel to various organs and piano. The debut single, "If It Makes You Happy", became a radio success and netted her two Grammy awards for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance and Best Rock Album. Other singles included "A Change Would Do You Good", "Home", and "Everyday Is a Winding Road". The album was banned from sale at Wal-Mart, because in the lyrics to "Love Is a Good Thing" Crow says that Wal-Mart sells guns to children. The album also features a protest song called "Redemption Day", which was covered by Johnny Cash on his last album American VI: Ain't No Grave. In 1997, Crow contributed the theme song to the James Bond film Tomorrow Never Dies. Her song "Tomorrow Never Dies" was nominated for a Grammy Award and Best Original Song Golden Globe. Crow collaborated on Scott Weiland's 1998 album, 12 Bar Blues.
In 1998, Crow released The Globe Sessions. During this period, she discussed in interviews having gone through a deep depression, and there was speculation about a brief affair with Eric Clapton. The debut single from this album, "My Favorite Mistake," was rumored to be about Clapton, but Crow says otherwise--that the song is about a philandering ex-boyfriend. Crow has refused to say who the song was about, telling Billboard Magazine on the release of her album, "Oh, there will be just so much speculation, and because of that there's great safety and protection in the fact that people will be guessing so many different people and I'm the only person who will ever really know. I'm really private about who I've had relationships with, and I don't talk about them in the press. I don't even really talk about them with the people around me." Despite the difficulties in recording the album, Crow told the BBC in 2005 that, "My favorite single is 'My Favorite Mistake.' It was a lot of fun to record and it's still a lot of fun to play." The album won Best Rock Album at the 1999 Grammy Awards. It was re-released in 1999, with a bonus track, Crow's cover of the Guns N' Roses song "Sweet Child o' Mine," which was included on the soundtrack of the film Big Daddy. The song won the 1999 Grammy for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance. Other singles included "There Goes the Neighborhood," "Anything but Down," and "The Difficult Kind." Crow won the 2001 Grammy best female rock vocal performance for There Goes the Neighborhood.The Globe Sessions peaked at No. 5 on the Billboard 200 chart, achieving US sales of 2 million as of January 2008.
Later in 1998, Crow took part in a live concert in tribute to Burt Bacharach, contributing vocals on "One Less Bell to Answer." In 1999, Crow also made her acting debut as an ill-fated drifter in the suspense/drama The Minus Man, which starred her then-boyfriend Owen Wilson as a serial killer. Also in 1999, she appeared in Prince's album Rave Un2 the Joy Fantastic, singing backing vocals in the song "Baby Knows". Prince included a cover of her "Everyday Is a Winding Road" in the album. She also appeared in Zucchero Fornaciari's collection Overdose d'amore/The Ballads featuring the song Blue (co-written by Bono).
She also released a live album called Sheryl Crow and Friends: Live From Central Park. The record featured Crow singing many of her hit singles with new musical spins and guest appearances by many other musicians including Sarah McLachlan, Stevie Nicks, the Dixie Chicks, Keith Richards, and Eric Clapton. It included "There Goes the Neighborhood", which won the Grammy for Best Female Rock Vocal Performance.
Crow had been involved with the Scleroderma Research Foundation (SRF) since the late 1990s, performing at fund-raisers and befriending Sharon Monsky. In 2002, as a result of her friend Kent Sexton dying from scleroderma, she interrupted work on her new album C'mon C'mon to record the traditional hymn "Be Still, My Soul", to be played at his funeral. In November of that year it was released as a single, with the proceeds going to SRF.
Crow opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq, wearing a shirt that read "I don't believe in your war, Mr. Bush!" during a performance on Good Morning America and posting an open letter explaining her opposition on her website. At a performance with Kid Rock at the 45th annual Grammy Awards, she wore a large peace sign and a guitar strap with the words "No War." She showed support for injured soldiers in 2003 by playing her guitar and singing to individual patients at Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
She recorded the song "Kiss That Girl" for the film Bridget Jones's Diary. She also recorded a cover version of the Beatles' song "Mother Nature's Son" for the film I Am Sam. Crow sang a duet with rock artist Kid Rock on the crossover hit single "Picture", from Kid Rock's 2001 album Cocky. She also assisted him on the track "Run Off to L.A.".
She was featured on the Johnny Cash album American III: Solitary Man in the song "Field of Diamonds" as a background vocalist, and also played the accordion for the songs "Wayfaring Stranger" and "Mary of the Wild Moor".
In 2003, a greatest hits compilation called The Very Best of Sheryl Crow was released. It featured many of her hit singles, as well as some new tracks. Among them was the 1960s pop song, "The First Cut is the Deepest" by Cat Stevens, which became her biggest radio hit since "All I Wanna Do". She also released the single "Light In Your Eyes," which received limited airplay. "The First Cut is the Deepest" earned her two American Music Awards for Best Pop/Rock Artist and Adult Contemporary Artist of the Year, respectively.
