Sinicization
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Sinicization
Sinicization
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu Pinyinhànhuà
Literal meaningHan-ization
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Hanyu Pinyinzh?ngguóhuà
Literal meaningChinese-ization
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetHán hóa
Ch? Hán
Literal meaningHan-ization
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Literal meaningChinese-ization
Japanese name
Hiragana
Ky?jitai
Shinjitai

Sinicization, sinofication, sinification, or sinonization (from the prefix sino-, 'Chinese, relating to China') is the process by which non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han-Chinese culture, language, societal norms, and ethnic identity.

Areas of influence include diet, writing, industry, education, language/lexicons, law, architectural style, politics, philosophy, religion, science and technology, value systems, and lifestyle. More broadly, sinicization may refer to policies of acculturation, assimilation, or cultural imperialism imposed by China onto neighboring East-Asian societies, and minority ethnic groups within China. Evidence of this process is reflected in the histories of Korea, Japan, and Vietnam in the adoption of the Chinese writing system, which has long been a unifying feature in the Sinosphere as the vehicle for exporting Chinese culture to these Asian countries.

Integration

The integration or assimilation policy is a type of nationalism aimed at strengthening the Chinese identity (Zhonghua minzu) among the population. Proponents believe integration will help to develop shared values, pride in being the country's citizen, respect and acceptance towards cultural differences among citizens of China. Critics argue that integration destroys ethnic diversity, language diversity, and cultural diversity.

Analogous to North America with approximately 300 Native American languages and distinct ethnic groups; in China there are 292 non-Mandarin languages spoken by native peoples of the region.[1] There are also a number of immigrant languages, such as Khmer, Portuguese, English, etc.

Historical examples

Austronesian peoples

Before sinicization, non-Chinese indigenous peoples of Southern China, collectively termed by the Chinese as Baiyue inhabited the coastline of China from as far north as the Yangtze River to as far south as the Gulf of Tonkin. Analysis of DNA recovered from human remains shows high frequencies of Haplogroup O1 in Liangzhu culture linking this culture to modern Austronesian populations.

It is believed that Liangzhu culture was the ancestral homeland of Proto-Austronesian populations before they spread to Taiwan, and Southeast Asia. Over time, the southward spread of Han Chinese led to the sinicization of most of the Baiyue populations that remained in Southern China, whether in the Yangtze Valley or in coastal areas from the mouth of the Yangtze to the Gulf of Tonkin.[2] The remnants of these peoples who were not fully sinicized are now recognized officially as the ethnic minorities of the People's Republic of China.

Turkic peoples

Descendants of Uyghurs who migrated to Taoyuan County, Hunan have largely assimilated into the Han Chinese and Hui population and practice Chinese customs, speaking varieties of Chinese as their language.

Han, Jin, and Sixteen Kingdoms period

From the late Han Dynasty to the early Jin dynasty (265-420), large numbers of non-Chinese peoples living along China's northern periphery settled in northern China. Some of these migrants such as the Xiongnu and Xianbei had been pastoralist nomads from the northern steppes. Others such as the Di and Qiang were farmers and herders from the mountains of western Sichuan of southwest China. As migrants, they lived among ethnic Chinese and were sinified to varying degrees. Many worked as farm laborers. Some attained official positions in the court and military. The numerous tribal groups in the north and northwest who had been heavily drafted into the military then exploited the chaos to seize power by local Chinese warlords.[3]

During Three Kingdoms period, Cao Cao initiated the policy of settling Xiongnu nomads away from the frontier near Taiyuan in modern Shanxi province, where they would be less likely to rebel. The Xiongnu abandoned nomadism and the elite were educated in Chinese-Confucian literate culture.[4] The migrant of Northern Chinese people to the south further settled China as a multi-ethnic empire.

