Spam (food)
Get Spam Food essential facts below. View Videos or join the Spam Food discussion. Add Spam Food to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Spam Food

SPAM logo.jpg
CourseMain course or ingredient
Place of originUS
Created byHormel Foods Corporation
Serving temperatureHot or cold
Main ingredientsPork
Other informationA precooked canned meat product

Spam (stylized as SPAM) is a brand of canned cooked pork made by Hormel Foods Corporation, based in Minnesota. It was first introduced in 1937 and gained popularity worldwide after its use during World War II.[1] By 2003, Spam was sold in 41 countries on six continents and trademarked in over 100 countries (not including the Middle East and North Africa).[2] Spam's basic ingredients are pork with ham meat added, salt, water, modified potato starch (as a binder), sugar, and sodium nitrite (as a preservative). Natural gelatin is formed during cooking in its tins on the production line.[3] Many have raised concerns over Spam's nutritional attributes, in large part due to its high content of fat, sodium, and preservatives.[4]

It has became the subject of several appearances in pop culture, notably a Monty Python sketch, which led to its name being borrowed for unsolicited electronic messages, especially email.[5]


Sliced Spam

Spam was introduced by Hormel on July 5, 1937.[6] The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America states that the product was intended to increase the sale of pork shoulder which was not a very popular cut.[6] Ken Daigneau, brother of a company executive, won a $100 prize that year in a competition to name the new item.[7] Hormel claims that the meaning of the name "is known by only a small circle of former Hormel Foods executives", but popular beliefs are that the name is an abbreviation of "spiced ham".[6][8] The difficulty of delivering fresh meat to the front during World War II saw Spam become a ubiquitous part of the U.S. soldier's diet. It became variously referred to as "ham that didn't pass its physical", "meatloaf without basic training",[1] and "Special Army Meat". Over 150 million pounds (68 kt) of Spam were purchased by the military before the war's end.[9]

During World War II and the occupations which followed, Spam was introduced into Guam, Hawaii, Okinawa, the Philippines, and other islands in the Pacific. Immediately absorbed into native diets, it has become a unique part of the history and effects of U.S. influence in the Pacific islands.[10]

As a consequence of World War II rationing and the Lend-Lease Act, Spam also gained prominence in the United Kingdom. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher later referred to it as a "wartime delicacy".[11][12] In addition to increasing production for the U.K., Hormel expanded Spam output as part of Allied aid to the similarly beleaguered Soviet Union.[13] In his memoir Khrushchev Remembers, Nikita Khrushchev declared: "Without Spam we wouldn't have been able to feed our army."[14][6] Throughout the war, countries ravaged by the conflict and faced with strict food rations came to appreciate Spam.[15]

The billionth can of Spam was sold in 1959,[16] the seven billionth can was sold in 2007,[7] and the eight billionth can was sold in 2012.[17]

International usage

United States and territories

Baked Spam

Domestically, Spam's chief advantages were affordability, accessibility, and extended shelf life.[9] At the time it was introduced, it was the only canned meat product on the market that needed no refrigeration.[18] Statistics from the 1990s say that 3.8 cans of Spam are consumed every second in the United States,[19] totaling nearly 122 million cans annually. It became part of the diet of almost 30% of American households, perceived differently in various regions of the country.[20] It is also sometimes associated with economic hardship because of its relatively low cost.[1]

Spam that is sold in North America, South America, and Australia is produced in Austin, Minnesota (also known as "Spam Town USA") and in Fremont, Nebraska.[21] Austin, Minnesota also has a restaurant with a menu devoted exclusively to Spam, called "Johnny's SPAMarama Menu".[22]


Spam musubi is a popular snack and lunch food in Hawaii

Spam is especially popular in the state of Hawaii, where residents have the highest per capita consumption in the United States. Its perception there is very different from on the mainland.[23] Hawaiians sometimes call it "Portagee Steak".[24]

A popular local dish in Hawaii is Spam musubi, where cooked Spam is placed atop rice and wrapped in a band of nori, a form of onigiri.[25] Varieties of Spam are found in Hawaii that are unavailable in other markets, including Honey Spam, Spam with Bacon, and Hot and Spicy Spam.[26]

Hawaiian Burger King restaurants began serving Spam in 2007 to compete with the local McDonald's chains (which also serve Spam).[10][27] In Hawaii, Spam is so popular that it is sometimes referred to as "The Hawaiian Steak".[28] There is even an annual Spam-themed festival on the island of Oahu that takes place every spring, known as the "Waikiki Spam Jam".[29] Local chefs and restaurants compete to create new Spam-themed dishes, which are then sold in a massive street fair on Kalakaua Avenue in Waikiki.

In 2017, Hawaii was plagued by a rash of thefts of Spam.[30] Spam had long been a target of thieves in Hawaii, but the magnitude of the thefts ramped up, with incidents in which multiple cases of Spam were stolen at once. Local retailers believe organized crime was involved.[30] This came alongside increases in thefts of some other retail goods, such as corned beef and liquor. The president of the retail merchants of Hawaii attributed the rise in retail thefts to a recent change in criminal law, which raised the threshold at which a theft would lead to felony charges by approximately $400.[30]

Guam and the Northern Marianas

In Guam, average per capita consumption is 16 tins (cans) per year. It is also found on McDonald's menus there. The Spam Games also takes place in Guam, where locals sample and honor the best original, homemade Spam recipes.[31]

In the Northern Mariana Islands, lawyers from Hormel have threatened to sue the local press for publishing articles alleging ill-effects of high Spam consumption on the health of the local population.[32][33]

Puerto Rico

Sandwich de Mezcla is a party staple in Puerto Rico containing Spam, Velveeta, and pimientos (made intro a spread) between two slices of sandwich bread.[34]

United Kingdom

After World War II, Newforge Foods, part of the Fitch Lovell group, was awarded the license to produce the product in the UK at its Gateacre factory, Liverpool,[35] where it stayed until production switched to the Danish Crown Group (owners of the Tulip Food Company) in 1998.[36]

The United Kingdom has adopted Spam into various recipes. For example, recipes include Spam Yorkshire Breakfast, Spamish Omelette, and Spam Hash.[37] Spam can also be sliced, battered and deep-fried into Spam fritters.[38]

Southeast Asia


"Spamilog", Spam with sinangág (garlic fried rice) and eggs, is a common Filipino breakfast combination.[39]

In the Philippines, Spam (currently distributed by The Purefoods-Hormel Company Inc.) is a popular food item and seen as a cultural symbol. As a former US territory, Spam reached the islands similar to how it reached Hawaii and Guam: as a result of World War II rationing. Spam is commonly eaten with rice (usually garlic fried rice) and a sunny-side up egg for breakfast. It is prepared and used in a variety of ways, including being fried, served alongside condiments, or used in sandwiches. It has also been featured in numerous Filipino fusion cuisine dishes including Spam burgers, Spam spaghetti, Spam nuggets, and others.[40][41][42][43]

The popularity of Spam in the Philippines transcends economic class, and Spam gift sets are even used as homecoming gifts. There are at least ten different varieties of Spam currently available in the country and an estimated 1.25 million kilos of the meat is sold every year in the Philippines.[44] During the rescue efforts after Typhoon Ondoy (Ketsana) in 2009, Hormel Foods donated over 30,000 pounds of Spam to the Philippine National Red Cross.[45]

East Asia

Spam is often served with rice in Asia.


In China, Hormel decided to adopt a different strategy to market Spam, promoting it as a foreign, premium food product and changing the Spam formula to be meatier in order to accommodate local Chinese tastes.[46]


In Okinawa, Japan, the product is added into onigiri alongside eggs and used as a staple ingredient in the traditional Okinawan dish chanpur?, and a Spam burger is sold by local fast food chain Jef. For the 70th anniversary of Spam in 2007, cans with special designs were sold in Japan due to its popularity, primarily in Okinawa.[47] Following the March 2011 earthquake, Spam sales in Japan declined and Hormel shifted its focus to China[46] although Hormel did pledge to donate $100,000 along with cans of Spam for relief efforts.[48] In the summer of 2011, Burger King introduced its own version of a burger made of Spam, called 'BK Shot' Spam Burgers. These small burgers are filled with slices of the canned meat and were an attempt by Burger King to capitalize on Spam's popularity in Japan.[49] In early 2014, Burger King also introduced the Spam and Cheese burger as a breakfast menu item.[50]

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong after World War II, meat was scarce and expensive, so Spam was an accessible, affordable alternative. The luncheon meat has been incorporated into dishes such as macaroni with fried egg and spam in chicken soup, as well as ramen.[51]

South Korea

In later years, the surfeit of Spam in both North and South Korea during the Korean War led to the establishment of the Spam kimbap (rice and vegetable filled seaweed roll). Because of a scarcity of fish and other traditional kimbap products such as kimchi or fermented cabbage, Spam was added to a rice roll with kimchi and cucumber and wrapped in seaweed. Spam was also used by US soldiers in Korea as a means of trading for items, services or information around their bases.[52]

In South Korea, Spam (Korean; RRseupaem, licensed from Hormel by CJ CheilJedang[53]) is popular with a majority of the population, and outranks Coca-Cola and KFC in status as a foodstuff. Today, South Korea produces and consumes more Spam than any other country except the United States.[54][55]

Spam is also an original ingredient in budae jjigae (literally "army base stew"), a spicy stew with different types of preserved meat.[56]

Middle East

In Mandatory Palestine, demand for kosher canned meats increased as Spam became more popular during World War II. Canned meat was briefly mentioned during wartime from 1939-43, but the true boom in kosher canned meat came in 1945. This is when kosher canned meat became the key item in Europe's Jewish war victim relief packages. Then in 1946, the Chicago Kosher Sausage Manufacturing Company registered a patent for a kosher canned meat product called Breef. Made of beef, Breef has a similar texture to Spam but tastes like corned beef.[57] Also, a kosher variant of Spam, known as Loof (Hebrew: ‎, a Hebrew linguistic play on meatloaf), was produced by Richard Levi, and mostly used as part of field rations by the Israel Defense Forces. A Glatt kosher version was also produced. It was phased out of field rations during the early 2000s and was finally removed from rations when production ceased in 2009.[58]

In popular culture

Others have made similar products: Spam (L), Treet (C), and Walmart Great Value Luncheon Meat (R)

Beginning in 1940, Spam sponsored George Burns and Gracie Allen on their radio program.[59]

During WWII, Spam was not only eaten but was also incorporated into many other aspects of the war (grease for guns, cans for scrap metal, etc.); it was so prominent that Uncle Sam was nicknamed "Uncle Spam".[60] Other terms influenced by the product's name include the European invasion fleet, or the "Spam Fleet". Furthermore, the United Service Organizations (USO) toured the "Spam Circuit".[9]

In the United States in the aftermath of World War II, a troupe of former servicewomen was assembled by Hormel Foods to promote Spam from coast to coast. The group was known as the Hormel Girls and associated the food with being patriotic. In 1948, two years after its formation, the troupe had grown to 60 women with 16 forming an orchestra. The show went on to become a radio program where the main selling point was Spam. The Hormel Girls were disbanded in 1953.[61]

Spam has long had a somewhat dubious reputation in the United States and (to a lesser degree) United Kingdom as a poverty food. The image of Spam as a low cost meat product gave rise to the Scottish colloquial term "Spam valley" to describe certain affluent housing areas where residents appear to be wealthy but in reality may be living at poverty levels.[62]

Spam was featured in an iconic 1970 Monty Python sketch called "Spam".[6] Set in a café which mostly served dishes containing Spam, including "egg and Spam, egg bacon and Spam, Spam egg sausage and Spam, Spam egg Spam Spam bacon and Spam ",[63] the piece also featured a companion song. Because of its use in a line of a song in Monty Python and the Holy Grail, the title of the musical version of the film became Spamalot.

By the 1990s, Spam's perceived ubiquity led to its name being adopted for unsolicited electronic messages, especially spam email.[64]

Spam is the subject of the "Weird Al" Yankovic song "Spam", which is a parody of the R.E.M. song "Stand".[65]

Other offshoots of Spam in popular culture include a book of haikus about Spam titled Spam-Ku: Tranquil Reflections on Luncheon Loaf. There is also a mock Church of Spam, and a Spam Cam which is a webcam trained on a can of decaying Spam.[66]

In the 1982 film Sophie's Choice, the character Stingo brings a carton of Spam to his newly-rented room.[67]

Spam is referred to in Island of the Sequined Love Nun by Christopher Moore, where SPAM is explained as Shaped Pork Approximating Man, which was used to explain its popularity amongst Pacific Island Cannibals.[68]

The Pumpkin Spice flavour, introduced in September 2019, has gained the attention of the media and public.[69]

Spam celebrations

Facade of new Spam Museum

Spam is celebrated in Austin, Minnesota, home to the Spam Museum. The museum tells the history of the Hormel company, the origin of Spam, and its place in world culture, including Hawaii where Spam is eaten daily by locals.

Austin is also the location of final judging in the national Spam recipe competition. Competing recipes are collected from winning submissions at the top 40 state fairs in the nation. The Spamettes are a quartet from Austin who only sing about Spam in parodies of popular songs. They first performed at the first Spam Jam in 1990 and continue to perform at various events.[70]

Hawaii holds an annual Spam Jam in Waikiki during the last week of April.[71] The small town of Shady Cove, Oregon is home to the annual Spam Parade and Festival, with the city allocating US$1,500 for it.[72]

Spamarama was a yearly festival held around April Fool's Day in Austin, Texas. The theme of Spamarama was a gentle parody of Spam, rather than a straightforward celebration: the event at the heart of the festival was a Spam cook-off that originated as a challenge to produce the most appetizing recipe for the meat. A rule of the event was that contestants had to be prepared to eat the Spam dish if requested by a judge. The festival included light sporting activities and musical acts, in addition to the cook-off.[73]

Nutritional data

A can of low-salt "Spam 25% Less Sodium"
Nutritional label for "Spam 25% Less Sodium"

The ingredients of Spam vary according to variety and market; those of variety "Spam Classic" are: pork, ham, salt, water, potato starch, sugar, and sodium nitrite.[74]

Nutritional Information for Original Spam[75]

Net weight per package: 340 grams (12 oz.)

Serving size: 100g

Quantity per 100g
Energy 1,300 kJ (310 Calories or kilocalories)
Protein 13g (26% Daily Value or DV)
Total Fat 27g (41% DV)
  - saturated fat 10g (49% DV)
Carbohydrates 3g (1% DV)
Sodium 1369 mg (57% DV)
Cholesterol 70 mg (23% DV)
Vitamins and Minerals (% DV) 1% Vitamin C, 1% Calcium, 5% Iron,

3% Magnesium, 9% Potassium, 12% Zinc,

and 5% Copper


As listed on the official Spam website, there are numerous different flavors of Spam products, including:

  • Spam Classic - original flavor
  • Spam Hot & Spicy - with Tabasco flavor
  • Jalapeño Spam
  • Spam with Black Pepper
  • Spam Low Sodium - "25% less sodium"
  • Spam Lite - "33% fewer calories, 25% less sodium, and 50% less fat" - made from pork with ham, and mechanically separated chicken
  • Spam Oven Roasted Turkey
  • Spam Hickory Smoked
  • Spam Spread - "if you're a spreader, not a slicer ... just like Spam Classic, but in a spreadable form"
  • Spam Bacon
  • Spam Cheese
  • Spam Garlic
  • Spam Teriyaki
  • Spam Chorizo
  • Spam Boricua - seasoned Puerto Rican-style flavor
  • Spam Macadamia Nuts - Partnered with Hamakua Plantation
  • Spam Turkey
  • Spam Tocino
  • Spam Portuguese Sausage
  • Spam Pumpkin Spice - limited edition variety released in late September 2019
  • In addition to the variety of flavors, Spam is sold in tins smaller than the twelve-ounce standard size. Spam Singles are also available, which are single sandwich-sized slices of Spam Classic or Lite, sealed in retort pouches.[76]

See also


  1. ^ a b c Martin, Andrew (November 15, 2008). "Spam Turns Serious and Hormel Turns Out More". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010.
  2. ^ "Spam - Postwar Popularity". Hormel Foods. 2010. Archived from the original on December 15, 2007.
  3. ^ Campbell, Belinda; Clapton, Barbara; Tipton, Catherine (2002). Food Technology. Heinemann. p. 20.
  4. ^
  5. ^ "RFC 2635 - DON'T SPEW A Set of Guidelines for Mass Unsolicited Mailings and Postings (spam*):". Retrieved 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d e Waxman, Olivia B. (July 5, 2017). "Spam Turns 80: History and Origins of Canned Meat". Retrieved 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Spam Brand History". Spam. Retrieved 2016.
  8. ^ "What does the SPAM brand name mean?", SPAM® Brand FAQ, Spam
  9. ^ a b c Smith, Andrew (May 1, 2007). The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford University Press. pp. 559-60. ISBN 978-0-19988576-3.
  10. ^ a b "Burger King to Serve Spam in Hawaii". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2013.
  11. ^ Howard Yoon (July 4, 2007). "Spam: More than Junk Mail or Junk Meat" (
  12. ^ Stranska, Hana (July 24, 1994). "About Spam". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014.
  13. ^ Atkins, Annette (2008). Creating Minnesota: A History From the Inside Out. Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-87351-633-4. Retrieved 2010.
  14. ^ Smith, Andrew F., ed. (2012). The Oxford Encyclopaedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford University Press. p. 343. ISBN 0199734968.
  15. ^ Heydt, Bruce. "Spam Again" . America in WWII, June 2006.
  16. ^ Waxman, Olivia B. (July 5, 2017), "Spam Is Turning 80. Here's How the Canned Meat Took Over the World",, retrieved 2018
  17. ^ Jackson, Sharyn (July 5, 2017), "For Spam's 80th anniversary, 10 outrageous retro recipes by the Minnesota meat maker",, retrieved 2018
  18. ^ Ruvio, Ayalla A. (July 2, 2017). "How Spam became one of the most iconic American brands of all time". The Conversation. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ "Data Stream". Next Generation. No. 25. Imagine Media. January 1997. p. 28.
  20. ^ Kim, Sojin; Livengood, Mark (1995). "Ramen Noodles and Spam: Popular Foods, Significant Tastes" Archived October 6, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, pp. 2-11. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  21. ^ Wyman, Carolyn. "Spam: A Biography." Harvest Books, 1999
  22. ^ "Spam Turns Serious and Hormel Turns Out More". The New York Times. November 14, 2008. Retrieved 2013.
  23. ^ Lovegren, Sylvia (2005). Fashionable food: seven decades of food fads. United States: University of Chicago Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-226-49407-4. Retrieved 2010.
  24. ^ Corum, Ann Kondo (1987). Hawaii's Spam Cookbook. United States: Bess Press. p. 135. ISBN 0935848495. Retrieved 2018.
  25. ^ "Spam - Hawaiian Spam Musubi". Retrieved 2013.
  26. ^ Song, Jaymes (June 11, 2007). "Burger giants wage Spam war". The Star. Toronto.
  27. ^ Huppert, Boyd (May 17, 2007). "Land of 10,000 Stories - Spam in Paradise". KARE11 News. Archived from the original on June 5, 2012.
  28. ^ "The Spam That Isn't Via E-Mail". The New York Times. April 7, 2003. Retrieved 2007.
  29. ^ "Welcome - Waikiki Spam Jam". Welcome. Retrieved 2017.
  30. ^ a b c Singh, Lakshmi (October 22, 2017). "Hawaii's Spate Of Spam Heists". NPR. Retrieved 2017.
  31. ^ "Why is Spam Brand a Household Name?". Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  32. ^ "Organic smoke (and mirrors)". Saipan Tribune. July 21, 2006. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  33. ^ "A junkie waiting to happen". Saipan Tribune. July 14, 2006. Archived from the original on June 23, 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  34. ^ "Receta: Sandwichitos para fiestas". August 12, 2013. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  35. ^ The story of Fitch Lovell Ambrose Keevil Phillimore Press 1972 ISBN 978-0-85033-074-8
  36. ^ "Tulip Food Company". Archived from the original on August 14, 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  37. ^ "Spam--UK". Retrieved 2014.
  38. ^ "Spam Fritters" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  39. ^ Casey, Nell (December 16, 2016). "Stay Warm With Filipino Brunch & A Cookie Competition This Weekend". Gothamist. WNYC. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  40. ^ Escalona, Katrina (September 18, 2017). "Why Spam and Rice is a Filipino Food Classic". Culture Trip. Retrieved 2019.
  41. ^ Ke, Bryan (December 12, 2017). "Why Filipinos Love Spam So Much". NextShark. Retrieved 2019.
  42. ^ Agoncillo, Anna (September 29, 2016). "What Is SPAM And Why Are Filipinos Obsessed With It?". RemitBlog. Retrieved 2019.
  43. ^ Ong, Sherina (June 24, 2014). "SPAM: A story of love and hate". Rappler. Retrieved 2019.
  44. ^ Matejowsky, Ty (March 1, 2007). "SPAM and Fast-food "Glocalization" in the Philippines". Food, Culture and Society: An International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 10 (1): 23-41.
  45. ^ "Hormel Foods Announces Donation to Philippines". Web wire. October 8, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  46. ^ a b "Spam's Long March in China". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. August 4, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  47. ^ Sieg, Linda (March 12, 2008). "Okinawa cuisine: tofu, Spam and root beer". Reuters. Retrieved 2010.
  48. ^ "Hormel Foods Pledges to Relief Efforts in Japan". Reuters. March 17, 2011. Archived from the original on October 10, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  49. ^ "Forget Spam fritters, now Burger King is selling Spam burgers... for women". Daily Mail. June 15, 2011. Retrieved 2014.
  50. ^ Bleier, Evan (May 1, 2014). "Burger King introduces Spam and cheese burger in Japan, for breakfast". United Press International. Retrieved 2014.
  51. ^ "Why is Spam served in Hong Kong diners on top of macaroni noodles?". HK Magazine. Retrieved 2014.
  52. ^ "In Korea, It's Spam Time of Year".
  53. ^ " (SPAM)". CJ CheilJedang. Retrieved 2016.
  54. ^ Lewis, George H. (2004). "From Minnesota Fat to Seoul Food: Spam in America and the Pacific Rim". The Journal of Popular Culture, volume 34, issue 2., [1]
  55. ^ "In South Korea, Spam Is the Stuff Gifts Are Made Of". The New York Times. January 26, 2014.>
  56. ^ Walraven, Boudewijn; Breuker, Remco E. (2007). Korea in the middle: Korean studies and area studies : essays in honour of Boudewijn Walraven. Leiden: CNWS Publications. pp. 255-257. ISBN 978-90-5789-153-3. Retrieved 2010.
  57. ^ "Kosher Spam: A Breef History". Retrieved 2014.
  58. ^ " ?, ? ? " [Salute for Loof, production of which was recently ceased in Israel]. Retrieved 2010.
  59. ^ Brown, Ray Broadus (2001). The Guide to United States Popular Culture. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 762.
  60. ^ Civitello, Linda (March 29, 2011). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley & Sons. p. 347. ISBN 9780470403716.
  61. ^ Danelle D. Keck, Jill M. Sullivan (2007). "The Hormel Girls, American Music, Vol. 25, No. 3 (Fall, 2007), pp. 282-311". University of Illinois Press. JSTOR 40071663.
  62. ^ Hardill, Irene; Graham, David; Kofman, Eleonore (2001). Human geography of the UK: an introduction. London: Routledge. pp. 96-97. ISBN 978-0-415-21426-1. Retrieved 2010.
  63. ^ "Spam". Monty Python. Retrieved 2017.
  64. ^ "Merriam Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster.
  65. ^ "WEIRD AL YANKOVIC - SPAM LYRICS". Retrieved 2014.
  66. ^ The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Retrieved 2014.
  67. ^ "TNR Film Classics: 'Sophie's Choice' (January 10, 1983)". Retrieved 2017.
  68. ^ "The magical, mystical world of SPAM - AOL Finance". December 29, 2008. Retrieved 2017.
  69. ^ Bomey, Nathan. "Pumpkin spice version of Spam?! Hormel Foods introduces limited-edition Spam". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2019.
  70. ^ "Singing Spam's praises". July 7, 2008. Retrieved 2014.
  71. ^ Hormel Foods (2010). "Spam Jam Waikiki 2010". Hormel Foods Corporation. Retrieved 2010.
  72. ^ Pitto, Christy (December 7, 2010). "Shady Cove issues- riparian, event insurance and liability". Upper Rogue Independent. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  73. ^ "Spamarama website". Retrieved 2006.
  74. ^ "What is Spam Classic?". Hormel Foods. Archived from the original on June 17, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  75. ^ "Nutritional Facts and Analysis for Spam". Retrieved 2013.
  76. ^ "SPAM© Products". Retrieved 2013.[permanent dead link]

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes