Social Democratic Party of Croatia
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Social Democratic Party of Croatia

Social Democratic Party of Croatia

Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske
PresidentPe?a Grbin
Vice PresidentsBiljana Borzan
Sabina Glasovac
Ranko Ostoji?
Sini?a Hajda? Don?i?
FounderIvica Ra?an
Founded3 November 1990 (1990-11-03)[1]
Preceded byLeague of Communists of Croatia-Party of Democratic Reform
HeadquartersTrg Drage Iblera 9
Zagreb, Croatia
Youth wingSDP Youth Forum
Membership (2017)36,987[2]
Political positionCentre-left
National affiliationRestart Coalition
European affiliationParty of European Socialists
International affiliation
European Parliament groupProgressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
Colours  Red
(41 in coalition)
European Parliament
County Prefects
Party flag
Flag of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia

The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Croatian: Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske or SDP) is a social-democratic[4][5]political party and the largest party of the Croatian centre-left.[6][7] The SDP is one of the two major political parties in Croatia, along with the centre-right[8]Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ). The SDP is strongly pro-European.[4]

The SDP was formed in 1990 as the successor of the League of Communists of Croatia, Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, which had governed Croatia within the Yugoslav federation since World War II.[9]

The party first won the elections in 2000 and formed a coalition government headed by Ivica Ra?an. After losing the 2003 general election, the party remained in opposition for eight years. In the 2011 parliamentary election, SDP won 61[b] out of 151 seats in the Croatian Parliament, and managed to form the 12th Croatian Government under Zoran Milanovi? with its partners from the Kukuriku coalition. After SDP and its coalition partners failed to achieve an agreement on forming a new government following the 2015 general election, the party returned to the opposition. Former[c] SDP member and presidential candidate Ivo Josipovi? served as the third President of Croatia from 2010 to 2015. Another SDP member, Neven Mimica was the European Commissioner for International Cooperation and Development at the Juncker Commission.

The SDP is a member of the Party of European Socialists (PES), Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D), Progressive Alliance (PA),[10] and the Socialist International (SI).


Early 1990s

Ivica Ra?an, founder of SDP and Croatia's Prime Minister from January 2000 to December 2003.

The SDP was established on 3 November 1990 by the social democratic faction of the former League of Communists of Croatia (SKH), the Croatian branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ).[1]

SKH delegation led by Ivica Ra?an, along with their Slovenian counterparts, had abandoned the 14th congress of SKJ in January 1990 following a dispute with the Serbian delegation led by Slobodan Milo?evi? over how SFR Yugoslavia should be reorganized.

At the same time Croatia was preparing for its first multi-party election following the decision made by SKH in December 1989 which envisioned elections in April and May 1990. In February 1990 the SR Croatia parliament adopted amendments to the constitution which enabled a multi-party system. That same month SKH had rebranded themselves as the "Party of Democratic Reform" (Stranka demokratskih promjena or SDP) and went on to run in the 1990 election as SKH-SDP, coming in second behind the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) with 26 percent of votes and a total of 107 seats in all three houses of parliament which had 351 seat.

On 3 November 1990 the party was officially established in its current form,[1] by dropping the initialism SKH from its name. In the August 1992 election, the first election held according to the new Constitution of Croatia which had been adopted on 22 December 1990, SDP won 5.52% of the popular vote and a total of 11 seats in the 138-seat parliament. In 1993 the party re-branded themselves again and changed their name to the "Social Democratic Party" (Socijaldemokratska partija), the name they kept to this day.

Merger with SDH

In 1990, a parallel Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Croatian: Socijaldemokratska stranka Hrvatske, SDSH) was founded. It was later renamed to the Social Democrats of Croatia (Socijaldemokrati Hrvatske, SDH). Like most parties created at the time, it was opposed to the communist government and wanted Croatia to secede from Yugoslavia, yet it had the distinction of being one of the few to present itself as left-wing. The party founders included many prominent intellectuals, including Antun Vuji? and Miroslav Tu?man[11] This party claimed that it was continuing tradition of the historical Social Democratic Party of Croatia, created in 1894 and merged in 1919 into the Communist Party of Yugoslavia.

