Shikoku Pilgrimage
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Shikoku Pilgrimage
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Map of the 88 temples along the Shikoku Pilgrimage
Pilgrims at Zents?-ji, Temple 75 and the birthplace of K?kai
An aruki-henro or walking pilgrim, marked out by his distinctive sedge hat, white shirt, and kong?-zue. The henro-michi route passes through the countryside and a number of cities.
Osu?ata.jpg

The Shikoku Pilgrimage (?, Shikoku Henro) or Shikoku Junrei (?) is a multi-site pilgrimage of 88 temples associated with the Buddhist monk K?kai (K?b? Daishi) on the island of Shikoku, Japan. A popular and distinctive feature of the island's cultural landscape, and with a long history, large numbers of pilgrims, known as henro (), still undertake the journey for a variety of ascetic, pious, and tourism-related purposes.[1] The pilgrimage is traditionally completed on foot, but modern pilgrims use cars, taxis, buses, bicycles, or motorcycles. The standard walking course is approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) long and can take anywhere from 30 to 60 days to complete.

In addition to the 88 "official" temples of the pilgrimage, there are over 20 bangai — temples not considered part of the official 88. To complete the pilgrimage, it is not necessary to visit the temples in order; in some cases it is even considered lucky[] to travel in reverse order. Henro () is the Japanese word for pilgrim,[2] and the inhabitants of Shikoku call the pilgrims o-henro-san (), the o (?) being an honorific and the san () a title similar to "Mr." or "Mrs.". They are often recognizable by their white clothing, sedge hats, and kong?-zue or walking sticks. Alms or osettai are frequently given. Many pilgrims begin and complete the journey by visiting Mount K?ya in Wakayama Prefecture, which was settled by K?kai and remains the headquarters of Shingon Buddhism. The 21 kilometres (13 mi) walking trail up to Koya-san still exists, but most pilgrims use the train.

History

Background

Pilgrimages have played an important part in Japanese religious practice since at least the Heian period. Typically centred upon holy mountains, particular divinities, or charismatic individuals, they are usually to Buddhist sites although those to the shrines of Kumano and Ise are notable exceptions.[1][3]

K?b? Daishi

K?kai, born at Zents?-ji (Temple 75) in 774, studied in China, and upon his return was influential in the promotion of esoteric Buddhism. He established the Shingon retreat of K?ya-san, was an active writer, undertook a programme of public works, and during visits to the island of his birth is popularly said to have established or visited many of its temples and to have carved many of their images. He is posthumously known as K?b? Daishi.[4][5]

Development

The legends and cult of K?b? Daishi, such as the episode of Emon Sabur?, were maintained and developed by the monks of K?ya-san who travelled to expound Shingon and were active, along with other hijiri, in Shikoku.[6] In the Edo period, the policy of tochi kinbaku (?) restricted and regulated the movement of ordinary people. Pilgrims were required to obtain travel permits, follow the main paths, and pass through localities within a certain time limit, with the book of temple stamps or n?ky?-ch? helping to provide proof of passage.[7]

Practice

Stages

Shikoku literally means "four provinces", those of Awa, Tosa, Iyo, and Sanuki, reorganised during the Meiji period into the prefectures of Tokushima, K?chi, Ehime, and Kagawa. The pilgrim's journey through these four provinces is likened to a symbolic path to enlightenment, with temples 1-23 representing the idea of awakening (, hosshin), 24-39 austerity and discipline (, shugy?), 40-65 attaining enlightenment (, bodai), and 66-88 entering nirvana (, nehan).[8]

Equipment

The pilgrim's traditional costume comprises a white shirt (, oizuru), conical Asian hat (, suge-kasa), and staff (, kong?-zue). This may be supplemented by a ceremonial stole (, wagesa). The henro also carries a bag (, zuda-bukuro) containing name slips (, osame-fuda), prayer beads (, juzu) (also known as nenju ()), a booklet (, n?ky?-ch?) to collect stamps/seals (, shuin), incense sticks (, senk?), and coins used as offerings (, o-saisen). The more religiously-minded henro may also carry a book of sutras (, ky?bon) and go-eika () set with a bell.[9]