Her fifth studio album, Wildflower, was released in September 2005. Although the album debuted at No. 2 on the Billboard charts, it received mixed reviews and was not as commercially successful as her previous albums. In December 2005, the album was nominated for a Best Pop Vocal Album Grammy, while Crow was nominated for a Best Female Pop Vocal Performance Grammy for the first single Good Is Good. However, she ultimately lost in both categories to Kelly Clarkson. The album got a new boost in 2006 when the second single was announced as Always on Your Side, re-recorded with British musician Sting and sent off to radio, where it was quickly embraced at Adult Top 40. The collaboration with Sting resulted in a Grammy-nomination for Best Pop Collaboration With Vocals. As of January 2008, Wildflower has sold 949,000 units in the United States.
In 2006, Crow contributed "Real Gone", the opening track to the soundtrack for Disney and Pixar's 2006 animated film Cars. Crow was diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer in mid-February 2006, her doctors stating that, "Prognosis for a full recovery is excellent."
Crow's first concert after her cancer diagnosis was on May 18 of that year in Orlando, Florida, where she played to over 10,000 information technology professionals at the SAP Sapphire Convention. Her first public appearance was on June 12, when she performed at the Murat Theater in Indianapolis, Indiana. She also appeared on Larry King Live on CNN on August 23, 2006. In this show, she talked about her comeback, her breakup with Lance Armstrong, her past job as Michael Jackson's backup singer, and her experience as a breast cancer survivor.
In early 2007, Crow was scheduled to sing at an annual benefit concert for The Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital that sportscaster Bob Costas hosts every year. Her performance was opposed by Raymond Burke then a Catholic Archbishop due to her position on abortion. Burke resigned as chair of the medical center's board of governors when Crow's appearance was confirmed.
Crow wrote a foreword for the book Crazy Sexy Cancer Tips, a book written by Kris Carr that was based on her 2007 documentary film Crazy Sexy Cancer. Crow contributed her cover of the Beatles' Here Comes the Sun on the soundtrack for the Dreamworks animated film Bee Movie in November 2007. She contributed background vocals to Ryan Adams's song "Two" from the album Easy Tiger.
Crow returned with her sixth studio album Detours, which was released on February 5, 2008. Detours debuted at No. 2 on the US Billboard 200 chart selling close to 92,000 copies in its first week and an additional 52,000 copies in its second week. In support of the new album, Crow launched a 25-date tour with James Blunt, and the lineup included reggae group Toots and the Maytals after being handpicked by Crow who said they are one of her favorite bands.
Detours was recorded at Crow's Nashville farm. Her son, Wyatt, makes an appearance on the song Lullaby for Wyatt, which is featured in the movie Grace Is Gone.
Shine Over Babylon was the first promotional single from the album (download only). The first official single released from the album was Love Is Free, followed by Out of Our Heads. As of 2010, Detours had sold more than 700,000 copies worldwide.
Crow also recorded a studio version of So Glad We Made It for the Team USA Olympic Soundtrack, in conjunction with the 2008 US Olympic team sponsors, AT&T. Crow also stated that she would donate $1 of each ticket purchased for her 2008 tour to the United Nations World Food Programme.
A&M Records re-released Crow's debut album, Tuesday Night Music Club, as a deluxe version 2CD/DVD set on November 17, 2009. The released included the single Killer Life, which charted moderately in adult album alternative radio. The bonus CD contains unreleased songs and B-sides, and a new mix of I Shall Believe. The DVD features music videos for each of the album's singles.
In August 2008, Crow (in partnership with Western Glove Works) launched a jeans brand, Bootheel Trading Company. Her reported explanation was that, "Denim has become so high-priced as of late, my friends back home don't want to spend $250 for a pair of jeans. I want them to be able to walk into a medium-priced store and be able to afford a cool pair of jeans for less than 100 bucks." The jeans are styled like the California hippie-style faded bootcut jeans that Crow prefers wearing. Crow said that she owns dozens of pairs of jeans, wears jeans more during the summer than during the spring, and does "...almost everything in jeans except sleep."
On April 4, 2009, Crow, who practices transcendental meditation, took part in a benefit concert at the Radio City Music Hall in New York organized by the David Lynch Foundation supporting the Foundation's goal of teaching one million at-risk students to meditate. She and Ben Harper performed George Harrison's song My Sweet Lord. Other performers at the concert included Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, Mike Love, Moby, Eddie Vedder and Donovan. Crow said, "This event is one of the most important events to happen at this moment in history. ... Peace is something deeper than that, it is tapping into something that exists in all of us and makes us unique, and that helps us to be pure.".
