South Sulawesi Languages
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South Sulawesi Languages
South Sulawesi
Linguistic classificationAustronesian

The South Sulawesi languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian language family. They are spoken by the Bugis and related ethnic groups native to the Indonesian provinces South Sulawesi and West Sulawesi.


Internal classification

This classification follows Grimes & Grimes (1987) and the Ethnologue.[2][3]

The position of the Tamanic languages, usually represented by Embaloh (Maloh), was unclear until the end of the last century. The Dutch linguist K.A. Adelaar showed that they are especially close to Buginese and thus can be included in the South Sulawesi subgroup.[4][5]

Position within Austronesian

At the current stage of research, the South Sulawesi languages are considered to make up a primary branch of the Malayo-Polynesian subgroup within the Austronesian language family.[6]

South Sulawesi influence in Malagasy

Adelaar (1995) suggested that Malagasy vocabulary does not solely derive from Barito, but also contains many words that are of South Sulawesi origin.[7] Further evidence was presented by Blench (2018).[8]


Proto-South Sulawesi has been reconstructed by Mills (1975a, 1975b).[9][10]

See also


  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "South Sulawesi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Grimes, C. E.; Grimes, B. E. (1987). Languages of South Sulawesi. Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University. doi:10.15144/PL-D78. ISBN 0858833522.
  3. ^ South Sulawesi at Ethnologue (22th ed., 2019).
  4. ^ K. A. Adelaar. 1994. The classification of the Tamanic languages. In Tom Dutton and Darrell T. Tryon (eds.), Language contact and change in the Austronesian world, 1-42. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  5. ^ K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann. 2005. The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. London: Routledge.
  6. ^ Smith, Alexander D. (2017). "The Western Malayo-Polynesian Problem". Oceanic Linguistics. 56 (2): 435-490. doi:10.1353/ol.2017.0021.
  7. ^ Adelaar, Alexander (1995). "Asian Roots of the Malagasy: A Linguistic Perspective". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 151 (3): 325-356. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003036. JSTOR 27864676.
  8. ^ Blench, Roger. 2018. Interdisciplinary approaches to stratifying the peopling of Madagascar. Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Conference, Madison, Wisconsin, 23-24th October, 2015. (PPT slides)
  9. ^ Mills, Frederick Roger. 1975a. Proto South Sulawesi and proto Austronesian phonology. Ph.D. dissertation. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.
  10. ^ Mills, Roger F. 1975b. The Reconstruction of Proto-South-Sulawesi. Archipel, 10(1):205-224.

Further reading

  • Friberg, Barbara (1991). "Ergativity, focus and verb morphology in several South Sulawesi languages". In Ray Harlow (ed.). VICAL 2: Western Austronesian and contact languages, parts I and II: Papers from the fifth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Auckland: Linguistic Society of New Zealand.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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