Rites

Upon arrival at each temple the henro washes before proceeding to the Hond?. After offering coins, incense, and the osame-fuda, the Heart Sutra (?, Hannya Shingy?) is chanted along with repetition of the Mantra of the main image (, honzon) and the Mantra of Light (?, K?my? Shingon). After kigan and ek? prayers, the henro proceeds to the shrine of Kobo Daishi (, Daishid?). Coins and a fuda are similarly offered, and again the Heart Sutra is chanted, along with repetition of the Goh?g? Mantra, namu-Daishi-henj?-kong?.[9]

Imitative versions

Attesting to the popularity of the Shikoku pilgrimage, from the eighteenth century a number of smaller imitative versions have been established.[3] These include a 150 kilometres (93 mi) circuit on Sh?do Island northeast of Takamatsu;[10] a 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) course on the grounds of Ninna-ji in Kyoto;[11] a route on the Chita Peninsula near Nagoya;[12] and circuits in Edo and Chiba Prefecture.[3] Outside Japan, another version is on the Hawai'ian island of Kaua'i.[13]

Temples

Collectively, the 88 temples are known as Shikoku Hachij?hakkasho (?) or simply the Hachij?hakkasho ().

No. Temple Honzon (main image) Location Coordinates Image
1 Ry?zen-ji () Shaka Nyorai Naruto, Tokushima 34°09?35?N 134°30?09?E / 34.159803°N 134.502592°E / 34.159803; 134.502592 (Ry?zen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #1)) Jikuwasan Ryozenji 01.JPG
2 Gokuraku-ji () Amida Nyorai Naruto, Tokushima 34°09?20?N 134°29?25?E / 34.155556°N 134.490278°E / 34.155556; 134.490278 (Gokuraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #2)) Nishozan-gokurakuji-main.JPG
3 Konsen-ji () Shaka Nyorai Itano, Tokushima 34°08?51?N 134°28?07?E / 34.147436°N 134.468544°E / 34.147436; 134.468544 (Konsen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #3)) Konsenji 01.JPG
4 Dainichi-ji () Dainichi Nyorai Itano, Tokushima 34°09?05?N 134°25?51?E / 34.151306°N 134.430889°E / 34.151306; 134.430889 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #4)) P4022426?4.jpg
5 Jiz?-ji () Enmei Jiz? Bosatsu Itano, Tokushima 34°08?14?N 134°25?55?E / 34.137222°N 134.431944°E / 34.137222; 134.431944 (Jiz?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #5)) Mujinzan Jizoji 01.JPG
6 Anraku-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Kamiita, Tokushima 34°07?05?N 134°23?18?E / 34.118056°N 134.388389°E / 34.118056; 134.388389 (Anraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #6)) Onsenzan-anrakuji-tahouto.JPG
7 J?raku-ji () Amida Nyorai Awa, Tokushima 34°07?15?N 134°22?41?E / 34.12075°N 134.377925°E / 34.12075; 134.377925 (J?raku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #7)) P4022616?7.jpg
8 Kumadani-ji () Senju Kannon Awa, Tokushima 34°07?22?N 134°20?24?E / 34.122778°N 134.34°E / 34.122778; 134.34 (Kumadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #8)) P4022665-8? ?.jpg
9 H?rin-ji () Shaka Nyorai Awa, Tokushima 34°06?16?N 134°20?02?E / 34.104378°N 134.333814°E / 34.104378; 134.333814 (H?rin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #9)) Shokakuzan Horinji 01.JPG
10 Kirihata-ji () Senju Kannon Awa, Tokushima 34°06?28?N 134°18?15?E / 34.10775°N 134.304278°E / 34.10775; 134.304278 (Kirihata-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #10)) Kirihataji 03.JPG
11 Fujii-dera () Yakushi Nyorai Yoshinogawa, Tokushima 34°03?06?N 134°20?55?E / 34.051667°N 134.3485°E / 34.051667; 134.3485 (Fujii-dera (Shikoku Pilgrimage #11)) Fujiizenji 02.JPG
12 Sh?san-ji () Kok?z? Bosatsu Kamiyama, Tokushima 33°59?06?N 134°18?37?E / 33.985028°N 134.31025°E / 33.985028; 134.31025 (Sh?san-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #12)) Shozanji 02.JPG
13 Dainichi-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Tokushima, Tokushima 34°02?17?N 134°27?46?E / 34.038117°N 134.462683°E / 34.038117; 134.462683 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #13)) Ogurizan Dainichiji 03.JPG
