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The Special Court for War Criminals and Enemies of the People (Albanian: Gjyqi Special për Kriminelët e Luftës dhe Armiqtë e Popullit), usually referred only as The Special Court (Albanian: Gjyqi Special), was a Socialist court set up during the spring of 1945 (1 March - 13 April) in the newly established Socialist Albania, which carried on the trial against those labeled as "people's enemies" and "war criminals". It was based on a decision taken by the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation on 25 December 1944. Like the rest of the Eastern Europe, the purge against "Fascists" and "war criminals" became a central part of the construction of society based on the Soviet model.
In November 1944, the socialist partisans (LANÇ) took power and began immediately with the arrest of all public figures who were perceived to have collaborated with the occupiers or not to have supported the LANÇ before. The Bashkimi newspaper of the Democratic Front of Albania had already been coming out in early January 1945 with agitative editorials pointing to "traitors" and "people's enemies". Sixty of these public figures were the object a treason trial in March 1945 at a socialist Special Court with Prosecutor Koçi Xoxe. Xoxe, Minister of Interior, was considered from some as the most powerful person in Albania for the moment.
Mahmut Golemi (former Prefect, Chief Commander of the Gendarmerie of Tirana)
Abdurrahman Telqiu (politician)
Rifat Tartari (politician)
Ismail Golemi (military officer)
Ded Jakova (photo-reporter?)
Kostandin Kote (politician, former Minister)
Most of them were found guilty: 17 were executed by firing squad, 8 received life imprisonment, and the rest various terms. Abdurrahman Telqiu and Luigj Filaj were released due to lack of evidence. Ded Jakova, Zef Shiroka, and Abedin Xhiku were sentenced to 1, 2, and 1 year but were released on probation.
With the demise of Koçi Xoxe in 1949, few political figures, including the ones which would be arrested and sentenced later, would get partially rehabilitated. Other notorious trials would come out during the socialist period in Albania, i.e. the "Assembly Members' Group" (Albanian: Grupi i Deputetëve), the "Sabotators' Group" (Albanian: Grupi i Sabotatorëve), "Coup d'Etat Group" (Albanian: Grupi i Puçistëve) and many more. Xoxe, Beqir Balluku, Bedri Spahiu would be later accused themselves of "treason" and "enemy of the people" and executed or imprisoned.
^Robert Elsie (2012), A Biographical Dictionary of Albanian History, I. B. Tauris, p. 388, ISBN978-1780764313, ...the Treason Trial conducted by the Special Court (Gjyqi Special), at which 60 members of the pre-Communist establishment were sentenced to death and long prison sentences as war criminals and enemies of the people
^ abAleks Buda (1985), Fjalor enciklopedik shqiptar, Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, p. 355, OCLC15296028, GJYQI SPECIAL. Gjykatë e posaçme e krijuar me vendimin e KANÇ, dt.25.12.1944, për të gjykuar kriminelët kryesorë të luftës, shqiptarë e të huaj. Trupi gjykues përbëhej nga 9 veta.
^Harry Hodgkinson (1945), Impressions of Albania, April 1945, Texts and Documents of Albanian History, British Foreign Office document, preserved in the National Archives in London (FO 371/48081), Robert Elsie, archived from the original on 2016-02-01, Real power lies in the hands of unscrupulous men like Koçi Xoxe, Minister of the Interior