A shopping mall (or simply mall) is a North American term for a large indoor shopping center, usually anchored by department stores.[page needed] The term originally meaning a pedestrian promenade with shops along it, but in the late 1960s began to be used as a generic term for the large enclosed shopping centers becoming common at that time. Outside of North America, malls are considered shopping centers (Commonwealth English: shopping centre), though "shopping center" covers many more sizes and types of centers than the North American "mall".
Malls are currently in severe decline ("dead malls") or have closed. Successful exceptions have added entertainment and experiential features, added big-box stores as anchored, or are specialized formats: power centers, lifestyle centers, factory outlet centers, and festival marketplaces.
The International Council of Shopping Centers classifies two types of shopping centers as malls: regional malls and superregional malls.
A regional mall is as per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the United States, a shopping mall with 400,000 sq ft (37,000 m2) to 800,000 sq ft (74,000 m2) gross leasable area with at least two anchor stores.
A superregional mall is, per the International Council of Shopping Centers, in the US a shopping mall with over 800,000 sq ft (74,000 m2) of gross leasable area, three or more anchors, mass merchant, more variety, fashion apparel, and serves as the dominant shopping venue for the region (25 miles or 40 km) in which it is located.
On the other hand, in some countries, many shopping centres less than half or a quarter of the size of the U.S. minimum to be considered a mall, 400,000 sq ft (37,000 m2), have "mall" in their names - see List of shopping centres in Namibia or List of shopping centres in Zambia for examples.
The world's largest malls with over 500,000 square metres (5,400,000 sq ft) of gross leasable area are in China, Thailand, The Philippines, more than half again as large as previous contenders such as the Dubai Mall.
|Type||GLA in sq. ft.||GLA in sq. m.||# anchors||Typical anchors|
|Super-regional mall||800,000+||74,322+||3+||Full-line or junior department store, mass merchant, discount department store and/or fashion apparel store|
|Community center (large neighborhood center)||125,000-400,000||11,613-37,161||2+||Discount store, supermarket, drugstore, large-specialty discount store|
|Strip/Convenience (Strip mall)||<30,000||<2,787||0-1||Convenience store anchor or anchorless.|
|Power center||250,000-600,000||23,226-55,741||3+||Category killers, warehouse clubs, large discount stores|
|Lifestyle center||150,000-500,000||13,935-46,452||0-2||Large-format upscale specialty stores|
|Factory outlet||50,000-400,000||4,645-37,161||N/A||Manufacturers' and retail outlet stores|
|Airport retail||75,000-300,000||6,968-27,871||0||Speciality retail and restaurants|
Note: GLA = Gross Leasable Area
These definitions, published in 1999, were not restricted to shopping centers in any particular country, but later editions were made specific to the US with a separate set for Europe.
Shopping centers in general, may have their origins in public markets and, in the Middle East, covered bazaars. In 1798 the first covered shopping passage was built in Paris, the Passage du Caire .The Arcade in Providence, Rhode Island was the first shopping arcade in the United States in 1828.
In the mid-20th century, with the rise of the suburb and automobile culture in the United States, a new style of shopping center was created away from downtowns. Early shopping centers designed for the automobile include Market Square, Lake Forest, Illinois (1916), and Country Club Plaza, Kansas City, Missouri (1924).
The suburban shopping center concept evolved further in the United States after World War II (see table above) with larger open-air shopping centers anchored by major department stores, such as the 550,000-square-foot (51,000 m2) Broadway-Crenshaw Center in Los Angeles built in 1947, anchored by a five-story Broadway and a May Company California.
In the late 1950s and into the 1960s, the term "shopping mall" was first used, but in the original sense of the word "mall", that is, a pedestrian promenade (in U.K. usage a "shopping precinct"). Early downtown pedestrianized malls included the Kalamazoo Mall (the first, in 1959), "Shoppers' See-Way" in Toledo, Lincoln Road Mall in Miami Beach, Santa Monica Mall (1965). Although Bergen Mall (opened 1957) led other suburban shopping centers in using "mall" in their names, these types of properties were still referred to as "shopping centers" until the late 1960s, when the term "shopping mall" started to be used generically for large suburban shopping centers.[page needed]
The enclosed shopping center, which would eventually be known as the shopping mall, did not appear until the mid-1950s. One of the earliest examples was the Valley Fair Shopping Center in Appleton, Wisconsin, which opened in March 1955. Valley Fair featured a number of modern features including central heating and cooling, a large outdoor parking area, semi-detached anchor stores, and restaurants. Later that year the world's first fully enclosed shopping mall was opened in Luleå, in northern Sweden (architect: Ralph Erskine) and was named Shopping; the region now claims the highest shopping center density in Europe.