14 J?raku-ji () Miroku Bosatsu Tokushima, Tokushima 34°03?01?N 134°28?32?E / 34.050333°N 134.475639°E / 34.050333; 134.475639 (J?raku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #14)) Seijuzan Jorakuji 06.JPG
15 Awa Kokubun-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Tokushima, Tokushima 34°03?20?N 134°28?25?E / 34.055611°N 134.473611°E / 34.055611; 134.473611 (Awa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #15)) Awa Kokubunji 12.JPG
16 Kannon-ji () Senju Kannon Tokushima, Tokushima 34°04?06?N 134°28?28?E / 34.068472°N 134.474344°E / 34.068472; 134.474344 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #16)) Kanonji, Tokushima 02.JPG
17 Ido-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Tokushima, Tokushima 34°05?07?N 134°29?08?E / 34.085167°N 134.485444°E / 34.085167; 134.485444 (Ido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #17)) Idoji Hondo.jpg
18 Onzan-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Komatsushima, Tokushima 33°59?10?N 134°34?42?E / 33.986°N 134.57825°E / 33.986; 134.57825 (Onzan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #18)) Onzanji 06.JPG
19 Tatsue-ji () Jiz? Bosatsu Komatsushima, Tokushima 33°58?04?N 134°36?21?E / 33.967861°N 134.605806°E / 33.967861; 134.605806 (Tatsue-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #19)) Tatueji 03.JPG
20 Kakurin-ji () Jiz? Bosatsu Katsuura, Tokushima 33°54?50?N 134°30?20?E / 33.913861°N 134.505611°E / 33.913861; 134.505611 (Kakurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #20)) Ryojuzan Kakurinji 05.JPG
21 Tairy?ji () Kok?z? Bosatsu Anan, Tokushima 33°52?57?N 134°31?19?E / 33.882528°N 134.521889°E / 33.882528; 134.521889 (Tairy?ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #21)) Tairyuji 05.JPG
22 By?d?-ji (Tokushima) () Yakushi Nyorai Anan, Tokushima 33°51?07?N 134°34?58?E / 33.851833°N 134.582778°E / 33.851833; 134.582778 (By?d?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #22)) Byodoji 03.JPG
23 Yaku?-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Minami, Tokushima 33°43?56?N 134°31?39?E / 33.732306°N 134.527583°E / 33.732306; 134.527583 (Yaku?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #23)) Yakuoji 02.JPG
24 Hotsumisaki-ji (?) Kok?z? Bosatsu Muroto, K?chi 33°14?56?N 134°10?33?E / 33.249008°N 134.175739°E / 33.249008; 134.175739 (Hotsumisaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #24)) Hotsumisakiji 02.JPG
25 Shinsh?-ji () Jiz? Bosatsu Muroto, K?chi 33°17?16?N 134°08?54?E / 33.287806°N 134.14825°E / 33.287806; 134.14825 (Shinsh?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #25)) Shinshoji 04.JPG
26 Kong?ch?-ji (?) Yakushi Nyorai Muroto, K?chi 33°18?26?N 134°07?22?E / 33.307222°N 134.122861°E / 33.307222; 134.122861 (Kong?ch?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #26)) Kongochoji,? ()?26  DSCF7169.JPG
27 K?nomine-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Yasuda, K?chi 33°28?03?N 133°58?29?E / 33.467611°N 133.974778°E / 33.467611; 133.974778 (K?nomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #27)) Kounomineji 05.JPG
28 Dainichi-ji () Dainichi Nyorai K?nan, K?chi 33°34?39?N 133°42?19?E / 33.577583°N 133.705389°E / 33.577583; 133.705389 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #28)) Houkaisan Dainichiji 05.JPG
29 Tosa Kokubun-ji () Senju Kannon Nankoku, K?chi 33°35?55?N 133°38?26?E / 33.598694°N 133.640417°E / 33.598694; 133.640417 (Tosa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #29)) Tosa Kokubunji 04.JPG
30 Zenrakuji () Amida Nyorai K?chi, K?chi 33°35?31?N 133°34?39?E / 33.591917°N 133.577556°E / 33.591917; 133.577556 (Zenrakuji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #30)) Zenrakuji01s3872.jpg
31 Chikurin-ji () Monju Bosatsu K?chi, K?chi 33°32?48?N 133°34?39?E / 33.546611°N 133.577472°E / 33.546611; 133.577472 (Chikurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #31)) Chikurinji Kochi31s3872.jpg
32 Zenjibu-ji (?) J?ichimen Kannon Nankoku, K?chi 33°31?36?N 133°36?41?E / 33.526694°N 133.611389°E / 33.526694; 133.611389 (Zenjibu-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #32)) Zenjibuji 05.JPG
