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Singapore Democratic Party
|Chinese name||simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin:|
|Malay name||Parti Demokratik Singapura |
|Tamil name|| ? |
|Chairman||Prof Paul Tambyah|
|Dr Chee Soon Juan|
|Founder||Fok Tai Loy |
Chiam See Tong
|Founded||6 August 1980|
|Headquarters||3 Ang Mo Kio Street 62|
|Newspaper||The New Democrat|
|Youth wing||Young Democrats|
|Political position||Centre to centre-left|
|Regional affiliation||Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats|
|International affiliation||Liberal International|
|Slogan||Your Voice in Parliament|
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The party was founded in 1980 by Chiam See Tong, who as Secretary-General became the party's first Member of Parliament (MP) in 1984 when he was elected as MP for Potong Pasir. At the 1991 general election, the party's best ever performance, two further SDP members, Ling How Doong and Cheo Chai Chen, were elected to Parliament giving the party a total of three MPs. However, Chiam fell out with the party's Central Executive Committee in 1993 and subsequently left the party in December 1996. He was succeeded by Chee Soon Juan, who has remained the Secretary-General since the SDP's Ordinary Party Conference in 1995. The party has since focused more on a liberal human rights agenda but has yet to secure parliamentary representation since 1997 general election.
The SDP was founded on 6 August 1980 by lawyer Chiam See Tong, who had contested several elections as an independent candidate in the 1970s, together with consultant engineer Fok Tai Loy and businessman Ernest Chew Tian Ern. Chiam was the party's founding Secretary-General, Fok Tai Loy its founding Chairman and Ernest Chew as its Assistant Secretary-General. The main objectives of the party were declared to be the "elimination of colonialism and feudalism, the safeguarding of parliamentary democracy and upholding of the principles of democracy, socialism and the constitution." Two months later, on 19 October 1980, the party unveiled its emblem: a circle (which symbolises unity amongst Singapore's ethnic groups), behind an arrow (representing political progress in Singapore) in the colour red (signifying courage and determination). The party was inaugurated on 21 September 1981, a full year after being registered as a political party.
The Singapore Democratic Party entered the election campaign of that year with the slogan of "Singaporeans for Singapore", raising the need for elected opposition in parliament to bring democracy to Singapore. The party also raised other prominent issues of the time such as the need to reform the education and CPF system, and its opposition to the Elected Presidency. It noticeably fielded only four candidates in that general election: Secretary-General Chiam See Tong, Chairman Ling How Doong (who was elected Chairman after the death of Fok Tai Loy), Vice-Chairman Soon Kia Seng and treasurer Peter Lim Ah Yong.
Once the hustings got under way, the party came under sustained attack from the People's Action Party (PAP), with Ling and Chiam bearing the brunt of the attacks. The PAP chose to highlight Ling's dismissal from the police force and the record of his election agent, but these were quickly rebutted by the SDP leadership. Chiam saw his secondary school record being brought up by Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, who compared Chiam's intelligence with that of PAP's Mah Bow Tan who was standing against the SDP leader. Nevertheless, Chiam won the single seat of Potong Pasir, defeating Mah with 60% of the votes. Chiam was only the second opposition politician ever to be elected to the Republic's Parliament after J.B. Jeyaretnam of the Workers' Party. The SDP garnered 45.2% of total votes cast in the constituencies they had contested in.
After Jeyaretnam was expelled from Parliament in 1986, Chiam was Singapore's sole opposition MP. A moderate, Chiam claimed that he was not opposing for the sake of opposition. He also said: "But if they (the government) do the wrong things which are not good for Singapore, then we will oppose fearlessly".
The 1988 general elections saw the opposition's strongest challenge since 1963, with 71 candidates in total and only 11 walkovers. This election also saw the PAP engage the SDP's Chiam and WP's Jeyaretnam in a television debate. Besides Chiam and Ling, the SDP also fielded Ashleigh Seow (the son of former Solicitor-General Francis Seow), businessmen Jufrie Mahmood, Cheo Chai Chen and Ng Teck Siong, sales manager Kwan Yue Keng, bank clerical assistant Mohd Shariff Yahya, teacher George Sita, financial futures trader Jimmy Tan, former PAP MP Low Yong Nguan, businesswoman Toh Kim Kiat, construction supervisor Francis Yong Chu Leong and shipping manager Chia Ah Soon. The party chose to target the government on the plan to amend the constitution, and that the economic prosperity indicators it used were untrue When the results were declared, it emerged that the SDP was the only opposition party to win a seat, with Chiam re-elected as Potong Pasir MP for a second term. The SDP scored 39.5% of the total votes cast in all the constituencies it had contested in.