The idea of a regionally-sized, fully enclosed shopping complex was pioneered in 1956 by the Austrian-born architect and American immigrant Victor Gruen. This new generation of regional-size shopping centers began with the Gruen-designed Southdale Center, which opened in the Twin Cities suburb of Edina, Minnesota, United States in October 1956. For pioneering the soon-to-be enormously popular mall concept in this form, Gruen has been called the "most influential architect of the twentieth century" by Malcolm Gladwell.
The first retail complex to be promoted as a "mall" was Paramus, New Jersey's Bergen Mall. The center, which opened with an open-air format in 1957, was enclosed in 1973. Aside from Southdale Center, significant early enclosed shopping malls were Harundale Mall (1958), in Glen Burnie, Maryland, Big Town Mall (1959), in Mesquite, Texas, Chris-Town Mall (1961), in Phoenix, Arizona, and Randhurst Center (1962), in Mount Prospect, Illinois.
Other early malls moved retailing away from the dense, commercial downtowns into the largely residential suburbs. This formula (enclosed space with stores attached, away from downtown, and accessible only by automobile) became a popular way to build retail across the world. Gruen himself came to abhor this effect of his new design; he decried the creation of enormous "land wasting seas of parking" and the spread of suburban sprawl.
In the United States, developers such as A. Alfred Taubman of Taubman Centers extended the concept further in 1980, with terrazzo tiles at the Mall at Short Hills in New Jersey, indoor fountains, and two levels allowing a shopper to make a circuit of all the stores. Taubman believed carpeting increased friction, slowing down customers, so it was removed. Fading daylight through glass panels was supplemented by gradually increased electric lighting, making it seem like the afternoon was lasting longer, which encouraged shoppers to linger.
In the United States, in the mid-1990s, malls were still being constructed at a rate of 140 a year. But in 2001, a PricewaterhouseCoopers study found that underperforming and vacant malls, known as "greyfield" and "dead mall" estates, were an emerging problem. In 2007, a year before the Great Recession, no new malls were built in America, for the first time in 50 years.City Creek Center Mall in Salt Lake City, which opened in March 2012, was the first to be built since the recession.
In recent years, the number of dead malls increased significantly in the early twenty first century because the economic health of malls across the United States has been in decline, with high vacancy rates in these malls. From 2006 to 2010, the percentage of malls that are considered to be "dying" by real estate experts (have a vacancy rate of at least 40%), unhealthy (20-40%), or in trouble (10-20%) all increased greatly, and these high vacancy rates only partially decreased from 2010 to 2014. In 2014, nearly 3% of all malls in the United States were considered to be "dying" (40% or higher vacancy rates) and nearly one-fifth of all malls had vacancy rates considered "troubling" (10% or higher). Some real estate experts say the "fundamental problem" is a glut of malls in many parts of the country creating a market that is "extremely over-retailed".
In the United States, owners are making drastic moves to convert struggling malls. This includes converting malls into apartments, offices and industrial space. Other owners have taken the approach to turning large chunks of malls into parks and playgrounds. In Austin, Texas, the 600,000 square foot Highland Mall will be a campus for Austin Community College.
In parts of Canada, it is now rare for new shopping malls to be built. The Vaughan Mills Shopping Centre, opened in 2004, Crossiron Mills, opened in 2009, and Tsawwassen Mills Mall in 2016, are the only malls built in Canada since 1992. Outdoor outlet malls or big box shopping areas known as power centers are now favored, although the traditional enclosed shopping mall is still in demand by those seeking weather-protected, all-under-one-roof shopping. In addition, the enclosed interconnections between downtown multi story shopping malls continue to grow in the Underground city of Montreal (32 kilometres of passageway), the PATH system of Toronto (27 km (17 mi) of passageway) and the Plus15 system of Calgary (16 km (9.9 mi) of overhead passageway).
Faced with the exploding popularity of buying online, shopping malls are emptying and are seeking new solutions to generate traffic. In the US, for example, roughly 200 out of 1,300 malls across the country are going out of business. To combat this trend, developers are trying to turn malls into leisure centers that include attractions such as parks, movie theaters, gyms, and even fishing lakes. Others, such as the European commercial real-estate giant Unibail-Rodamco, are modernizing their approach by promoting brand interaction and enhanced architectural appeal. A recent example that integrates both approaches is the So Ouest mall outside of Paris that was designed to resemble elegant, Louis XV-style apartments and includes 17,000 square metres (180,000 sq ft) of green space. The Australian mall company Westfield launched an online mall (and later a mobile app) with 150 stores, 3,000 brands and over 1 million products. Online shopping has increased its share of total retail sales since 2008. In Q3 2008, it comprised 3.6% of retail purchases and this increased to 7.4% by Q3 2015.