In 2010, Crow contributed the original spoken-word track "My Name Is Mwamaroyi" to the Enough Project and Downtown Records' Raise Hope for Congo compilation. Proceeds from the compilation fund efforts to make the protection and empowerment of Congo's women a priority, as well as inspire individuals around the world to raise their voice for peace in Congo.
A&M Records released Crow's seventh studio album, 100 Miles from Memphis, on July 20, 2010. The album has a classic Memphis soul vibe and features the lead single "Summer Day."100 Miles from Memphis (released July 20 on A&M Records), the distance from her hometown to the music mecca, is an ode to her formative memories of music - and one that the label hopes can inspire young music fans to investigate the landscape beyond processed pop and Auto-Tune.
Later that year, she joined Loretta Lynn and country singer Miranda Lambert on an update of Lynn's song "Coal Miner's Daughter" for the 2010 album Coal Miner's Daughter: A Tribute to Loretta Lynn. They later performed the song on the 44th Annual Country Music Awards in November.
In July 2011, Crow performed at the opening night of the Cheyenne Frontier Days Rodeo,. Animal welfare campaigners had urged her not to, alleging animal cruelty at the event. Almost 13,000 people signed a petition calling on Crow not to perform.
On September 20, 2011, it was announced that Crow will write the music and lyrics for Diner, a new musical inspired by the critically acclaimed 1982 film. The show will come to Broadway in the fall of 2012, and will be directed and choreographed by Tony Award winner Kathleen Marshall.
On September 21, 2012, Mailboat Records released Mark Twain: Words & Music, an Americana double-CD that tells the life of fellow Missourian Mark Twain in spoken word and song. The project was a benefit for the Mark Twain Boyhood Home & Museum in Hannibal, Missouri. Crow sang the only period piece song on the project, Stephen Foster's "Beautiful Dreamer." The song was sung a cappella and accompanied the narrative describing the early days of Mark Twain's young family in Hartford, Connecticut. Other performers that joined the project, produced by Carl Jackson, included Jimmy Buffett, Clint Eastwood, Garrison Keillor, Brad Paisley, Emmylou Harris, Vince Gill, Ricky Skaggs, and others. AirPlay Direct reported the project as its most downloaded Americana album.
On October 11, 2011 William Shatner released the album Seeking Major Tom, on which Crow sang the track "Mrs. Major Tom" by electronic music artist K.I.A., released in 2003 on the album Adieu Shinjuku Zulu.
In September 2012, she was featured in a campaign called 30 Songs/30 Days to support Half the Sky: Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide, a multi-platform media project inspired by Nicholas Kristof and Sheryl WuDunn's book.
Crow was invited by journalist Katie Couric to write the theme song for her new talk-show, Katie. The song, titled "This Day," was nominated for a Daytime Emmy Award in the category Outstanding Original Song.
On November 1, 2012, Crow released an original song she called Woman in the White House that was made available for a free download. As the title suggests, the country-flavored tune defends the idea of a woman president. Mixed reviews from critics ranged from "sort of patronizing and gender essentialist" to "good-natured and well-intentioned." The song, praised for its tongue-in-cheek lyrics, was commented on by country singer Brad Paisley, who characterized it as "all in good fun." The song was later released for digital download on iTunes and a portion of the proceeds were donated to the American Red Cross to aid in the recovery effort in the wake of Hurricane Sandy.
In 2011, Crow separated from her label, A&M Records. The singer followed Nashville neighbor Brad Paisley's advice and, after being introduced to producer Justin Niebank and several Nashville-based songwriters such as Chris DuBois, Luke Laird and Chris Stapleton, started her first country music project.
In 2013, Crow signed a recording contract with Warner Music Nashville and, a few months later, released "Easy," the first single from the upcoming album, which became her first top twenty country radio hit and her highest charting lead single since 2005.Feels Like Home was released on September 10, 2013, and debuted at number seven on the Billboard 200 with first-week sales of over 36,000 copies, becoming Crow's ninth top ten album.
Crow was one of the opening acts for George Strait's 2014 leg of The Cowboy Rides Away Tour. Along with Stevie Nicks, Bonnie Raitt, Emmylou Harris and Carrie Underwood, she made an appearance at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony, paying tribute to Linda Ronstadt, who was one of the inductees of 2014. Crow, along with country band Gloriana, joined Rascal Flatts on their Rewind Tour, which kicked off May 16, 2014.
The 40th anniversary celebration benefit concert of the Austin City Limits Festival was held on June 26, 2014. Crow hosted the event along with Jeff Bridges and performed with Kris Kristofferson, Gary Clark Jr, Alabama Shakes, as well her former guitarist Doyle Bramhall II. Crow sang on a rendition of "Baby, It's Cold Outside" that appeared on Darius Rucker's Christmas album, Home for the Holidays. In December 2015, she covered "A Hard Day's Night" at the John Lennon 75th Birthday Concert, and performed "Two More Bottles of Wine" with Vince Gill at another tribute concert: The Life & Songs of Emmylou Harris.
Crow duets with Americana artist Rodney Crowell on the track "I'm Tied To Ya" from his album Close Ties which was released in March 2017. Crow's ninth studio album, Be Myself, was released on April 21, 2017. It was co-produced by Crow, Jeff Trott and Tchad Blake, and is the first time the latter has appeared on one of Crow's studio albums since The Globe Sessions in 1998. It has been described by Crow as a return to the sound of her nineties work, and intentionally eschews the country-influenced sound of her previous album. She has said that she did not enjoy the political promotion system utilized by country radio, saying: "You do lots of free [shows] for radio stations in trade for getting played between three and four in the morning. And that's just not how other formats work, and that goes against my grain. I'm too old to allow that for myself, and to spend any night away from my kid for that is not justified." An extensive tour is planned in support of the album, as is a six-day "Outlaws" tour in July 2017 headlined by Willie Nelson and including artists such as Bob Dylan, Jason Isbell, Margo Price and Hayes Carll among others. In June 2018, Crow supported James Taylor on part of his American tour after original support Bonnie Raitt was forced to miss several shows due to health reasons. She then embarked on a "Greatest Hits" tour in the UK, concluding with a set at the Isle of Wight Festival on June 24.
Also currently in production is an album of duets, which is set to feature contributions from Don Henley, Joe Walsh, Sting, Stevie Nicks, Willie Nelson, Vince Gill, Emmylou Harris and Kris Kristofferson, as well as Keith Richards, who will duet on a Rolling Stones cover. Also set to appear is a re-worked version of "Redemption Day", a song from Crow's 1996 self-titled record. This will feature vocals from Johnny Cash taken from his own cover of the song, which was released posthumously on his 2010 album American VI: Ain't No Grave. While promoting her UK tour, Crow released "Wouldn't Wanna Be Like You" featuring St. Vincent and revealed that she intends for the duets project to be her final album, citing the impossibility of releasing something that could follow-up such a gathering of artists. She added that she will continue to write and tour and will potentially release short-form music akin to extended plays.
Crow has had a number of high-profile romantic relationships. In the late '90s she dated musician Eric Clapton, 15 years her senior. She dated actor Owen Wilson. The song "Safe and Sound" on the album C'mon C'mon was dedicated to him and, according to the album's liner notes, was an account of their relationship. Crow began dating cyclist Lance Armstrong in 2003. The couple announced their engagement in September 2005, but jointly announced they had split on February 3, 2006.
After being diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-invasive form of breast cancer, Crow underwent a lumpectomy at a Los Angeles facility on February 22, 2006, followed by seven weeks of radiation therapy. In August 2010, Crow partnered with her surgeon, Dr. Kristi Funk, to open the Sheryl Crow Imaging Center at Funk's Pink Lotus Breast Center. Crow had also suffered from deep depression.
In May 2007, Crow announced on her website that she had adopted a two-week-old boy named Wyatt Steven Crow, who was born on April 29, 2007. In June 2010 Crow announced that she had adopted a boy named Levi James Crow, born on April 30, 2010. She and her sons live in West Nashville, Tennessee. She also owns a home in Destin, Florida. Crow also had a loft apartment in New York City in Lower Manhattan, which she owned from 1998 to 2017.
Crow holds liberal political views, opposing the invasion of Iraq in 2003, supporting gun control measures, opposes military intervention in Syria, and supports fighting climate change.
|1990||Cop Rock||Undercover Cop||Episode: "Bang the Potts Slowly"|
|1996||Fairway to Heaven||Reporter||Television special|
|2004||One Tree Hill||Herself||Episode: "The First Cut Is the Deepest"|
|2005||Saturday Night Live||Herself/Musical Guest||Episode: Lance Armstrong/Sheryl Crow|
|2007||Elmo's Christmas Countdown||Herself||Movie|
|2009||30 Rock||Herself||Episode: "Kidney Now!"|
|2010||Hannah Montana||Herself||Episode: "It's the End of the Jake as We Know It"|
|2010||Cougar Town||Sara||3 episodes|
|2012||GCB||Herself||Episode: "Forbidden Fruit"|
|2013||The Voice||Herself||Advisor for Team Blake Shelton|
|2014||Celebrity Name Game||Herself|
|2016||Match Game||Herself||2 episodes|
|2017||NCIS: New Orleans||Herself||Episode : "Krewe"|
|1999||The Minus Man||Casper|
Cooper, who had been quietly stringing together teaching gigs and establishing his reputation as a poet, was soon receiving royalty checks big enough to allow him to stop working.
Wal-Mart, the nation's largest retailer, is refusing to carry Crow's upcoming album, because one song says the chain sells guns to kids.