In the first 1990 Croatian parliamentary election, SDSH joined the centrist Coalition of People's Accord and fared badly, winning only 21 out of 351 seats. However, its position was strong enough to warrant ministerial posts in the national unity government of Franjo Greguri? which was in power from July 1991 to August 1992. However, its two ministers Bosiljko Mi?eti? and Zvonimir Baleti? defected to the conservative Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) soon after their appointment.

Before the 1992 parliamentary and presidential elections, SDSH was involved in bitter dispute with the SDP over its rebranding into the Social Democratic Party of Croatia. SDSH claimed that its name was stolen. The election showed SDP to be much stronger party than SDSH, which failed to win parliament seats. At the same time, SDSH leader Antun Vuji? finished last in the 1992 presidential race, winning a meagre 0.7 percent of the vote. This ultimately led to SDSH and SDP patching their differences and former being incorporated into the latter in April 1994.

In the following 1995 election, SDP won 8.93 percent of the popular vote and a total of 10 seats in the parliament, coming in fourth behind the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) and the Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS).

2000-2003 government

Coat of arms

politics and government of

In August 1998 SDP and HSLS leaders Ivica Ra?an and Dra?en Budi?a signed a coalition agreement and proceeded to run together in the January 2000 parliamentary elections.[12] The SDP-HSLS coalition won the election with 38.7% of the vote and 71 out of 151 seats.[13] SDP and HSLS then formed a six-way centre-left coalition government along with the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), the Liberal Party (LS), Croatian People's Party (HNS), and the Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS). Ra?an, as the leader of the strongest party, became Prime Minister in the first Ra?an cabinet. This period was marred with constant disagreements among coalition members on various issues. The constitution was changed several times.[14][15][16][17]

Ra?an had initially offered the post of Speaker of Parliament to Budi?a, but Budi?a declined hoping to win the upcoming 2000 presidential election. Following Budi?a's defeat to Stjepan Mesi? in February 2000, Budi?a continued to serve as member of Croatian parliament. In July 2001 he opposed Ra?an government's decision to extradite Croatian army generals which were wanted because of, later in 2013 dismissed, charges for committing war crimes during Croatian War of Independence to the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) which caused considerable turmoil within HSLS.

In June 2001 the Istrian regionalist party Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS) withdrew from the coalition government and its chairman Ivan Jakov?i? resigned his post as Minister of European Integration, citing criticism of the way they governed Istria on the regional level which had been coming from other parties within the ruling coalition.[18] The uneasy coalition broke apart in early July 2002 when Ra?an formally handed in his resignation following HSLS refusal to support the agreement made with Slovenia concerning the two countries' joint control of the Kr?ko Nuclear Power Plant.[19]

In late July 2002 the second Ra?an cabinet was formed, with members of the remaining four parties of the original coalition (following the departure of IDS and HSLS) plus two minor liberal parties which had splintered from HSLS, the Party of Liberal Democrats (Libra) and the Liberal Party (LS). This cabinet remained in power until the next elections in November 2003. SDP then ran in the 2003 election as part of a coalition with IDS, Libra and LS, but was defeated by the conservative HDZ. The SDP thus returned to opposition with the coalition winning 43 out of 151 seats in the parliament (34 of which held by SDP).[20]

The January 2000 election win and the defeat of the ruling HDZ was seen as a turning point as it marked the first transition of power in Croatia's young democracy and upon coming into power Ra?an's government was seen as the country's first staunchly pro-Western government following a decade of the "authoritarian and nationalist rule" of late President Franjo Tu?man.[21] During its term, the country signed a pre-membership agreement with the European Union, which paved the way for the formal opening of membership negotiations in October 2006.[21] Although the six-party coalition government made a clear break from the former regime, it nevertheless failed to handle the growing social problems, unemployment and economic difficulties. Ra?an struggled to contain factional disputes within the coalition and appeared indecisive in dealing with Western demands to hand over war crimes suspects to the ICTY, as well as with extremists at home who vehemently opposed such extraditions.