COVID-19 impacted the shopping center industry significantly. Most malls were forced closed by government regulations to prevent the spread of the virus in crowded indoor spaces. This forced the malls to reinvent the model as they began to reopen. These changes included temperature checks at entrances, welcome kits with masks and sanitizers, screening of the staff members, more frequent sanitization, and occupancy controls. Some of the changes were imposed by public health, such as occupancy restriction of 30% in the UAE, while other changes were done voluntarily by mall operators.
The size of the largest shopping centers and malls at any given time continued to increase throughout the twentieth and into the twenty-first centuries. With approximately 2,400,000 sq ft (220,000 m2), the Ala Moana Center in Honolulu, Hawaii was one of the largest malls in the United States when it opened for business in August 1959. The Outlets at Bergen Town Center, the oldest enclosed mall in New Jersey, opened in Paramus on November 14, 1957, with Dave Garroway, host of The Today Show, serving as master of ceremonies. The mall, located just outside New York City, was planned in 1955 by Allied Stores to have 100 stores and 8,600 parking spaces in a 1,500,000 sq ft (140,000 m2) mall that would include a 300,000 sq ft (28,000 m2) Stern's store and two other 150,000 sq ft (14,000 m2) department stores as part of the design. Allied's chairman B. Earl Puckett confidently announced The Outlets at Bergen Town Center as the largest of ten proposed centers, stating that there were 25 cities that could support such centers and that no more than 50 malls of this type would ever be built nationwide.
The largest enclosed shopping mall from 1986 to 2004 was the 350,000 m2 (3,800,000 sq ft) West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Currently, the largest mall in the world is the New South China Mall in Dongguan, China with a gross floor area of 892,000 m2 (9,600,000 sq ft). The world's second-largest shopping mall is the Golden Resources Mall in Beijing, China with a gross floor area of 680,000 m2 (7,300,000 sq ft). SM Megamall in the Philippines, is the world's third-largest at 542,980 m2 (5,844,600 sq ft) of gross floor area. The fourth largest shopping mall in the world is SM City North EDSA in Quezon City, Philippines with a gross floor area of 504,900 m2 (5,435,000 sq ft) and the fifth largest shopping mall is 1 Utama in Malaysia at 465,000 m2 (5,010,000 sq ft) of gross floor area.
The most visited shopping mall in the world and third-largest mall in the United States is the Mall of America, located near the Twin Cities in Bloomington, Minnesota. However, several Asian malls are advertised as having more visitors, including Mal Taman Anggrek, Kelapa Gading Mall and Pluit Village, all in Jakarta, Indonesia; Berjaya Times Square in Malaysia; SM City North EDSA, SM Mall of Asia and SM Megamall, all in Metro Manila, Philippines. The largest mall in South Asia is Lucky One Mall in Karachi, Pakistan.
The Philippines has the most number of shopping malls in the top 100 largest shopping malls in the world with 22.
High land prices in populous cities have led to the concept of the "vertical mall," in which space allocated to retail is configured over a number of stories accessible by elevators and/or escalators (usually both) linking the different levels of the mall. The challenge of this type of mall is to overcome the natural tendency of shoppers to move horizontally and encourage shoppers to move upwards and downwards. The concept of a vertical mall was originally conceived in the late 1960s by the Mafco Company, former shopping center development division of Marshall Field & Co. The Water Tower Place skyscraper, Chicago, Illinois, was built in 1975 by Urban Retail Properties. It contains a hotel, luxury condominiums, and office space and sits atop a block-long base containing an eight-level atrium-style retail mall that fronts on the Magnificent Mile.
A vertical mall may also be built where the geography prevents building outward or there are other restrictions on construction, such as historical buildings or significant archeology. The Darwin Shopping Centre and associated malls in Shrewsbury, UK, are built on the side of a steep hill, around the former town walls; consequently the shopping center is split over seven floors vertically - two locations horizontally - connected by elevators, escalators and bridge walkways. Some establishments incorporate such designs into their layout, such as Shrewsbury's former McDonald's, split into four stories with multiple mezzanines which featured medieval castle vaults - complete with arrowslits - in the basement dining rooms.
