Slovene Dialects
Get Slovene Dialects essential facts below. View Videos or join the Slovene Dialects discussion. Add Slovene Dialects to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Slovene Dialects
Map of regional groups of Slovene dialects
  Littoral (1. ?avrin, 2. ?i?arija)
  Rovte

Slovene dialects (Slovene: slovenska nare?ja) are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language. Spoken Slovene is often considered to have at least 48 dialects[1] (nare?ja) and subdialects (govori). The exact number of dialects is open to debate,[2] ranging from as many as 50[3] to merely 7.[4] The various dialects are so different from each other that a speaker of one dialect may have a very difficult time understanding a speaker of another,[5] particularly if they belong to different regional groups. Speakers of dialects that strongly differ accommodate each other by gravitating toward standard Slovene. Slovene dialects are part of the South Slavic dialect continuum, transitioning into Serbo-Croatian to the south and bordering Friulian and Italian to the west, German to the north, and Hungarian to the east.

History of classification

The first attempts to classify Slovenian dialects were made by Izmail Sreznevsky in the early 19th century, followed by Jan Niecis?aw Baudouin de Courtenay (focusing on Resia, Venetian Slovenia, Cerkno, and Bled), Karel ?trekelj (focusing on the Karst), and Ivan Scheinig (focusing on Carinthia). This was followed by efforts by Ivan Grafenauer (Gail Valley), Josip Tomin?ek (Savinja Valley), and others. Efforts before the Second World War were spearheaded by Lucien Tesnière, Fran Ramov?, and Aleksander Isachenko, and after the war by Tine Logar and Jakob Rigler (sl).[6] Eventually, the classification proposed by Ramov? was accepted with corrections and additions by Logar and Rigler, published in 1983 as the Karta slovenskih nare?ij (Map of Slovenian Dialects).[7]

Criteria for classification

The division of Slovenian into dialects is based on various non-linguistic and linguistic factors. Non-linguistic factors include settlement patterns and geographical features (rivers, mountains) that helped shape various isoglosses. Linguistic factors include language contact with non-Slavic languages to some extent, phonological and prosodic elements in particular, and to a lesser extent word-formational, lexical, and inflectional elements.[7] Specifically, the primary distinguishing linguistic features are 1) preservation or loss of pitch accent, 2) reflexes of nasal *?, nasal *?, jat (?), and the yers (?, ?), and 3) (to a lesser extent) vowel inventory, diphthongization, and degree and type of vowel reduction.[8]

Regional groups

The main regional groups are:

  1. The Upper Carniolan dialect group (gorenjska nare?na skupina), spoken in most of Upper Carniola and in Ljubljana. Among other features, this group is characterized by monophthongal stressed vowels, an acute semivowel[clarification needed], pitch accent, standard circumflex shift, and two accentual retractions with some exceptions. It features narrowing of o and e in preaccentual position, akanye (reduction of o to a) in postaccentual position, and strong syncope. There is a partial development of g to , preservation of bilabial w, and general hardening of soft l and n.[9]
  2. The Lower Carniolan dialect group (dolenjska nare?na skupina), spoken in most of Lower Carniola and in the eastern half of Inner Carniola. Among other features, this group is characterized by pitch accent, extensive dipththongization (ei, ie, uo), an a-colored semivowel, shift of o > u, and partial akanye.[10]
  3. The Styrian dialect group (?tajerska nare?na skupina), spoken in central and eastern Slovenian Styria and in the Lower Sava Valley and Central Sava Valley. Among other features, this group is characterized by loss of pitch accent, tonemically high and lengthened accented syllables, lengthening of accented short syllables, and frequent development of a > ?, and u > ü in the eastern part of the territory.[11]
  4. The Pannonian dialect group (panonska nare?na skupina), or northeastern dialect group, spoken in northeastern Slovenia (Prekmurje, in the eastern areas of Slovenian Styria), and among the Hungarian Slovenes. Among other features, this group is characterized by loss of pitch accent, non-lengthened short syllables, and a new acute on short syllables.[12]
  5. The Carinthian dialect group (koro?ka nare?na skupina): spoken by Carinthian Slovenes in Austria, in Slovenian Carinthia, and in the northwestern parts of Slovenian Styria along the upper Drava Valley, and in the westernmost areas of Upper Carniola on the border with Italy. Among other features, this group is characterized by late denasalization of *? and *?, a close reflex of long yat and open reflex of short yat, lengthening of old acute syllables and short neo-acute syllables, and an e-like reflex of the long semivowel and ?-like reflex of the short semivowel.[13]
  6. The Littoral dialect group (primorska nare?na skupina), spoken in most of the Slovenian Littoral (except for the area around Tolmin and Cerkno, where Rovte dialects are spoken) and in the western part of Inner Carniola; it is also spoken by Slovenes in the Italian provinces of Trieste and Gorizia, and in the mountainous areas of eastern Friuli (Venetian Slovenia and Resia). This group includes very heterogeneous dialects. Among other features, it is characterized by diphthongization of yat > ie and o > uo, and late denasalization of *? and *?. The western dialects in this group have preserved pitch accent whereas the others have a non-tonal stress accent.
  7. The Rovte dialect group (rovtarska nare?na skupina), spoken in the mountainous areas of west-central Slovenia, on the border between the Slovenian Littoral, Upper Carniola, and Inner Carniola, in a triangle between the towns of Tolmin, ?kofja Loka, and Vrhnika. Among other features, this group is characterized by shortening of long diphthongal ie and uo, akanye, and general development of g to .[14]
  8. The Mixed Ko?evje subdialects (me?ani ko?evski govori), a catch-all category for the Slovene dialects of heterogeneous origin now spoken in the Ko?evje region.

List of dialects

The following grouping of dialects and subdialects is based on the 1983 map of Slovene dialects by Fran Ramov?, Tine Logar, and Jakob Rigler (sl)[15] (from which the first Slovene term listed in parentheses is taken) and other sources.

References

  1. ^ Marc L. Greenberg: "A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene" (PDF). (1.42 MB)
  2. ^ Sussex, Roland & Paul Cubberly. 2006. The Slavic Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 502-503.
  3. ^ Logar, Tine & Jakob Rigler. 1986. Karta slovenskih nare?ij. Ljubljana: Geodetski zavod SRS.
  4. ^ Lencek, Rado L. 1982. The Structure and History of the Slovene Language. Columbus, OH: Slavica.
  5. ^ Sussex, Roland & Paul V. Cubberley. 2006. The Slavic Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 502.
  6. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e (1992). Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba [Cankar Publishing House]. p. 123. ISBN 86-361-0756-3.
  7. ^ a b Smole, Vera. 1998. "Slovenska nare?ja." Enciklopedija Slovenije vol. 12, pp. 1-5. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, p. 1.
  8. ^ Sussex, Roland & Paul Cubberly. 2006. The Slavic Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 503-504.
  9. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 52.
  10. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 25.
  11. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 323.
  12. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 173.
  13. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 88.
  14. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, pp. 259-260.
  15. ^ Smole, Vera. 1998. "Slovenska nare?ja". Enciklopedija Slovenije, vol 12. Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, pp. 1-5.
  16. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 12.
  17. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 45.
  18. ^ Priestly, Tom S. 1984. "O popolni izgubi srednjega spola v selini: enodobni opis," Slavisti?na revija 32: 37-47.
  19. ^ a b Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 42.
  20. ^ a b Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 203.
  21. ^ Horvat, Sonja. 1994. "Nekaj naglasnih in fonolo?kih zna?ilnosti slovenskega kostelskega govora." Slavisti?na revija 42: 305-312, p. 305.
  22. ^ a b c Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 52.
  23. ^ Logar, Tine. 1962. "Dana?nje stanje in naloge slovenske dialektologije." Jezik in slovstvo 8(1/2): 1-6, p. 4.
  24. ^ Logar, Tine. 1982. "Diftongizacija in monoftongizacija v slovenskih dialektih." Jezik in slovstvo 27: 209-212, p. 211.
  25. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1994. "Fran Ramov? kot nare?jeslovec." Slavisti?na revija 42: 159-170, p. 168.
  26. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 240.
  27. ^ Zorko, Zinka. 1994. "Panonska nare?ja." Enciklopedija Slovenija, vol. 8 (232-233). Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, p. 232.
  28. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 1986. Razprave o slovenskem jeziku. Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, p. 117.
  29. ^ Kolari?, Rudolf. 1956. "Slovenska nare?ja." Jezik in slovstvo 2(6): 247-254, p. 252.
  30. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 71.
  31. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 1986. Razprave o slovenskem jeziku. Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, p. 155.
  32. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 1986. Razprave o slovenskem jeziku. Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, p. 177.
  33. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 23.
  34. ^ a b Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 20.
  35. ^ a b Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 28.
  36. ^ ?ekli, Matej. 2004. "Jezik, knji?ni jezik, pokrajinski oz. krajevni knji?ni jezik: Genetskojezikoslovni in dru?benostnojezikoslovni pristop k ?lenjenju jezikovne stvarnosti (na primeru slovenine)." In Erika Kr?i?nik (ed.), Aktualizacija jezikovnozvrstne teorije na slovenskem. ?lenitev jezikovne resni?nosti. Ljubljana: Center za slovenistiko, pp. 41-58, p. 52.
  37. ^ ?ekli, Matej. 2004. "Jezik, knji?ni jezik, pokrajinski oz. krajevni knji?ni jezik: Genetskojezikoslovni in dru?benostnojezikoslovni pristop k ?lenjenju jezikovne stvarnosti (na primeru slovenine)." In Erika Kr?i?nik (ed.), Aktualizacija jezikovnozvrstne teorije na slovenskem. ?lenitev jezikovne resni?nosti. Ljubljana: Center za slovenistiko, pp. 41-58, p. 53.
  38. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 1986. Razprave o slovenskem jeziku. Ljubljana: Slovenska matica, p. 175.
  39. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 66.
  40. ^ Topori?i?, Jo?e. 1992. Enciklopedija slovenskega jezika. Ljubljana: Cankarjeva zalo?ba, p. 5.
  41. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 2001. Zbrani spisi: Jezikovnozgodovinske in dialektolo?ke razprave. Ljubljana: Zalo?ba ZRC, p. 232.
  42. ^ Zadravec, Franc. 1997. Slovenski roman dvajsetega stoletja, vol. 1. Murska Sobota: Pomurska zalo?ba, p. 350.
  43. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 65.
  44. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 1963. Ju?nonotranjski govori. Ljubljana: SAZU, pp. 11-12.
  45. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 171.
  46. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 39.
  47. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 2001. Zbrani spisi: Jezikovnozgodovinske in dialektolo?ke razprave. Ljubljana: Zalo?ba ZRC, p. 490, fn. 14.
  48. ^ Benedik, Francka. 1991. "Redukcija v ?kofjelo?kem nare?ju." Jezikoslovni zapiski 1: 141-146, p. 141.
  49. ^ Rigler, Jakob. 2001. Zbrani spisi: Jezikovnozgodovinske in dialektolo?ke razprave. Ljubljana: Zalo?ba ZRC, p. 210.
  50. ^ Logar, Tine. 1996. Dialektolo?ke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU, p. 165.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Slovene_dialects
 



 



 
Music Scenes