Opposition: 2003-2011

Ivo Josipovi?, President of Croatia (2010-2015)

In the 2005 presidential race SDP opted to support independent incumbent Stjepan Mesi?, who succeeded in winning his second term by an overwhelming majority of 65.9% of the vote in the run-off in front of HDZ candidate and runner-up Jadranka Kosor with 34.1%.[22]

In 2007 the party was dealt a blow due to the death of their long-time leader and founder Ivica Ra?an, who died on 30 April 2007 due to complications from his previously treated kidney cancer, after he stepped down from his chairman post earlier that month.[21] In an extraordinary party convention former party spokesman Zoran Milanovi? was elected as their new leader, beating acting chairwoman and former defence minister ?eljka Antunovi? in the party election run-off.[23] Other prominent candidates for the post were Zagreb mayor Milan Bandi? and former foreign minister Tonino Picula.[24]

Zoran Milanovi?, 2nd chairman of the SDP (2007-2016), 10th Prime Minister of Croatia (2011-2016) and 5th President of Croatia (2020-2025)

For the November 2007 parliamentary election SDP ran on an economic program with Third Way elements[25] devised by the previously non-partisan economist Ljubo Jur?i?, who was also picked to be the party's candidate for the post of Prime Minister in case of their election victory at a party meeting in July 2007.[26] In the election of 25 November SDP finished a close second behind HDZ, with 56 out of 153 seats. It might have won the domestic election, but as SDP doesn't participate in diaspora constituency, it lost in the overall tally. Five days after the election, amid speculations that SDP might assemble a governing coalition in spite of them failing to win outright majority, he was replaced in that role by Zoran Milanovi?.[27] Nevertheless, SDP failed to assemble a governing coalition, and positioned itself as the largest opposition party instead.

In the subsequent June 2009 local elections, the party failed to make significant gains on the county level, but still managed to achieve some major wins in important cities, due to the adoption of a new election system where mayors and county heads were for the first time elected directly, as opposed to the previous system which employed party lists. SDP recorded mayoral victories in a number of traditionally centre-right leaning coastal cities such as Dubrovnik, ?ibenik and Trogir and also managed to win in Vukovar, a city that had been almost destroyed in the Croatian War of Independence and was regarded as HDZ stronghold ever since. They also manage to retain control of the economically most powerful parts of the country, including the capital Zagreb, the northern Adriatic city of Rijeka and also won in Istria (in coalition with IDS).

In the run up to the 2009-10 presidential race, SDP held a primary election for the very first time, in which party nominees Ljubo Jur?i? and Ivo Josipovi? ran. Josipovi? won the primary by some two-thirds of the vote.[28] Josipovi? later won the 2009-10 election with 60% of the vote in the second round in front of former SDP member and populist Mayor of Zagreb Milan Bandi? and was officially inaugurated on 18 February 2010.[29][30]

In 2010 SDP formed a political alliance known as the Kukuriku coalition with three other centre-left parties (Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (HNS), Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS) and the Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU)), with the aim of running in the December 2011 parliamentary election. The coalition unveiled their 21-point election program on 15 September 2011 in Zagreb.[31]

In government: 2011-16

SDP's 13th General Convention, 2016

In 2010 SDP formed a political alliance known as the Kukuriku coalition with three other centre-left parties - the Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (HNS), Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS) and the Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU) - to run in the December 2011 parliamentary election. The coalition unveiled their 21-point campaign program on 15 September 2011 in Zagreb.[31]

The coalition won the election, winning 81 out of 151 seats in the parliament, after which SDP formed a government with two of its junior coalition (HNS and IDS). Party president, Zoran Milanovi?, took office as the new Prime Minister and leader of the his cabinet on 23 December 2011.

Opposition: 2016-

In the 2015 parliamentary elections SDP and its coalition partners won the majority in 5 out of 10 electoral districts, and eventually gained 56 out of 151 seats in the Parliament, or 59 since Istrian Democratic Assembly participated in the post-election negotiations on forming new government as de facto member of the coalition. After more than 70 days of negotiations with the Bridge of Independent Lists (MOST) and numerous twists and turns mainly due to MOST frequently changing terms, SDP's coalition failed to achieve agreement with MOST on forming new government, which was formed by the independent Tihomir Ore?kovi? who was supported by the center-right Patriotic Coalition. SDP returned to the opposition. A vote of no confidence in Ore?kovi? in June 2016 resulted in an early parliamentary election in November which the SDP contested as the largest party in the People's Coalition. Despite being perceived as the favorite to win the election, due to a significant lead in a large number of opinion polls, the People's Coalition won only 54 seats while the Croatian Democratic Union won 58 (61 with coalition partners) in an upset. As a result, Zoran Milanovi? declared that he would not contest the upcoming leadership election in the SDP and that he would retire from politics once a successor is elected. The first round of the leadership election on 19 November 2016 failed to produce an outright winner, as none of the seven candidates gained the necessary majority of 50% + 1 of cast votes. Davor Bernardi? received the most votes (46%) and progressed to the second round, where he faced the runner-up, Ranko Ostoji?, who received 22.8% of cast votes. The second round took place on 26 November 2016 and Davor Bernardi? was elected the 3rd chairman of the SDP with 64% of cast votes.


The party's first and longest-serving president was Ivica Ra?an. The current party president is Davor Bernardi?, who was elected in a leadership election on 26 November 2016 following Zoran Milanovi?. Apart from the president and four vice-presidents (Zlatko Komadina, Pe?a Grbin, Boris Lalovac, Rajko Ostoji?), the main governing bodies of the party include the party presidency (consisting of six senior members), the head committee (Glavni odbor) and the supervisory committee (Nadzorni odbor).

Like all other parties SDP runs local chapters at municipal, city and county levels. It also runs three topical groups - the Youth Forum (Forum mladih), Women's Forum (Socijaldemokratski forum ?ena) and a Seniors' Forum (Socijaldemokratski forum seniora).[32]

The SDP has been a member of the Socialist International since November 1999,[33] and a full member of the Party of European Socialists since February 2012.[34] SDP is also a full member of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) group in the European Parliament as of accession of the Republic of Croatia to the EU in 2013.

Election history

Social Democratic Party results by constituency,
2011 parliamentary election[35]
Constituency Votes
Avg. result
+/- (pp)
VIII. 57.41 +17.01
III. 52.73 +12.33
I. 45.65 +5.25
II. 42.63 +2.23
VII. 42.28 +1.88
VI. 42.16 +1.76
X. 33.20 -7.2
IV. 33.06 -7.34
V. 32.23 -8.17
IX. 28.97 -11.43
Croatia (total) 40.4 0

The following is a summary of SDP's results in legislative elections for the Croatian parliament. The "Votes won" and "Percentage" columns include sums of votes won by coalitions SDP had been part of. After preferential votes were added to the electoral system, the votes column also includes the statistic of the total number of such votes received by candidates of SDP on coalition lists. The "Total seats won" column includes sums of seats won only by SDP in election. Column "Change" shows how many seats SDP has gained or lost.

Parliament (Sabor)

Election In coalition with Votes won Percentage Seats won Change Government
(Coalition totals) (SDP only)
1990 SSH 1,001,967 35.0 (#2)
Steady Opposition
1992 None 145,419 5.5 (#3)
Decrease 96 Opposition
1995 None 215,839 8.9 (#4)
Decrease 1 Opposition
2000 HSLS-PGS-SBHS 1,138,318 38.7 (#1)
Increase 33 Government
2003 LIBRA-IDS-LS 560,593 22.6 (#2)
Decrease 9 Opposition
2007 None 775,690 31.2 (#2)
Increase 22 Opposition
2011 HNS-IDS-HSU 958,312 40.4 (#1)
Increase 5 Government
2015 HNS-HSU-HL-AHSS-ZS 744,507[36] 32.31 (#2)
Decrease 19 Opposition
2016 HNS-HSU-HSS 636,602 33.82 (#2)
Decrease 4 Opposition
2020 HSS-GLAS-IDS-HSU-PGS-NLDB 414,615 24.87 (#2)
Decrease 4 Opposition

European parliament elections

Election In coalition with Votes won Percentage Seats won Change
(Coalition totals) (SDP only)
2013 HNS-HSU 237,778 32,07 (#2)
2014 HNS-HSU-IDS- SDSS 275,904 29,93 (#2)
Decrease 3
2019 None 200,976 18,71 (#2)
Increase 2

Croatian presidential elections

Election year(s) Candidate 1st round 2nd round Result
# of overall votes % of overall votes # of overall votes % of overall votes
1992 Silvije Degen 108,979 4.1 (#5) Lost
1997 Zdravko Tomac 458,172 21.03 (#2) Lost
2000 Dra?en Budi?a 741,837 27.8 (#2) 1,125,969 43.99 (#2) Lost
2005 Stjepan Mesi? 1,089,398 48.92 (#1) 1,454,451 65.93 (#1) Won
2009-10 Ivo Josipovi? 640,594 32.42 (#1) 1,339,385 60.26 (#1) Won
2014-15 Ivo Josipovi? 687,678 38.46 (#1) 1,082,436 49.26 (#2) Lost
2019-20 Zoran Milanovi? 562,783 29.55 (#1) 1,034,170 52.66 (#1) Won

Party presidents since 1990

No. Leader Age Term start Term end Duration
1 Ivica Ra?an, facingright.jpg Ivica Ra?an 1944–2007 3 November 1990 11 April 2007 16 years, 159 days
-- 20 obljetnica osnivanja OS RH Zeljka Antunovic 26052011.jpg ?eljka Antunovi?
(acting president)
b. 1955 11 April 2007 2 June 2007 52 days
2  16 obljetnica vojnoredarstvene operacije Oluja 04082011 Zoran Milanovic 38.jpg Zoran Milanovi? b. 1966 2 June 2007 26 November 2016 9 years, 177 days
3 Davor Bernardi? (cropped).png Davor Bernardi? b. 1980 26 November 2016 6 July 2020 3 years, 223 days
-- Z komadina.jpg Zlatko Komadina
(acting president)
b. 1958 6 July 2020 3 October 2020 89 days
4 Pedja Grbin.jpg Pe?a Grbin b. 1979 3 October 2020 present 103 days


^a Neven Mimica has been elected as SDP MEP but appointed to be one of the commissioners in the European commission, so although SDP won 3 seats on general elections it de facto has 2 MEP while SDP gave Mimica's seat to Ivan Jakov?i? from IDS as a result of the coalition agreement.

^b Kukuriku coalition in which SDP was a senior partner won 81 seats all together.

^c According to constitutional amendments introduced in 2000, the President is obliged to freeze his political party membership during his term in office.

See also


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  14. ^ "124 11.12.2000 Ustav Republike Hrvatske (pro?ieni tekst)". Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ "28 2.4.2001 Promjena Ustava Republike Hrvatske". 4 February 2001. Retrieved 2016.
  16. ^ "883". Retrieved 2016.
  17. ^ "113 16.11.2000 Promjena Ustava Republike Hrvatske". 16 November 2000. Retrieved 2016.
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  28. ^ "SDP izabrao Josipovi?a, Jur?i? dalje ide sam?". Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 12 July 2007. Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 2011.
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  35. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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External links

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