When the shopping mall format was developed by Victor Gruen in the mid-1950s, signing larger department stores was necessary for the financial stability of the projects, and to draw retail traffic that would result in visits to the smaller stores in the mall as well. These larger stores are termed anchor store or draw tenant. In physical configuration, anchor stores are normally located as far from each other as possible to maximize the amount of traffic from one anchor to another.
In North America, Persian Gulf countries, and India, the term shopping mall is usually applied to enclosed retail structures (and is generally abbreviated to simply mall), while shopping center/centre usually refers to open-air retail complexes; both types of facilities usually have large parking lots, face major traffic arterials, and have few pedestrian connections to surrounding neighbourhoods. Outside of North America, "shopping precinct" and "shopping arcade" are also used. In Canada, "shopping centre" is often used officially (as in Square One Shopping Centre), but conversationally, "mall" is mostly used.
In the United Kingdom and Ireland, both open-air and enclosed centers are commonly referred to as shopping centres. Mall primarily refers to either a shopping mall - a place where a collection of shops all adjoin a pedestrian area - or an exclusively pedestrianized street that allows shoppers to walk without interference from vehicle traffic.
The majority of British enclosed shopping centres, the equivalent of a U.S. mall, are located in city centres, usually found in old and historic shopping districts and surrounded by subsidiary open air shopping streets. Large examples include West Quay in Southampton; Manchester Arndale; Bullring Birmingham; Liverpool One; Trinity Leeds; Buchanan Galleries in Glasgow; and Eldon Square in Newcastle upon Tyne. In addition to the inner city shopping centres, large UK conurbations will also have large out-of-town "regional malls" such as the Metrocentre in Gateshead; Meadowhall Centre, Sheffield serving South Yorkshire; the Trafford Centre in Greater Manchester; White Rose Centre in Leeds; the Merry Hill Centre near Dudley; and Bluewater in Kent. These centres were built in the 1980s and 1990s, but planning regulations prohibit the construction of any more. Out-of-town shopping developments in the UK are now focused on retail parks, which consist of groups of warehouse style shops with individual entrances from outdoors. Planning policy prioritizes the development of existing town centres, although with patchy success. Westfield Stratford City, in Stratford (London), is the largest shopping centre in Europe with over 330 shops, 50 restaurants and an 11 screen cinema and Westfield London is the largest inner-city shopping center in Europe. Bullring, Birmingham is the busiest shopping centre in the UK welcoming over 36.5 million shoppers in its opening year. There are a reported 222 malls in Europe. In 2014, these malls had combined sales of $12.47 billion. This represented a 10% bump in revenues from the prior year.
In Russia, on the other hand, as of 2013 a large number of new malls had been built near major cities, notably the MEGA malls such as Mega Belaya Dacha mall near Moscow. In large part they were financed by international investors and were popular with shoppers from the emerging middle class.
A shopping property management firm is a company that specializes in owning and managing shopping malls. Most shopping property management firms own at least 20 malls. Some firms use a similar naming scheme for most of their malls; for example, Mills Corporation puts "Mills" in most of its mall names and SM Prime Holdings of the Philippines puts "SM" in all of its malls, as well as anchor stores such as The SM Store, SM Appliance Center, SM Hypermarket, SM Cinema, and SM Supermarket. In the UK, The Mall Fund changes the name of any center it buys to "The Mall (location)", using its pink-M logo; when it sells a mall the center reverts to its own name and branding, such as the Ashley Centre in Epsom. Similarly, following its rebranding from Capital Shopping Centres, intu Properties renamed many of its centres to "intu (name/location)" (such as intu Lakeside; again, malls removed from the network revert to their own brand (see for instance The Glades in Bromley).
Shopping center management and advisory firms are bringing about professional management practices to the largely fragmented shopping center development industry in India. Historically, land ownership in India, has been fragmented and as a byproduct shopping center development, which rendered the single mall developers vulnerable to dubious advice and practices, since standard benchmarks, knowledge resources, and skilled people were scarce. This is changing as new firms promoted by former shopping center managers are stepping in to bridge the gap between ownership and professional management.
Mall management is slowly becoming a trend and is much sought after services in Asia and other markets.
One controversial aspect of malls has been their effective displacement of traditional main streets or high streets. Some consumers prefer malls, with their parking garages, controlled environments, and private security guards, over CBDs or downtowns, which frequently have limited parking, poor maintenance, outdoor weather, and limited police coverage.
In response, a few jurisdictions, notably California, have expanded the right of freedom of speech to ensure that speakers will be able to reach consumers who prefer to shop, eat, and socialize within the boundaries of privately owned malls. See Pruneyard Shopping Center v. Robins.
|Mall||Country||City||Year opened||Gross leasable
|1||Iran Mall||Iran||Tehran||2017||1,950,000 m2 (21,000,000 sq ft)||2,500+||Partially open. As of 2018, a net leasable area of 300,000 m2 (3,200,000 sq ft) has been opened, while the total area including cultural, religious and recreational areas is 14,000,000 m2 (150,000,000 sq ft). When the project is completed, the total area of the complex (commercial, cultural, and recreational) will be 1,950,000 m2 (21,000,000 sq ft).|
|2||South China Mall||China||Dongguan||2005||659,612 m2 (7,100,000 sq ft)||2,350||Until at least 2014 most of the stores were empty, and occupancy rates of only 10% occurred.|
|3||SM Tianjin||China||Tianjin||2016||565,000 m2 (6,080,000 sq ft)||2,500+|
|4||Golden Resources Mall||China||Beijing||2004||557,419 m2 (6,000,010 sq ft)||1,000+|
|5||CentralPlaza WestGate||Thailand||Nonthaburi (suburb of Bangkok)||2015||550,278 m2 (5,923,140 sq ft)||1,000+||The gross floor area of the mall includes the floor area of the mall building with various shops which is 500,000 square meters and the floor area of the IKEA store which is 50,278 square meters.|
|6||CentralWorld||Thailand||Bangkok||1990||550,000 m2 (5,900,000 sq ft)||600||Area of the full complex is 1,024,000 m2 (11,020,000 sq ft) including two skyscrapers.|
|7||ICONSIAM||Thailand||Bangkok||2018||525,000 m2 (5,650,000 sq ft)||1,000+|
|8||SM City North EDSA||Philippines||Quezon City||1985||497,213 m2 (5,351,960 sq ft)||1,000+||Largest mall in the Philippines.|
|9||Global Harbor||China||Shanghai||2013||480,000 m2 (5,200,000 sq ft)||1,000+|
|10||SM Megamall||Philippines||Mandaluyong||1991||474,000 m2 (5,100,000 sq ft)||1,000+||Has the most cinema screens (14) in the Philippines.|
|11||SM Seaside City Cebu||Philippines||Cebu City||2015||470,486 m2 (5,064,270 sq ft)||700+||Largest shopping mall in the Philippines outside Metro Manila.|
|12||Isfahan City Center||Iran||Isfahan||2012||465,500 m2 (5,011,000 sq ft)||700+||Contains the biggest indoor amusement park in the Middle East at 345,000 m2 (3,710,000 sq ft).|
|13||1 Utama||Malaysia||Petaling Jaya||1995||465,000 m2 (5,010,000 sq ft)||700+||The largest shopping mall in Malaysia. Phase 1 (Old Wing) opened in 1995 while Phase 2 (New Wing) opened in 2004.|
|14||Persian Gulf Complex||Iran||Shiraz||Sep 2011||450,000 m2 (4,800,000 sq ft)||2500||Second largest shopping mall by number of stores after Iran Mall.|
|15||SM Mall of Asia||Philippines||Pasay||2006||432,891 m2 (4,659,600 sq ft)||1,000+||Fourth largest mall in the Philippines.|
|16||MetroCentre (shopping centre)||United Kingdom||Gateshead||1986||400,000 m2 (4,300,000 sq ft)||370+||The largest shopping mall in Europe.|
|New Century Global Center||China||Chengdu||2013||400,000 m2 (4,300,000 sq ft)||2,300||When it opened in 2013, it surpassed The Dubai Mall as the largest shopping mall in the world.|
|Dream Mall||Taiwan||Kaohsiung||2007||400,000 m2 (4,300,000 sq ft)||2,300|
|Siam Paragon||Thailand||Bangkok||2005||400,000 m2 (4,300,000 sq ft)||270+|||
|Festival Alabang||Philippines||Muntinlupa||1998||400,000 m2 (4,300,000 sq ft)||1,300+|
|21||Sunway Pyramid||Malaysia||Petaling Jaya||1997||396,000 m2 (4,260,000 sq ft)||800+||Second largest shopping mall in Malaysia behind 1 Utama. Built in three phases in 1997, 2007 and 2016.|
|22||Lotte World Mall||South Korea||Seoul||2014||383,470 m2 (4,127,600 sq ft)||1,000+||Largest shopping mall in South Korea.|
|23||Albrook Mall||Panama||Panama City||2002||380,000 m2 (4,100,000 sq ft)||555||Largest shopping mall in the Americas.|