33 Sekkei-ji () Yakushi Nyorai K?chi, K?chi 33°30?03?N 133°32?35?E / 33.500833°N 133.543083°E / 33.500833; 133.543083 (Sekkei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #33)) Sekkeiji 02.JPG
34 Tanema-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Haruno, K?chi 33°29?30?N 133°29?15?E / 33.491722°N 133.487583°E / 33.491722; 133.487583 (Tanema-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #34)) Tanemaji 03.JPG
35 Kiyotaki-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Tosa, K?chi 33°30?45?N 133°24?34?E / 33.5125°N 133.4095°E / 33.5125; 133.4095 (Kiyotaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #35)) Iozan Kiyotakiji 05.JPG
36 Sh?ry?-ji () Fud? My Tosa, K?chi 33°25?34?N 133°27?03?E / 33.426°N 133.450806°E / 33.426; 133.450806 (Sh?ry?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #36)) Shoryuji 03.JPG
37 Iwamoto-ji () Five Buddhas Shimanto, K?chi 33°12?29?N 133°08?05?E / 33.207972°N 133.134611°E / 33.207972; 133.134611 (Iwamoto-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #37)) Iwamotoji 02.JPG
38 Kong?fuku-ji (?) Senju Kannon Tosashimizu, K?chi 32°43?34?N 133°01?07?E / 32.726028°N 133.018556°E / 32.726028; 133.018556 (Kong?fuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #38)) Kongofukuji 05.JPG
39 Enk?ji () Yakushi Nyorai Sukumo, K?chi 32°57?41?N 132°46?27?E / 32.961306°N 132.774056°E / 32.961306; 132.774056 (Enk?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #39)) Enkouji 01.JPG
40 Kanjizai-ji (?) Yakushi Nyorai Ainan, Ehime 32°57?53?N 132°33?51?E / 32.964667°N 132.564056°E / 32.964667; 132.564056 (Kanjizai-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #40)) Kanjizaiji 07.JPG
41 Ry?k?ji () J?ichimen Kannon Uwajima, Ehime 33°17?43?N 132°35?55?E / 33.295194°N 132.5985°E / 33.295194; 132.5985 (Ry?k?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #41)) Inarizan Ryukoji 04.JPG
42 Butsumoku-ji () Dainichi Nyorai Uwajima, Ehime 33°18?38?N 132°34?53?E / 33.310583°N 132.581472°E / 33.310583; 132.581472 (Butsumoku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #42)) Butsumokuji 03.JPG
43 Meiseki-ji () Senju Kannon Seiyo, Ehime 33°22?09?N 132°31?08?E / 33.369222°N 132.518972°E / 33.369222; 132.518972 (Meiseki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #43)) Meisekiji 01.JPG
44 Daih?-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Kumak?gen, Ehime 33°39?39?N 132°54?43?E / 33.660889°N 132.912083°E / 33.660889; 132.912083 (Daih?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #44)) Sugozan Daihoji 03.JPG
45 Iwaya-ji [ja] () Fud? My Kumak?gen, Ehime 33°39?31?N 132°58?51?E / 33.658667°N 132.980722°E / 33.658667; 132.980722 (Iwaya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #45)) Iwayadera temple.jpg
46 J?ruri-ji (?) Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°45?13?N 132°49?09?E / 33.753556°N 132.819111°E / 33.753556; 132.819111 (J?ruri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #46)) Iozan Joruriji 03.JPG
47 Yasaka-ji () Amida Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°45?29?N 132°48?46?E / 33.757944°N 132.812861°E / 33.757944; 132.812861 (Yasaka-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #47)) Yasakaji 03.JPG
48 Sairin-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Matsuyama, Ehime 33°47?37?N 132°48?50?E / 33.793722°N 132.813944°E / 33.793722; 132.813944 (Sairin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #48)) Seiryuzan Sairinji 01.JPG
49 J?do-ji () Shaka Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°49?00?N 132°48?31?E / 33.816667°N 132.808528°E / 33.816667; 132.808528 (J?do-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #49)) Jodoji-matsuyama 01.JPG
50 Hanta-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°49?41?N 132°48?16?E / 33.828139°N 132.804556°E / 33.828139; 132.804556 (Hanta-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #50)) 50P1010126.jpg
51 Ishite-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°50?52?N 132°47?47?E / 33.847861°N 132.796472°E / 33.847861; 132.796472 (Ishite-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #51)) Ishiteji 05.JPG
52 Taisan-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Matsuyama, Ehime 33°53?06?N 132°42?54?E / 33.885083°N 132.714972°E / 33.885083; 132.714972 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #52)) Ryuunzan Taisanji 06.JPG
53 Enmy?-ji () Amida Nyorai Matsuyama, Ehime 33°53?30?N 132°44?23?E / 33.89175°N 132.739667°E / 33.89175; 132.739667 (Enmy?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #53)) Enmyoji 02.JPG
54 Enmei-ji () Fud? My Imabari, Ehime 34°04?01?N 132°57?50?E / 34.066833°N 132.964°E / 34.066833; 132.964 (Enmei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #54)) Chikamizan Enmeiji 04.JPG
55 Nank?b? () Daits?-chish? Butsu Imabari, Ehime 34°04?08?N 132°59?45?E / 34.06875°N 132.99575°E / 34.06875; 132.99575 (Nank?b? (Shikoku Pilgrimage #55)) Nankobo 01.JPG
56 Taisan-ji () Jiz? Bosatsu Imabari, Ehime 34°03?00?N 132°58?28?E / 34.050111°N 132.974583°E / 34.050111; 132.974583 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #56)) Taisanji 04.JPG
57 Eifuku-ji () Amida Nyorai Imabari, Ehime 34°01?46?N 132°58?42?E / 34.029472°N 132.978472°E / 34.029472; 132.978472 (Eifuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #57)) Eifukuji 03.JPG
58 Seny?-ji () Senj? Kannon Imabari, Ehime 34°00?47?N 132°58?38?E / 34.013194°N 132.977361°E / 34.013194; 132.977361 (Seny?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #58)) Senyuji 03.JPG
59 Iyo Kokubun-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Imabari, Ehime 34°01?34?N 133°01?32?E / 34.026167°N 133.025444°E / 34.026167; 133.025444 (Iyo Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #59)) Iyo Kokubunji 02.JPG
60 Yokomine-ji () Dainichi Nyorai Saij?, Ehime 33°50?16?N 133°06?40?E / 33.837861°N 133.111139°E / 33.837861; 133.111139 (Yokomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #60)) Yokomineji 06.jpg
61 K?on-ji () Dainichi Nyorai Saij?, Ehime 33°53?37?N 133°06?12?E / 33.893528°N 133.103306°E / 33.893528; 133.103306 (K?on-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #61)) Koonji 02.JPG
62 H?ju-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Saij?, Ehime 33°53?50?N 133°06?54?E / 33.897333°N 133.114944°E / 33.897333; 133.114944 (H?ju-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #62)) Hojuji 01.JPG
63 Kichij?-ji () Bishamonten Saij?, Ehime 33°53?46?N 133°07?45?E / 33.896056°N 133.129167°E / 33.896056; 133.129167 (Kichij?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #63)) Mikkyozan Kichijoji 02.JPG
64 Maegami-ji () Amida Nyorai Saij?, Ehime 33°53?25?N 133°09?38?E / 33.890222°N 133.160667°E / 33.890222; 133.160667 (Maegami-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #64)) Maegamiji 03.JPG
65 Sankaku-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Shikokuch, Ehime 33°58?04?N 133°35?11?E / 33.967639°N 133.5865°E / 33.967639; 133.5865 (Sankaku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #65)) Sankakuji 01.JPG
66 Unpen-ji () Senju Kannon Miyoshi, Tokushima 34°02?07?N 133°43?25?E / 34.035222°N 133.723722°E / 34.035222; 133.723722 (Unpen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #66)) Unpenji 05.JPG
67 Daik?-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°06?08?N 133°43?09?E / 34.102194°N 133.719167°E / 34.102194; 133.719167 (Daik?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #67)) Daikoji 07.JPG
68 Jinne-in () Amida Nyorai Kan'onji, Kagawa 34°08?02?N 133°38?50?E / 34.133986°N 133.647333°E / 34.133986; 133.647333 (Jinne-in (Shikoku Pilgrimage #68)) Jinnein 03.JPG
69 Kannon-ji () Sh? Kannon Kan'onji, Kagawa 34°08?04?N 133°38?51?E / 34.1345°N 133.647528°E / 34.1345; 133.647528 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #69)) Shippozan Kanonji 08.JPG
70 Motoyama-ji () Bat? Kannon Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°08?23?N 133°41?39?E / 34.139667°N 133.694056°E / 34.139667; 133.694056 (Motoyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #70)) MotoyamaJi,Kagawa-01.jpg
71 Iyadani-ji () Senju Kannon Mitoyo, Kagawa 34°13?47?N 133°43?27?E / 34.229722°N 133.724261°E / 34.229722; 133.724261 (Iyadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #71)) Iyadaniji-hondou02.jpg
72 Mandara-ji (?) Dainichi Nyorai Zents?ji, Kagawa 34°13?24?N 133°45?01?E / 34.223306°N 133.750219°E / 34.223306; 133.750219 (Mandara-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #72)) Gahaishizan Mandaraji 03.JPG
73 Shusshakaji (?) Shaka Nyorai Zents?ji, Kagawa 34°13?10?N 133°45?01?E / 34.219389°N 133.750278°E / 34.219389; 133.750278 (Shusshakaji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #73)) Shusshakaji 05.JPG
74 K?yama-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Zents?ji, Kagawa 34°13?59?N 133°45?57?E / 34.233194°N 133.765764°E / 34.233194; 133.765764 (K?yama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #74)) Koyamaji 04.JPG
75 Zents?-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Zents?ji, Kagawa 34°13?30?N 133°46?27?E / 34.225111°N 133.774139°E / 34.225111; 133.774139 (Zents?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #75)) Two Ni? who stand in the left (Ungy?) and right (Agy?) of the sanmon gate at Zents?-ji in Zents?-ji City Kagawa pref.jpg
76 Konz?-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Zents?ji, Kagawa 34°15?00?N 133°46?52?E / 34.250097°N 133.781014°E / 34.250097; 133.781014 (Konz?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #76)) Konzoji 03.JPG
77 D?ry?-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Tadotsu, Kagawa 34°16?36?N 133°45?46?E / 34.27675°N 133.762694°E / 34.27675; 133.762694 (D?ry?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #77)) Doryuji 04.JPG
78 G?sh?-ji () Amida Nyorai Utazu, Kagawa 34°18?24?N 133°49?28?E / 34.306694°N 133.824583°E / 34.306694; 133.824583 (G?sh?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #78)) Goshoji 04.JPG
79 Tenn?-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Sakaide, Kagawa 34°18?41?N 133°52?58?E / 34.311472°N 133.882861°E / 34.311472; 133.882861 (Tenn?-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #79)) Tennoji Koshoin 02.JPG
80 Sanuki Kokubun-ji () J?ichimen & Senj? Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°18?11?N 133°56?39?E / 34.303139°N 133.944167°E / 34.303139; 133.944167 (Sanuki Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #80)) Sanuki Kokubunji 05.JPG
81 Shiromine-ji () Senju Kannon Sakaide, Kagawa 34°20?01?N 133°55?36?E / 34.333528°N 133.926764°E / 34.333528; 133.926764 (Shiromine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #81)) Shiromineji 09.JPG
82 Negoro-ji () Senju Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°20?40?N 133°57?38?E / 34.3445°N 133.960556°E / 34.3445; 133.960556 (Negoro-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #82)) Aominezan Negoroji 03.JPG
83 Ichinomiya-ji () Sh? Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°17?12?N 134°01?36?E / 34.286611°N 134.026583°E / 34.286611; 134.026583 (Ichinomiya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #83)) Ichinomiyaji 03.JPG
84 Yashima-ji () J?ichimen & Senj? Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°21?29?N 134°06?05?E / 34.357917°N 134.10125°E / 34.357917; 134.10125 (Yashima-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #84)) Yashimaji 06.JPG
85 Yakuri-ji () Sh? Kannon Takamatsu, Kagawa 34°21?36?N 134°08?22?E / 34.359889°N 134.139528°E / 34.359889; 134.139528 (Yakuri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #85)) Yakuriji 01.JPG
86 Shido-ji () J?ichimen Kannon Sanuki, Kagawa 34°19?28?N 134°10?47?E / 34.324306°N 134.179639°E / 34.324306; 134.179639 (Shido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #86)) Shidoji 01.JPG
87 Nagao-ji () Sh? Kannon Sanuki, Kagawa 34°16?00?N 134°10?18?E / 34.266706°N 134.171719°E / 34.266706; 134.171719 (Nagao-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #87)) Nagaoji 04.JPG
88 ?kubo-ji () Yakushi Nyorai Sanuki, Kagawa 34°11?29?N 134°12?24?E / 34.191408°N 134.206733°E / 34.191408; 134.206733 (?kubo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #88)) Okuboji 07.JPG

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Reader, Ian (1999). "34. Legends, Miracles and Faith in K?b? Daishi and the Shikoku Pilgrimage". In Tanabe, George J. (ed.). Religions of Japan in Practice. Princeton University Press. pp. 360-9. ISBN 0-691-05789-3.
  2. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press , p. 318. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0
  3. ^ a b c Kitagawa, Joseph M. (1987). On Understanding Japanese Religion. Princeton University Press. pp. 127-136. ISBN 0-691-10229-5.
  4. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). K?kai: Major Works. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05933-7.
  5. ^ Miyazaki, Tateki (2004). Shikoku henro hitori aruki d?gy?-ninin. Matsuyama.
  6. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 42ff. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0.
  7. ^ Kouamé, Nathalie (1997). "Shikoku's Local Authorities and Henro during the Golden Age of the Pilgrimage". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. Nanzan University. 24 (3/4): 413-425. Archived from the original on 28 September 2014.
  8. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52f. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0.
  9. ^ a b Miyata, Taisen (2006). The 88 Temples of Shikoku Island, Japan. Koyasan Buddhist Temple, Los Angeles. pp. 15-18.
  10. ^ "Shodoshima Guide Book". Organization for the Promotion of Tourism in Shikoku. Retrieved 2011.
  11. ^ "Hachij?hakkasho". Ninna-ji. Retrieved 2011.
  12. ^ "Chita Hachij?hakkasho". Chita 88. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ "Lawai International Center". Retrieved 2014.

Further reading

External links

[[Category: Henro Michi, route 2018, Een Weg van Jasmijn, Ben Engelbertink


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