Northern and Southern dynasties

The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 386 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms period. Though an age of civil war and political chaos, it was also a time of flourishing arts and culture, advancement in technology, and the spread of Mahayana Buddhism and Daoism. The period saw large-scale migration of Han Chinese to the lands south of the Yangtze. The period came to an end with the unification of all of China proper by Emperor Wen of the Sui dynasty. During this period, the process of Sinicization accelerated among the non-Han arrivals in the north and among the indigenous people in the south. This process was also accompanied by the increasing popularity of Buddhism (introduced into China in the 1st century) and Daoism in both northern and southern China.[5]

Tang dynasty

During the 8th and 9th centuries in the Tang dynasty, Chinese male soldiers moved into Guizhou (formerly romanized as Kweichow) and married native non-Chinese women, their descendants being known as Lao-han-jen (original Chinese), in contrast to new Chinese people who colonized Guizhou at later times. They still spoke an archaic dialect as of 1929.[6] Many immigrants to Guizhou were descended from these soldiers in garrisons who married non-Chinese women.[7]

Yuan dynasty

The Mongol Yuan dynasty appointed a Muslim from Bukhara, Sayyid Ajall Shams al-Din Omar, as governor of Yunnan after conquering the Bai Kingdom of Dali. Sayyid Ajall is best known among Chinese for helping sinicize the Yunnan province;[8] the promotion of Islam, Confucianism, and Buddhism would be part of his 'civilizing mission' upon the non-Han Chinese peoples in Yunnan, who he viewed as "backward and barbarian."[9][10]

He founded a "Chinese style" city called Zhongjing Cheng, where modern Kunming is today, and ordered that a Buddhist temple, two mosques, and a Confucian temple be built in the city.[11][12] The latter temple, built in 1274 and doubled as a school, was the first Confucian temple ever to be built in Yunnan.[13] As such, Sayyid Ajall would be the one to introduce Confucian education, rituals, and traditions into Yunnan, including Chinese social structures, funeral rituals, and marriage customs.[9][14] He would go on to construct numerous Confucian temples throughout his reign.[15][16][17]

Confucian rituals were taught to students in newly founded schools by Sichuanese scholars.[18][19] The natives of Yunnan were instructed by Sayyid Ajall in such Confucian ceremonies as weddings, matchmaking, funerals, ancestor worship, and kowtow. The native leaders had their "barbarian" clothing replaced by clothing given to them by Sayyid Ajall as well.[19][20] The governor was praised and described as making "the orangutans and butcherbirds become unicorns and phoenixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps" by He Hongzuo, the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies.[21]

Sayyid Ajall would also be the first to bring Islam to the area, and thus the widespread presence of Islam in Yunnan is credited to his work.[22] Both Marco Polo and Rashid al-Din Vatvat recorded that Yunnan was heavily populated by Muslims during the Yuan Dynasty, with Rashid naming a city with all Muslim inhabitants as the "great city of Yachi."[23] It has been suggested that Yachi was Dali City (Ta-li), which had many Hui Muslim people.[24]

Sayyid Ajall's son Nasir al-Din became Governor of Yunnan in 1279 after his death.[25][26]

Historian Jacqueline Armijo-Hussein has written on Sayyid Ajall's confucianization and sinicization policies in various papers, including in her dissertation "Sayyid 'Ajall Shams al-Din: A Muslim from Central Asia, serving the Mongols in China, and bringing 'civilization' to Yunnan" (1997);[27] and in "The Origins of Confucian and Islamic Education in Southwest China: Yunnan in the Yuan Period" (n.d.)[28] and "The Sinicization and Confucianization in Chinese and Western Historiography of a Muslim from Bukhara Serving Under the Mongols in China" (1989).[29]

Ming dynasty

During the Ming conquest of Yunnan Chinese military soldiers were settled in Yunnan, and many married the native women.

Qing dynasty

The rulers of the Qing dynasty were ethnic Manchus who adopted the norms of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rules. The "orthodox" historical view emphasized the power of Han Chinese to "sinicize" their conquerors, although more recent research such as the New Qing History school revealed Manchu rulers were savvy in their manipulation of their subjects and from the 1630s through at least the 18th century, the emperors developed a sense of Manchu identity and used Central Asian models of rule as much as Confucian ones. There is also evidence of sinicization, however. For example, Manchus originally had their own separate style of naming from the Han Chinese, but eventually adopted Han Chinese naming practices.

Manchu names consisted of more than the two or one syllable Chinese names, and when phonetically transcribed into Chinese, they made no sense at all.[30] The meaning of the names that Manchus used were also very different from the meanings of Chinese names.[31] The Manchus also gave numbers as personal names.[32]

Eventually, the Qing royal family (the Aisin Gioro) gave their children Chinese names, which were separate from the Manchu names, and even adopted the Chinese practice of generation names, although its usage was inconsistent and error ridden. Eventually[when?] they stopped using Manchu names.[33]

The Niohuru family of the Manchu changed their family name to Lang, which sounded like "wolf" in Chinese, since wolf in Manchu was Niohuru; thus forming a translation.[34]

Although the Manchus replaced their Manchu names with Chinese personal names, the Manchu bannermen followed their traditional practice in typically used their first/personal name to address themselves and not their last name, while Han Chinese bannermen used their last name and first in normal Chinese style.[35][36]

Usage of surnames was not traditional to the Manchu while it was to the Han Chinese.[37]

Nguyen dynasty (Vietnam)

The Vietnamese Nguy?n Emperor Minh M?ng sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, Chams and Montagnards, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam.[38] Directing his policies at the Khmer and hill tribes,[39] Minh Mang declared that "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han [Sino-Vietnamese] customs."[40] Moreover, he would use the term Han () to refer to the Vietnamese people,[38] and the name Trung Qu?c (, the same hànzì as for 'China') to refer to Vietnam.[41] Likewise, the lord Nguy?n Phúc Chu had referred to Vietnamese as Han people in 1712 when differentiating between Vietnamese and Chams.[42]

Chinese clothing was also adapted by the Vietnamese people under the Nguy?n dynasty.[43][44][45][46]

Modern examples

Kuomintang

The Kuomintang pursued a sinicization policy, which foreign observers understood as "the time had come to set about the business of making all natives either turn Chinese or get out." It was noted that "Chinese colonization" of "Mongolia and Manchuria" led to the conclusion "to a conviction that the day of the barbarian was finally over."[47][48][49]

Ma Clique

Hui Muslim General Ma Fuxiang created an assimilationist group and encouraged the integration of Muslims into Chinese society.[50] Ma Fuxiang was a hardcore assimilationist and said that Hui should assimilate into Han.[51]

Xinjiang

The Hui Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) governed the southern region of East Turkestan (named Xinjiang by the Chinese government) in 1934-1937. The administration that was set up was colonial in nature, importing Han cooks and baths,[52] changing into Chinese the street signs and names that used to be in only Uyghur language. The Hui also switched carpet patterns from Uyghur to Han in state-owned carpet factories.[53]

Strict surveillance and mass detentions of Uyghurs in the Xinjiang re-education camps is a part of the ongoing sinicization policy by the Communist Party of China.[54] Since 2015, it has been estimated that over a million Uyghurs have been detained in these camps.[55][56][57][58] The camps were established under General Secretary Xi Jinping's administration with the main goal of ensuring adherence to national ideology.[59] Critics of China's treatment of Uyghurs have accused the Chinese government of propagating a policy of sinicization in Xinjiang in the 21st century, calling this policy a cultural genocide, or ethnocide, of Uyghurs.[60][61][62][63]

Taiwan

After the Republic of China took control of Taiwan in 1945 and relocated its capital to Taipei in 1949, the intention of Chiang Kai-shek was to eventually go back to mainland China and retake control of it. Chiang believed that to retake mainland China, it would be necessary to re-Sinicize Taiwan's inhabitants who had undergone assimilation under Japanese rule. Examples of this policy included the renaming of streets with mainland geographical names, use of Mandarin Chinese in schools and punishments for using other regional languages (such as the f?ngyán of Hakka and Hokkien), and teaching students to revere traditional ethics, develop pan-Chinese nationalism, and view Taiwan from the perspective of China.[64][65] Other reasons for the policy were to combat the Japanese influences on the culture that had occurred in the previous 50 years, and to help unite the recent immigrants from mainland China that had come to Taiwan with the KMT and among whom there was a tendency to be more loyal to one's city, country or province than to China as a nation.[66]

The process of re-asserting non-Chinese identity, as in the case of ethnic groups in Taiwan, is sometimes known as desinicization. This is an issue in, for example, the Taiwan independence movement and Taiwan localization movements.

Tibet

The sinicization of Tibet is the change of Tibetan society to Han Chinese standards by means of state propaganda, police presence, cultural assimilation, religious persecution, immigration, population transfer, land development, land transfer, and political reform.[67][68][69][70] It has been underway since the Chinese invasion of Tibet in 1951.[71] In present-day Tibet, traditional Tibetan festivals have "been turned into a platform for propaganda and political theater" where "government workers and retirees are barred from engaging in religious activities, and government workers and students in Tibetan schools are forbidden from visiting local monasteries."[72] According to president of the Central Tibetan Administration, Lobsang Sangay, with the ongoing expulsion of monks and nuns from monasteries and nunneries, and destruction of the Larung Gar monastery,[73] Tibet's largest Buddhist institution, "unfortunately what is happening is that the Chinese government is reviving something akin to cultural revolution in Tibet."[74][75]

Pakistan

Pakistan has been Sinicized through the CPEC which is welcoming Chinese settlers from the Mainland as well as promoting the Chinese way of life.[76]

Religion

In April 2016, Chinese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping declared that in order to "actively guide the adaptation of religions to socialist society, an important task is supporting China's religions' persistence in the direction of sinicization."[77][78] He later reiterated this plan to the 19th Communist Party Congress saying "We will fully implement the Party's basic policy on religious affairs, insist on the sinicization of Chinese religions, and provide active guidance for religion and socialism to coexist."[77][79]

Protestantism

The Three-Self Patriotic Movement (TSPM) of Protestant churches in China has described the Boxer Rebellion and the anti-Christian movement of 1922-27 as early efforts to sinicize Christianity.[80]

The TSPM and China Christian Council arranged a conference in Shanghai on August 4-6, 2014, commemorating the anniversary of the TSPM. This conference included a seminar on the sinicizaton of Christianity, with Fu Xianwei, chairman of the TSPM, saying "churches in China will continue to explore the sinicization of Christianity [and] ensure Christianity takes root in the soil of Chinese culture, ethnicity, and society... To advance the sinicization of Christianity, churches will need guidance and support from government agencies in charge of religious affairs."[81][82]

In 2019, TSPM chairman Xu Xiaohong made a pledge to eliminate any Western "imprint" from Chinese faith saying "[We] must recognise that Chinese churches are surnamed 'China', not 'the West'" and "No matter how much effort or time it takes, our resolution in upholding the Sinicisation of Protestantism will never change, and our determination to walk a path that is adapted to a socialist society will never waver."[80]

Catholicism

In December 2016, the Ninth National Congress of the Chinese Catholic Representatives reaffirmed their plan for the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association to uphold the principle of independence and self-governance, along with the promotion of sinicization.[83]

In March 2018, Archbishop Paul Gallagher, Secretary for Relations with States within the Holy See's Secretariat of State, said that "two expressions or, more precisely, two principles stand out, which should interact with each other, namely "sinicization" and "inculturation." I am convinced that an important intellectual and pastoral challenge arises in an almost natural way from the bringing together of these two terms, which indicate two real visions of the world."[84][85]

In June 2018, the Bishops' Conference of the Catholic Church in China and the Chinese Catholic Patriotic Association issued a "Five-Year Plan on Carrying Forward the Catholic Church's Adherence to the Direction of Sinicization in Our Country".[86][87] This document includes provisions forbidding worship outside of designated church structures and government-authorized times, as well as participation of minors under the age of 18 in any religious services. Churches in Hebei province and the Yibin Diocese of Sichuan province began holding training seminars immediately.[88][89]

Islam

In 2015, paramount leader Xi Jinping first raised the issue of "Sinicization of Islam". In 2018, a confidential directive was issued ordering local officials to "prevent Islam from interfering with secular life and the state's functions".[90]

Yang Faming, leader of the Islamic Association of China, said in a 2018 speech that "We must allow traditional Chinese culture to permeate Islam and jointly guard the spiritual homeland of the Chinese people."[91] He encouraged Chinese characteristics to be present in religious ceremony, culture, and architecture.[77]

In popular culture

In some forms of fiction, due to China's communist statehood, Soviet-themed characters are de-Sovietized and switched over to become Chinese to fit modern (post-Cold War) times.

The original cut of the 2012 Red Dawn remake depicted a Chinese invasion before having said information leaked to Global Times, sparking controversy in China and threatening its airing in the country (the invaders were changed to North Koreans).[92]

In 2006, Chinese versions of the Marvel Comics' Crimson Dynamo and Abomination were created and made members of The Liberators in The Ultimates 2.

See also

References

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  9. ^ a b Lane, George (June 29, 2011). "Sayyed ajall". Encyclopædia Iranica. Encyclopædia Iranica. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 2012.
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  12. ^ (Original from the University of Virginia) Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, J?mi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Az?z. Ma'had Shu'?n al Aqall?yat al-Muslimah (1986). Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7-8. The Institute. p. 385. Retrieved 2011. certain that Muslims of Central Asian originally played a major role in the Yuan (Mongol) conquest and subsequent rule of south-west China, as a result of which a distinct Muslim community was established in Yunnan by the late 13th century AD. Foremost among these soldier-administrators was Sayyid al-Ajall Shams al-Din Umar al-Bukhari (Ch. Sai-tien-ch'ih shan-ssu-ting). a court official and general of Turkic origin who participated in the Mongol invasion of Szechwan ... And Yunnan in c. 1252, and who became Yuan Governor of the latter province in 1274-79. Shams al-Din--who is widely believed by the Muslims of Yunnan to have introduced Islam to the region--is represented as a wise and benevolent ruler, who successfully "pacified and comforted" the people of Yunnan, and who is credited with building Confucian temples, as well as mosques and schools
  13. ^ Tan Ta Sen (2009). Cheng Ho and Islam in Southeast Asia (illustrated, reprint ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 92. ISBN 978-9812308375. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ Rachewiltz, Igor de, ed. (1993). In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period (1200-1300). Asiatische Forschungen : Monographienreihe zur Geschichte, Kultur und Sprache der Völker Ost- und Zentralasiens. Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 477. ISBN 3447033398. ISSN 0571-320X. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016. Retrieved 2014.
  15. ^ Liu, Xinru (2001). The Silk Road in World History. Oxford University Press. p. 116. ISBN 019979880X. Retrieved 2014.
  16. ^ Rachewiltz, Igor de, ed. (1993). In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yüan Period (1200-1300). Asiatische Forschungen : Monographienreihe zur Geschichte, Kultur und Sprache der Völker Ost- und Zentralasiens. Volume 121 of Asiatische Forschungen. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 476. ISBN 3447033398. ISSN 0571-320X. Retrieved 2014.
  17. ^ "Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn". www.china.org.cn. Archived from the original on 2014-12-02. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Yang, Bin (2009). Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE). Columbia University Press. p. 154. ISBN 978-0231142540. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ a b Yang, Bin (2008). "Chapter 5 Sinicization and Indigenization: The Emergence of the Yunnanese" (PDF). Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE). Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231142540. Retrieved 2014.[page needed]
  20. ^ Yang, Bin (2009). Between winds and clouds: the making of Yunnan (second century BCE to twentieth century CE). Columbia University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0231142540. Retrieved 2014.
  21. ^ Thant Myint-U (2011). Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4668-0127-1. Retrieved 2011. claimed descent from the emir of Bokhara ... and was appointed as the top administrator in Yunnan in the 1270s. Today the Muslims of Yunnan regard him as the founder of their community, a wise and benevolent ruler who 'pacified and comforted' the peoples of Yunnan. Sayyid Ajall was officially the Director of Political Affairs of the Regional Secretariat of Yunnan ... According to Chinese records, he introduced new agricultural technologies, constructed irrigation systems, and tried to raise living standards. Though a Muslims, he built or rebuilt Confucian temples and created a Confucian education system. His contemporary, He Hongzuo, the Regional Superintendent of Confucian studies, wrote that through his efforts 'the orangutans and butcherbirds became unicorns and phonixes and their felts and furs were exchanged for gowns and caps' ...[page needed]
  22. ^ M. Th Houtsma (1993). First encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936. BRILL. p. 847. ISBN 90-04-09796-1. Retrieved 2011. Although Saiyid-i Adjall certainly did much for the propagation of Islam in Yunnan, it is his son Nasir al-Din to whom is ascribed the main credit for its dissemination. He was a minister and at first governed the province of Shansi : he later became governor of Yunnan where he died in 1292 and was succeeded by his brother Husain. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that the direction of this movement was from the interior, from the north. The Muhammadan colonies on the coast were hardly affected by it. On the other hand it may safely be assumed that the Muslims of Yunnan remained in constant communication with those of the northern provinces of Shensi and Kansu.
  23. ^ (Original from the University of Virginia) Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, J?mi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Az?z. Ma'had Shu'?n al Aqall?yat al-Muslimah (1986). Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7-8. The Institute. p. 174. Retrieved 2011. from the Yuan Dynasty, and indicated further Muslim settlement in northeastern and especially southwestern Yunnan. Marco Polo, who travelled through Yunnan "Carajan" at the beginning of the Yuan period, noted the presence of "Saracens" among the population. Similarly, the Persian historian Rashid al-Din (died 1318 AD) recorded in his Jami' ut-Tawarikh that the 'great city of Yachi' in Yunnan was exclusively inhabited by Muslims.
  24. ^ (Original from the University of Virginia) Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, J?mi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Az?z. Ma'had Shu'?n al Aqall?yat al-Muslimah (1986). Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7-8. The Institute. p. 387. Retrieved 2011. when Maroco Polo visited Yunnan in the early Yuan period he noted the presence of "Saracens" among the population while the Persian historian Rashid al-Din (died 1318 AD) recorded in his Jami' ut-Tawarikh that 'the great city of Yachi' in Yunnan was exclusively inhabited by Muslims. Rashid al-Din may have been referring to the region around Ta-li in western Yunnan, which was to emerge as the earliest centre of Hui Muslim settlement in the province.
  25. ^ ( )Thant Myint-U (2011). Where China Meets India: Burma and the New Crossroads of Asia. Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4668-0127-1. Retrieved 2011. In this way, Yunnan became known to the Islamic world. When Sayyid Ajall died in 1279 he was succeeded by his son Nasir al-Din who governed for give years and led the invasion of Burma. His younger brother became the Transport Commissioner and the entire family entrenched their influence.[page needed]
  26. ^ (Original from the University of Virginia) Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, J?mi'at al-Malik 'Abd al-'Az?z. Ma'had Shu'?n al Aqall?yat al-Muslimah (1986). Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, Volumes 7-8. The Institute. p. 385. Retrieved 2011. On his death he was succeeded by his eldest son, Nasir al-Din (Ch. Na-su-la-ting, the "Nescradin" of Marco Polo), who governed Yunnan between 1279 and I284. While Arab and South Asian Muslims, pioneers of the maritime expansion of Islam in the Bay of Bengal, must have visited the
  27. ^ ""CESWW" - Dissertations in Central Eurasian Studies - History". cesww.fas.harvard.edu. Archived from the original on 2014-08-25. Retrieved .
  28. ^ "Session 8: Individual Papers: New Work on Confucianism, Buddhism, and Islam from Han to Yuan". Archived from the original on 2015-07-15. Retrieved .
  29. ^ Gladney, Dru C. (1996) [1991]. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People's Republic. Harvard East Asian Monographs 149. Harvard University Asia Center. p. 424. ISBN 0674594975. ISSN 0073-0483. Retrieved 2014.
  30. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. Retrieved 2012. famous Manchu figure of the early Qing who belonged to the Niohuru clan) would have been the unwieldy "Niu-gu-lu E-bi-long" in Chinese. Moreover, the characters used in names were typically chosen to represent the sounds of Manchu, and not to carry any particular meaning in Chinese. For educated Han Chinese accustomed to names composed of a familiar surname and one or two elegang characters drawn from a poem or a passage from the classics, Manchu names looked not just different, but absurd. What was oneo to make of a name like E-bi-long, written in Chinese characters meaning "repress-must flourish," or Duo-er-gun, meaning "numerous-thou-roll"? S.... To them they looked like nonsense.... But they are not nonsense in Manchu: "E-bi-long" is the transcription of ebilun, meaning "a delicate or sickly child," and "Duo-er-gun" is the Chinese transcription of dorgon, the Manchu word for badger.
  31. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 242. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. Retrieved 2012. Thus we find names like Nikan (Chinese), Ajige (little), Asiha (young), Haha (nale), Mampi (knot--a reference to the hair?), Kara (black), Fulata (red-eyed), Necin (peaceful), Kirsa (steppe fox), Unahan (colt), Jumara (squirrel), Nima?an (sea eagle), Nomin (lapis lazuli), and Gacuha (toy made out of an animal's anklebone).44 Names such as Jalfungga (long-lived), Fulingga (lucky one), Fulungga (majestic), and H?turingga (fortunate), were not unknown, either, particularly after the seventeenth century. Although mightily foreign when written as Zha-la-feng-a, Fu-ling-a, Fu-long-a, or Hu-tu-ling-ga
  32. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 243. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved 2012. While Chinese names, too, sometimes ended in characters with the sounds "zhu," "bao," and "tai," more often than not, such names in the Qing belonged to Manchus and other bannermen (Chinese bannermen and Mongols sometimes took Manchu-sounding names), even if the attached meaning is not clear (it is not certain that all names in fact had a specific meaning). Giving "numeral names" was another unique Manchu habit. These were names that actually referred to numbers. Sometimes they were given using Manchu numbers--for example, Nadanju (seventy) or Susai (fifty). Other times number names used the Manchu transcriptions of Chinese numbers, as in the name Loi?ici (= Liushi qi, "sixty-seven"), Ba?inu (= bashi wu, "eight-five").45 Such names, unheard of among the Han, were quite common among the Manchus, an appeared from time to time among Chinese bannermen. Popular curiosity about this odd custom in Qing was partly satisfied by the nineteenth-century bannerman-writer Fu-ge, who explained in his book of "jottings" that naming children for their grandparents' ages was a way of wishing longevity to the newly born.46
  33. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780295804125. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved 2012. At Xiuyan, in eastern Fengtian, the Manchus in the seventh or eighth generation continued as before to give their sons polysyllabic Manchu personal names that were meaningless when transliterated into Chinese, but at the same time they began to also give them Chinese names that were disyllabic and meaningful and that conformed to the generational principle. Thus, in the seventh generation of the G?walgiya lineage were sons with two names, one Manchu and one Chinese, such as Duolunbu/Shiman, Delinbu/Shizhu, and Tehengbu/Shizhen. Within the family and the banner, these boys used their Manchu name, but outside they used their Han-style name. Then, from the eight or ninth generation one, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the G?walgiya at Xiuyan stopped giving polysyllabic Manchu names to their sons, who thereafter used Chinese names exclusively.
  34. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780295804125. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved 2012. and when the ancient and politically prominent Manchu lineage of Niohuru adopted the Han-style surname Lang, he ridiculed them for having "forgotten their roots." (The Niohuru, whose name was derived from niohe, Manchu for wolf," had chosen Lang as their surname because it was a homophone for the Chinese word for "wolf.")
  35. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780295804125. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved 2012. Manchu men had abandoned their original polysyllabic personal names infavor of Han-style disyllabic names; they had adopted the Han practice of choosing characters with auspicious meanings for the names; and they had assigned names on a generational basis.... Except among some Hanjun such as the two Zhao brothers, bannermen still did not, by and large, use their
  36. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads (2001). Manchus & Han: ethnic relations and political power in late Qing and early republican China, 1861-1928 (reprint, illustrated ed.). University of Washington Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780295804125. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014. Retrieved 2012. family name but called themselves only by their personal name--for example, Yikuang, Ronglu, Gangyi, Duanfang, Xiliang, and Tieliang. In this respect, most Manchus remained conspicuously different from Han.
  37. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China (illustrated, reprint ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 241. ISBN 0-8047-4684-2. Archived from the original on December 31, 2013. Retrieved 2012. Chinese names consist typically of a single-character surname and a given name of one or two characters, the latter usually chosen for their auspicious meaning. Manchu names were different. For one thing, Manchus did not commonly employ surnames, identifying themselves usually by their banner affiliation rather than by their lineage. Even if they had customarily used both surname and given name, this would not have eliminated the difference with Han names, since Manchu names of any kind were very often longer than two characters--that is, two syllables-- in length. Where a Han name (to pick at random two names from the eighteenth century) might read Zhang Tingyu or Dai Zhen, the full name of, say, Ebilun (a
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