|24||Mal Taman Anggrek||Indonesia||Jakarta||1996||360,000 m2 (3,900,000 sq ft)||528||Hosts the world's largest LED display.|
|25||The Avenues Mall||Kuwait||Al Rai||2007||357,000 m2 (3,840,000 sq ft)||800+|
|26||Fashion Island (Thailand)||Thailand||Bangkok||1995||350,000 m2 (3,800,000 sq ft)||300|
|West Edmonton Mall||Canada||Edmonton, Alberta||1981||350,000 m2 (3,800,000 sq ft)||800+||Largest shopping mall in North America. The gross leasable area does not include Galaxyland, a large indoor amusement park with an area of 70,160 m2 (755,200 sq ft).|
|The Dubai Mall||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||2008||350,000 m2 (3,800,000 sq ft)||1,200||The second largest mall in the world by total land area.|
|29||Lucky One Mall||Pakistan||Karachi||2017||340,000 m2 (3,700,000 sq ft)||200+||Largest mall in Pakistan and South Asia.|
|30||Gandaria City||Indonesia||Jakarta||2010||336,279 m2 (3,619,680 sq ft)||500|
|31||Limketkai Center||Philippines||Cagayan de Oro||1992||320,000 m2 (3,400,000 sq ft)||500+|
|Berjaya Times Square||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||2003||320,000 m2 (3,400,000 sq ft)||1,000+||The largest shopping mall in Kuala Lumpur and 3rd largest shopping mall in Malaysia behind 1 Utama and Sunway Pyramid.|
|33||Future Park Rangsit & Zpell||Thailand||Pathum Thani (suburb of Bangkok)||1995||295,000 m2 (3,180,000 sq ft)||900|
|34||SM City Fairview||Philippines||Quezon City||1997||282,681 m2 (3,042,750 sq ft)||600+|
|35||Zhengjia Plaza (Grandview Mall)||China||Guangzhou||2005||280,000 m2 (3,000,000 sq ft)||180+|
|Centro Mayor||Colombia||Bogota||2010||280,000 m2 (3,000,000 sq ft)||354+|
|American Dream Meadowlands||United States||East Rutherford, New Jersey (suburb of New York City)||2019||280,000 m2 (3,000,000 sq ft)||450||Partially open.|
|38||SM City Cebu||Philippines||Cebu City||1993||273,804 m2 (2,947,200 sq ft)||680|
|38||Medan Centre Point||Indonesia||Medan||2013||270,000 m2 (2,900,000 sq ft)2||The biggest shopping mall in North Sumatra. Medan Center Point Complex consists two of the tallest five buildings in North Sumatra.|
|Mal Artha Gading||Indonesia||Jakarta||2004||270,000 m2 (2,900,000 sq ft)||430|
|41||The Avenues, Bahrain||Bahrain||Bahrain Bay||2017||273,000m2 (2,940,000 sq ft)|
|42||Mall of Arabia||Saudi Arabia||Jeddah||2010||261,000 m2 (2,810,000 sq ft)||187|
|43||King of Prussia||United States||King of Prussia, Pennsylvania (suburb of Philadelphia)||1963||259,500 m2 (2,793,000 sq ft)||400+||Originally built as two buildings, a 2016 renovation made it one continuous building, larger than Mall of America by 1,300 m2 (14,000 sq ft).|
|44||Mall of America||United States||Bloomington, Minnesota (suburb of Minneapolis)||1992||266,500 m2 (2,869,000 sq ft)||520||The ranking area does not include Nickelodeon Universe, a large indoor amusement park at the center of the mall with an area of 28,000 m2 (300,000 sq ft)|
|45||Tunjungan Plaza||Indonesia||Surabaya||1986||253,187 m2 (2,725,280 sq ft)||500||The biggest mall in East Java|
|45||Centro Sambil||Venezuela||Caracas||1998||250,000 m2 (2,700,000 sq ft)||500+|
|Aventura Mall||United States||Aventura, Florida (suburb of Miami)||1983||250,000 m2 (2,700,000 sq ft)||300+||Largest shopping mall in Florida.|
|Glorietta||Philippines||Makati||1991||250,000 m2 (2,700,000 sq ft)||300+||Glorietta is integrated with Greenbelt, both of which are owned by the Ayala Corporation.|
|Greenbelt||Philippines||Makati||1991||250,000 m2 (2,700,000 sq ft)||300+||Greenbelt is integrated with Glorietta, both of which are owned by the Ayala Corporation.|
|South Coast Plaza||United States||Costa Mesa, California (suburb of Los Angeles)||1967||250,000 m2 (2,700,000 sq ft)||286|
|Centro Comercial Santafé||Colombia||Bogotá||2006||250,000 m2 (2,700,000 sq ft)||485|
|52||Centro Comercial Aricanduva||Brazil||São Paulo||1991||247,000 m2 (2,660,000 sq ft)||535|
|53||AEON Lake Town Centre||Japan||Koshigaya, Saitama (suburb of Tokyo)||2008||245,223 m2 (2,639,560 sq ft)||706|
|54||Doha Festival City||Qatar||Doha||2017||244,000 m2 (2,630,000 sq ft)||540|
|54||Del Amo Fashion Center||United States||Torrance, California (suburb of Los Angeles)||1961||240,000 m2 (2,600,000 sq ft)||300+|
|Robinsons Place Manila||Philippines||Manila||1997||240,000 m2 (2,600,000 sq ft)||500+||Largest shopping mall in the city of Manila and largest Robinsons mall in the Philippines.|
|Millcreek Mall||United States||Millcreek Township, Pennsylvania (suburb of Erie)||1975||240,000 m2 (2,600,000 sq ft)||142|
|Super Brand Mall||China||Shanghai||2005||240,000 m2 (2,600,000 sq ft)|
|59||SM Xiamen||China||Xiamen||2001||238,125 m2 (2,563,160 sq ft)|
|60||Yas Mall||United Arab Emirates||Abu Dhabi||2014||235,000 m2 (2,530,000 sq ft)||370+|
|61||Mall of the Emirates||United Arab Emirates||Dubai||2005||233,467 m2 (2,513,020 sq ft)||700+|||
|62||Chadstone Shopping Centre||Australia||Melbourne||1960||233,243 m2 (2,510,610 sq ft)||530||Largest shopping centre in Australia.|
|63||Aviapark||Russia||Moscow||2014||230,000 m2 (2,500,000 sq ft)||Europe's largest shopping mall in total area.|
|Dongfang Xin Tiandi (Oriental Plaza)||China||Foshan||230,000 m2 (2,500,000 sq ft)|
|Grand Canyon Parkway||United States||Las Vegas, Nevada||2003||230,000 m2 (2,500,000 sq ft)||90|
|Queensbay Mall||Malaysia||Bayan Lepas, Penang Island||2006||230,000 m2 (2,500,000 sq ft)||400||The largest shopping mall in Penang.|
|Suntec City||Singapore||Singapore||1993||230,000 m2 (2,500,000 sq ft)||619||Has the largest water fountain in the world.|
|Sta. Lucia East Grand Mall||Philippines||Cainta||1991||230,000 m2 (2,500,000 sq ft)||300+|
|69||City Centre Bahrain||Bahrain||Manama||2008|| 200sqkm||350+|
|70||MEGA Belaya Dacha||Russia||Kotelniki, Moscow Oblast||2007||225,000 m2 (2,420,000 sq ft)||330+|
|71||Sawgrass Mills||United States||Sunrise, Florida (suburb of Fort Lauderdale)||1990||221,472 m2 (2,383,900 sq ft)||300+|
|Destiny USA||United States||Syracuse, New York||1990||221,472 m2 (2,383,900 sq ft)||300+||The largest shopping mall in the state of New York|
|Hartono Mall||Indonesia||Surakarta, Central Java||2015||220,000 m2 (2,400,000 sq ft)||300||The biggest shopping mall in Central Java|
|Gateway Theatre of Shopping||South Africa||Durban||2001||220,000 m2 (2,400,000 sq ft)
|Roosevelt Field||United States||Garden City, New York (suburb of New York City)||1956||220,000 m2 (2,400,000 sq ft)||294||Second largest shopping mall in the state of New York.|
|76||Robinsons Galleria||Philippines||Quezon City||1990||216,000 m2 (2,330,000 sq ft)||400+|
|77||Plaza Las Americas||Puerto Rico||San Juan, Puerto Rico||1968||215,440 m2 (2,319,000 sq ft)||300+||The first indoor shopping mall built in Puerto Rico and Latin America.|
|78||Houston Galleria||United States||Houston, Texas||1970||213,530 m2 (2,298,400 sq ft)||375||Largest mall in Texas|
|79||Ayala Center Cebu||Philippines||Cebu City||1994||210,000 m2 (2,300,000 sq ft)||800+|
|80||Trafford Centre||United Kingdom||Manchester||1998||207,000 m2 (2,230,000 sq ft)||280|
|81||Puerto Venecia||Spain||Zaragoza||2012||206,000 m2 (2,220,000 sq ft)||250+||This is the biggest open air lifestyle center in Europe.|
|82||SM Southmall||Philippines||Las Piñas||1995||205,120 m2 (2,207,900 sq ft)||400+|
|83||SM City Dasmariñas||Philippines||Dasmariñas||2004||201,645 m2 (2,170,490 sq ft)||400+ shops & dining|
|84||Ala Moana Center||United States||Honolulu, Hawaii||1959||200,000 m2 (2,200,000 sq ft)||310+||Largest open-air mall in the world.|