The PAP's announcement of a general election in 1991 came when the ruling party was barely in office for three years. The SDP chose to highlight its objections to some controversial government policies such as the sharp increase of ministers' salaries, the cost of healthcare, university education, transport and the GST. Most significantly, the SDP engineered an agreement with the other opposition parties to contest just under half the seats in Parliament, thus creating a "by-election effect" (reassuring voters that there would not be a change in government and encouraging them to elect more opposition voices).
The election results saw the SDP winning three seats, its best performance hitherto. Party leader Chiam succeeded in retaining his Potong Pasir seat, while Party Chairman Ling How Doong and Cheo Chai Chen won by slim margins in Bukit Gombak and Nee Soon Central respectively. Most of its losing candidates had put up extremely strong fights against the PAP during this election. These include tight contests in 3 SMCs, including Nee Soon South SMC, Braddell Heights SMC and Bukit Batok SMC. One of the most notable candidates that year, Sin Kek Tong, was later the founder of the Singapore People's Party and contested Hong Kah North SMC in GE2011. The Worker's Party leader Low Thia Khiang was also elected in Hougang, giving the opposition a total of four parliamentary seats (still considerably less than the PAP's 77 seats). It was the best opposition electoral performance in Singapore since independence (and the most seats won by the opposition since 1963, when the Barisan Sosialis Party won 13 out of 51 seats in the pre-independence Legislative Assembly). At the time, the result was viewed as being a notable setback to the ruling party and Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong.
In 1992, Chiam recruited Chee Soon Juan, a psychology lecturer at the National University of Singapore (NUS), to be an SDP candidate for a by-election in the Marine Parade Group Representation Constituency. Although the SDP was unsuccessful in the by-election (the PAP won 72.9% of the votes, the SDP 24.5%, and other smaller parties 2.5%), the recruitment of Chee as a candidate generated considerable public interest. However differences between Chiam, Chee and the rest of the party's Central Executive Committee were soon to emerge.
In 1993, three months after joining the SDP, Chee was dismissed by the National University of Singapore (NUS) for allegedly using research funds to pay the courier fees (under $200) to send his wife's PhD dissertation to the United States. Chee claimed that this was not the case as his wife was an employee in the same department at NUS at that time and was working with him, sharing and collaborating in their research, and that the funds were properly used. He claimed that there was a political motive behind his dismissal. The PAP denied the accusation. Chiam wanted to censure Chee for his comments, but the party's Central Executive Committee (CEC) backed Chee. Chiam then resigned as Secretary-General of the party, and was replaced by Chee.
After Chiam publicly criticised the CEC, they attempted to expel him from the party (which would have forced him to vacate his seat in Parliament), but Chiam won a court case to prevent them from doing so on procedural grounds. However the CEC appointed Ling to replace Chiam as the party's parliamentary leader.
Supporters of Chiam left the SDP and formed the Singapore People's Party (SPP) in 1994, with former SDP member Sin Kek Tong as its pro-tem leader. After Parliament was dissolved ahead of the 1997 general election, Chiam left the SDP to join the SPP and became the new party's leader.
After being placed as the acting SDP leader in 1993, Chee began expressing his views on the lack of democracy in Singapore to the media. He published his second political book, Dare To Change: An Alternative Vision for Singapore, in 1996.
At the 1997 general election, the SDP suffered significant electoral setbacks. Both Ling and Cheo were defeated in their bids for re-election, leaving the party with no MPs. Chee was defeated by the PAP's Matthias Yao (who he had publicly challenged to stand against him) in a high-profile contest in the MacPherson constituency. Only two opposition MPs were elected - with Chiam retaining his Potong Pasir seat as a Singapore People's Party candidate, and Hougang also being retained by Low Thia Khiang of the Worker's Party. The collective vote for opposition parties dropped from 40% to 35%. No SDP member has been elected to Parliament since then (and Chiam and Low were also the only opposition MPs returned to Parliament at the 2001 and 2006 general elections).
In the 2001 general election, the SDP failed to win any seats but captured the public's imagination during the campaign when Chee he ran into Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong while campaigning and, along with his followers, lifted up their fists and chanted slogans. Later, from his campaign vehicle, Chee used a megaphone to ask Goh: "Where is the S$18 billion that you have lent to (Indonesian President) Suharto?" The PAP took Chee to task, claiming his accusation was untrue and demanding that he either apologise or face a defamation lawsuit. Under pressure from the governing party, Chee and his fellow party members apologised a day later. The SDP went on to criticise the PAP's economic policies and urged for the minimum wage of S$5 per hour for the rest of the 2001 campaign. The SDP's economic alternatives were dismissed by the PAP which claimed that the SDP policies would lead Singapore to bankruptcy and inflation.
In March 2006, just before the 2006 general election, the party appeared to be cracking from within after Chee Soon Juan was jailed after failing to pay a fine for contempt of court. SDP's chairman at that time, Ling How Doong, was quoted as saying that the party "would be run even better" without Chee, meaning that the SDP was not just a one-man show and could survive and even thrive without its leader. Chee's sister Chee Siok Chin. also a party member, confirmed that the party remained united.
Nevertheless, the Party continued its preparations for the 2006 general election, choosing to target Health Minister Khaw Boon Wan in Sembawang GRC over the National Kidney Foundation Scandal and to ride on the public backlash at the time. The party subsequently published an editorial in the New Democrat questioning the PAP's credibility over the issue. As a result, the SDP found itself sued for defamation on 22 April 2006, just two days after the nomination of its candidates to stand in Sembawang GRC and Bukit Panjang SMC, and was told to pay damages and publish an apology by 26 April 2006. With the exception of Chee Soon Juan and his sister Chee Siok Chin, virtually all of the members in the party's CEC at that time chose to apologize.
The team that stood in Sembawang GRC comprised Chee Siok Chin, businessmen Christopher Neo, Isa Abdul Aziz and Yong Chu Leong, marketing manager Gerald Sng Choon Guan and administrator Narayanasamy Gogelavany. The SDP's Chairman, Ling How Doong, was fielded in Bukit Panjang SMC. The SDP's final vote share for Sembawang and Bukit Panjang was 23.3% and 22.8% respectively, marking a slight improvement in results as compared to 2001, but still far short of the national average of 33.3%.
In preparation for the impending elections in 2011, the Singapore Democratic Party organized two pre-election rallies at Hong Lim Park in September and November 2010. The Party also unveiled a Shadow Budget in February 2011, as well as its campaign strategy, "The SDP Promise" in April 2011. Between September 2010 and April 2011, the Singapore Democratic Party also continued its groundwork in the constituencies of Bukit Panjang, Holland-Bukit Timah, Yuhua and Whampoa.
The party unveiled its slate of 11 candidates just a few days prior to Nomination Day. The candidates were introduced during press conferences on 21 and 22 April 2011. Former senior civil servant Tan Jee Say, private school teacher Michelle Lee Juen, psychiatrist Ang Yong Guan and social activist Vincent Wijeysingha made up the SDP's team for Holland-Bukit Timah GRC. Also announced during this period of time was the party's intention to contest Sembawang GRC. The team fielded there consisted of academic James Gomez, party Assistant-Secretary General John Tan, entrepreneur Jarrod Luo, former unionist Sadasivam Veriyah and businessman Mohd Isa. Former ISA detainee Teo Soh Lung and party treasurer Gerald Sng were also introduced to the media and were fielded in the constituencies of Yuhua and Bukit Panjang respectively. The party later recruited Alec Tok, leaving Gerald Sng to make way for Tok in Bukit Panjang SMC.
Among the issues brought up by the party prior to nomination day were: the heavy influx of foreigners into Singapore, Vivian Balakrishnan's mismanagement of the Youth Olympic Games and the loss of sinking funds in the PAP run town councils in Holland-Bukit Timah and Bukit Panjang. However, these issues were quickly overshadowed by Dr Balakrishnan's attack on the SDP team over a video supposedly containing Dr Wijeysingha's "gay agenda". The SDP quickly refuted these allegations on Dr Wijeysingha, with the party's Secretary-General making his stance clear on a video released by the party on 25 April. On nomination day, the Singapore Democratic Party team saw the nomination of all its candidates. In particular, the Holland-Bukit Timah team had also raised an objection to the nomination of the PAP's candidates. The PAP's Sim Ann had filed in her occupation as a former civil servant and this was disputed by the SDP team given the short time span between Sim Ann's resignation from the civil service and nomination day.
On 7 May 2011 (polling day), the SDP failed to win in Sembawang GRC but managed to increase its vote share in that constituency by 13 percentage points to 36.1%. The party also failed to win in Bukit Panjang and Yuhua, gaining 33.9% and 33.1% respectively. However it was in Holland-Bukit Timah GRC where the SDP scored its best result since 1997, with that GRC team garnering 39.9% (slightly above the national average). The party's combined vote share in the constituencies contested was 36.8%.
In 2015, elections were called by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong after 50 years of independence. The SDP contested 5 electoral divisions: Bukit Batok SMC, Bukit Panjang SMC, Yuhua SMC, Holland-Bukit Timah GRC and Marsiling-Yew Tee GRC. For the SDP, this election was notable as it was the first after Chee Soon Juan was discharged from bankruptcy. He decided to contest Holland-Bukit Timah GRC with Paul Tambyah, a doctor, Sidek Mallek, a compliance auditor, and Chong Wai Fung, a medical administrator. While Chee failed to get elected, his party polled above the Opposition's national average with 33% of the popular vote. All the candidates who contested this ward in the 2011 elections such as Vincent Wijeysingha, Tan Jee Say and Ang Yong Guan, quit the party before the 2015 elections.
In this electoral contest, Chee was noted for shifting away from a confrontational style of politics in an attempt to soften his image. Whether this was successful is debatable though it is commonly argued that Chee's return was a significant asset to the party. Although SDP eventually achieved a lower percentage in 2015 compared to the previous election, this was against the backdrop of a large swing away from opposition parties, of which SDP was one of the least affected.
They were present in a meeting with 6 other opposition parties(Reform Party (Singapore), Singaporeans First, People's Power Party (Singapore), Democratic Progressive Party (Singapore), National Solidarity Party (Singapore) and a possible new party formed by former NSP chief Lim Tean) and former People's Action Party MP Tan Cheng Bock, on the possibility of forming a collation for the next election with Dr Tan as the head.
Parts of this article (those related to 2015) need to be updated.(December 2015)
The SDP is governed by a twelve-member Central Executive Committee (CEC), who are elected by the Party's cadre members at the Ordinary Party Conference held biennially.:. Chairman Jeffrey George is arrested in 2015 by Central Narcotics Bureau for drug-related offences and investigations are ongoing, he has since been replaced by Wong Souk Yee.
On September 2017, Professor Paul Tambyah was elected as the Party's Chairman at the SDP's 18th Ordinary Party Conference. Outgoing Chairperson Wong Souk Yee had supported Prof Tambyah's taking up of the position and was sure that the rest of the Party's members are looking forward to his leadership in the party.
The present CEC was elected on 26 September 2017 and comprises:
|1||Chiam See Tong||1935||Potong Pasir SMC (1984 - 1996)||Chiam left the SDP in 1996 but remained an MP for the constituency until 2011|
|2||Ling How Doong||1934||Bukit Gombak SMC (1991 - 1997)|
|3||Cheo Chai Chen||1951||Nee Soon Central SMC (1991 - 1997)|
|Election||Total seats won||Total votes||Share of votes||Outcome of election||Election leader|
|1980||11,292||1.8%||Chiam See Tong|
|1984||32,102||3.7%||1 seat; Main Opposition||Chiam See Tong|
|1988||158,341||11.8%||Chiam See Tong|
|1991||93,856||12.0%||2 seats||Chiam See Tong|
|1997||76,129||10.6%||3 seats||Chee Soon Juan|
|2001||50,607||8.1%||Chee Soon Juan|
|2006||45,937||4.09%||Chee Soon Juan|
|2011||97,369||4.83%||Chee Soon Juan|
|2015||84,770||3.76%||Chee Soon Juan|
The affiliates with which the SDP works in co-operation are:
The Young Democrats (the SDP's youth wing) is a member of: