The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762-1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825-1927) and used primarily by Slovak Catholics.
The standard orthography of the Slovak language is immediately based on the standard developed by ?udovít ?túr in 1844 and reformed by Martin Hattala in 1851 with the agreement of ?túr. The then-current (1840s) form of the central Slovak dialect was chosen as the standard. It uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (?, ´, ¨, ^) placed above certain letters. After Hattala's reform, the standardized orthography remained mostly unchanged.
The Slovak alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Slovak language.
It has 46 letters which makes it the longest Slavic and European alphabet.
The 46 letters of the Slovak alphabet are:
|Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
|Á á||dlhé á|
|Ä ä||prehlasované á;|
a s dvoma bodkami;
|É é||dlhé é|
|Í í||dlhé í|
|? ?||dlhé el|
|? ?||mäkké el|
|? ?||dlhé er|
|? ?||mäkké té|
|Ú ú||dlhé ú|
|W w1||dvojité vé|
|Ý ý||dlhý ypsilon|
|ä||/æ/||Nowadays pronounced mostly as /?/, except in formal speech and some central dialects.|
|ia||/a/||May be pronounced as two monophthongs /i.a/ in foreign words.|
|ie||//||May be pronounced as two monophthongs /i.?/ in foreign words.|
|iu||/u/||May be pronounced as two monophthongs /i.u/ in foreign words.|
|l||/l/||Can be syllabic /l?/.|
|n||/n/||Becomes [?] before /k/ and /?/.|
|q||/kv/||Only occurs in loanwords.|
|r||/r/||Can be syllabic /r?/.|
|w||/v/||Only occurs in loanwords.|
|x||/ks/||Only occurs in loanwords.|
Some additional notes include the following (transcriptions in IPA unless otherwise stated):
The primary principle of Slovak spelling is the phonemic principle. The secondary principle is the morphological principle: forms derived from the same stem are written in the same way even if they are pronounced differently. An example of this principle is the assimilation rule (see below). The tertiary principle is the etymological principle, which can be seen in the use of i after certain consonants and of y after other consonants, although both i and y are pronounced the same way.
Finally, the rarely applied grammatical principle is present when, for example, the basic singular form and plural form of masculine adjectives are written differently with no difference in pronunciation (e.g. pekný = nice - singular versus pekní = nice - plural).
Most foreign words receive Slovak spelling immediately or after some time. For example, "weekend" is spelled víkend, "software" - softvér, "gay" - gej (both not exclusively), and "quality" is spelled kvalita (possibly from Italian qualità). Personal and geographical names from other languages using Latin alphabets keep their original spelling unless a fully Slovak form of the name exists (e.g. Londýn for "London").
To accelerate writing, a rule has been introduced that the frequent character combinations ?e, ?e, ?e, ?e, ?i, ?i, ?i, ?i, ?í, ?í, ?í, ?í, ?ie, ?ie, ?ie, ?ie, ?ia, ?ia, ?ia, ?ia are written without a caron de, te, ne, le, di, ti, ni, li, dí, tí, ní, lí, die, tie, nie, lie, dia, tia, nia, lia. These combinations are usually pronounced as if a caron were found above the consonant. Some exceptions are as follows:
Slovak features some heterophonic homographs (words with identical spelling but different pronunciation and meaning), the most common examples being krásne /'kra:sn?/ (beautiful) versus krásne /'kra:s/ (beautifully).
The letter ? is nowadays pronounced by many speakers, particularly from western Slovakia, as a non-palatalized l.
When a voiced obstruent (b, d, ?, dz, d?, g, h, z, ?) is at the end of the word before a pause, it is pronounced as its voiceless counterpart (p, t, ?, c, ?, k, ch, s, ?, respectively). For example, pohyb is pronounced /pip/ and prípad is pronounced /pri:pat/.
When "v" is at the end of the syllable, it is pronounced as non-syllabic u , with the exception of the position before "n" or "?". For example, kov [k] (metal), kravský [kraski:] (cow - adjective), but povsta? [p?fstac] (uprise), because the "v" is not at the end of the syllable (po-vsta?) and hlavný [?la?ni:] because "v" stands before the "n".
The graphic group -ou (at the end of words) is pronounced  but is not considered a diphthong. Its phonemic interpretation is /?v/.
Consonant clusters containing both voiced and voiceless elements are entirely voiced if the last consonant is a voiced one, or voiceless if the last consonant is voiceless. For example, otázka is pronounced /?ta:ska/ and vzchopi? sa is pronounced [fsx?pit sa]. This rule applies also over the word boundary. One example is as follows: prís? domov [pri:z? d?m] (to come home) and viac jahôd [adz ja?t] (more strawberries). The voiced counterpart of "ch" /x/ is [?], and the unvoiced counterpart of "h" /?/ is [x].
One of the most important changes in Slovak orthography in the 20th century was in 1953 when s began to be written as z where pronounced [z] in prefixes (e.g. smluva into zmluva as well as sväz into zväz). The phonemic principle has been given priority over the etymological principle in this case.
A long syllable (that is, a syllable containing á, é, í, ý, ó, ú, ?, ?, ia, ie, iu, ô) cannot be followed by another long one within the same word. This rule has morphonemic implications for declension (e.g. ?en-ám but tráv-am) and conjugation (e.g. nos-ím but súd-im). Several exceptions of this rule exist. It is typical of the literary Slovak language, and does not appear in Czech or in some Slovak dialects.
The acute mark (in Slovak "de?", "prolongation mark" or "lengthener") indicates length (e.g. í = approximately [i:]). This mark may appear on any vowel except "ä" (wide "e", ?iroké "e" in Slovak). It may also appear above the consonants "l" and "r", indicating the long [l:] and [r:] sounds.
The umlaut ("prehláska", "dve bodky" = two dots) is only used above the letter "a". It indicates a raised vowel, almost an "e", similar to German ä.
The caron (in Slovak "mäk?e?", "palatalization mark" or "softener") indicates a change of alveolar fricatives into either post-alveolar or palatal consonants, in informal Slovak linguistics often called just "palatalization". Eight consonants can bear a caron. Not all "normal" consonants have a "caroned" counterpart:
The Slovak alphabet is available within the ISO/IEC 8859-2 "Latin-2" encoding, which generally supports Eastern European languages. All vowels, but none of the specific consonants (that is, no ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, ?) are available within the "Latin-1" encoding, which generally supports only Western European languages.