|Bluewater||United Kingdom||Greenhithe||1999||200,000 m2 (2,200,000 sq ft)||330|
|Tysons Corner Center||United States||McLean, Virginia (suburb of Washington, D.C.)||1968||200,000 m2 (2,200,000 sq ft)||300+|
|AEON Bukit Tinggi Shopping Centre||Malaysia||Klang||2007||200,000 m2 (2,200,000 sq ft)||500+|
|Phoenix Marketcity||India||Mumbai||2011||200,000 m²
(2,100,000 sq ft)
|700||Largest shopping mall in India|
|Pittsburgh Mills||United States||Pittsburgh||2005||200,000 m²
(2,100,000 sq ft)
Some wholesale market complexes also function as shopping malls in that they contain retail space which operate as stores in normal malls do but also act as producer vendor outlets that can take large orders for export.
|Mall||Country||City||Year opened||Gross leasable
|Yiwu International Trade City||China||Yiwu||2002||5,500,000 m2 (59,000,000 sq ft)||75,000+||Much of the retail area is divided into small booths, hence the disproportionately greater number of shops than other malls listed.|
South China Mall
SM City North EDSA
Jamuna Future Park
SM Mall of Asia
intu Metrocentre (Red Mall)
Mall Taman Anggrek
West Edmonton Mall
Berjaya Times Square
Mal Artha Gading
King of Prussia
SM Aura Premier
South Coast Plaza
Centro Comercial Santafé
Del Amo Fashion Center
Robinsons Place Manila
Super Brand Mall
Plaza Las Américas
Ayala Center Cebu
SM City Dasmariñas
Ala Moana Center
Tysons Corner Center
Shopping City Süd
SM City Fairview
SM City Marikina
Westfield Stratford City
SM City Bacolod
Metropolis at Metrotown
Mid Valley Megamall
Merry Hill Shopping Centre
SM Lanang Premier
SM City Clark
Sambil Mall, Caracas
SM City Davao
Robinsons Metro East
Gaisano Mall of Davao
Northpoint City, Singapore
Mall of Scandinavia
Meadowhall, 11th largest shopping centre in the UK, near the Sheffield, South Yorkshire
Alfred Taubman is a legend in retailing. For 40 years, he's been one of America's most successful developers of shopping centers. Taubman picked upscale areas and opened lavish shopping centers. He was among the first to offer fountains and feature prestigious anchor stores like Neiman Marcus. The Mall at Short Hills in New Jersey is one of the most profitable shopping centers in the country. Taubman is famous for his attention to detail. He's very proud of the terrazzo tiles at Short Hills. "The only point that the customer actually touches the shopping center is the floor," he said. "They've got traction as they're walking. Very important. Some of our competitors put in carpet. Carpet's the worst thing you can have because it creates friction."
Shopping mall magnate and onetime Sotheby's (BID) owner Alfred Taubman, 83, may be a convicted felon, but he's continuing to insist on his innocence in his just-out autobiography, Threshold Resistance: The Extraordinary Career of a Luxury Retailing Pioneer (Collins, $24.95). Writing on his business triumphs, Taubman is heavy on the boilerplate. But he gives a juicy personal account of the Sotheby's-Christie's price-fixing scandal that sent him to the slammer.
Paramus, New Jersey, November 14, 1957. The $40,000,000 Bergen Mall regional shopping center opened here this morning.
The new centers, scheduled for opening by 1957, are designed to serve regions (i.e. customers within 40 minutes' driving time) rather than smaller suburban areas. The first to go into operation will be the $30 million Bergen Mall at Paramus, N.J., expected to be the biggest US shopping center. Puckett estimates that there are 1,588,000 customers within the 40-minute radius.
I feel like I'm in Disneyland
SM said that the largest mall is SM Megamall at 474,000 square meters, followed by SM North EDSA at 470,000 square meters.
SM said that the largest mall is SM Megamall at 474,000 square meters, followed by SM North EDSA at 470,000 square meters.