Specific impulse (usually abbreviated I_{sp}) is a measure of how efficiently a reaction mass engine (a rocket using propellant or a jet engine using fuel) creates thrust. For engines whose reaction mass is only the fuel they carry, specific impulse is exactly proportional to exhaust gas velocity.
A propulsion system with a higher specific impulse uses the mass of the propellant more efficiently. In the case of a rocket, this means less propellant needed for a given delta-v,^{[1]}^{[2]} so that the vehicle attached to the engine can more efficiently gain altitude and velocity.
In an atmospheric context, specific impulse can include the contribution to impulse provided by the mass of external air that is accelerated by the engine in some way, such as by an internal turbofan or heating by fuel combustion participation then thrust expansion or by external propeller. Jet engines breathe external air for both combustion and by-pass, and therefore have a much higher specific impulse than rocket engines. The specific impulse in terms of propellant mass spent has units of distance per time, which is a notional velocity called the effective exhaust velocity. This is higher than the actual exhaust velocity because the mass of the combustion air is not being accounted for. Actual and effective exhaust velocity are the same in rocket engines operating in a vacuum.
Specific impulse is inversely proportional to specific fuel consumption (SFC) by the relationship I_{sp} = 1/(g_{o}·SFC) for SFC in kg/(N·s) and I_{sp} = 3600/SFC for SFC in lb/(lbf·hr).
The amount of propellant can be measured either in units of mass or weight. If mass is used, specific impulse is an impulse per unit mass, which dimensional analysis shows to have units of speed, specifically the effective exhaust velocity. As the SI system is mass-based, this type of analysis is usually done in meters per second. If a force-based unit system is used, impulse is divided by propellant weight (weight is a measure of force), resulting in units of time (seconds). These two formulations differ from each other by the standard gravitational acceleration (g_{0}) at the surface of the earth.
The rate of change of momentum of a rocket (including its propellant) per unit time is equal to the thrust. The higher the specific impulse, the less propellant is needed to produce a given thrust for a given time and the more efficient the propellant is. This should not be confused with the physics concept of energy efficiency, which can decrease as specific impulse increases, since propulsion systems that give high specific impulse require high energy to do so.^{[3]}
Thrust and specific impulse should not be confused. Thrust is the force supplied by the engine and depends on the amount of reaction mass flowing through the engine. Specific impulse measures the impulse produced per unit of propellant and is proportional to the exhaust velocity. Thrust and specific impulse are related by the design and propellants of the engine in question, but this relationship is tenuous. For example, LH_{2}/LOx bipropellant produces higher I_{sp} but lower thrust than RP-1/LOx due to the exhaust gases having a lower density and higher velocity (H_{2}O vs CO_{2} and H_{2}O). In many cases, propulsion systems with very high specific impulse--some ion thrusters reach 10,000 seconds--produce low thrust.^{[4]}
When calculating specific impulse, only propellant carried with the vehicle before use is counted. For a chemical rocket, the propellant mass therefore would include both fuel and oxidizer. In rocketry, a heavier engine with a higher specific impulse may not be as effective in gaining altitude, distance, or velocity as a lighter engine with a lower specific impulse, especially if the latter engine possesses a higher thrust-to-weight ratio. This is a significant reason for most rocket designs having multiple stages. The first stage is optimised for high thrust to boost the later stages with higher specific impulse into higher altitudes where they can perform more efficiently.
For air-breathing engines, only the mass of the fuel is counted, not the mass of air passing through the engine. Air resistance and the engine's inability to keep a high specific impulse at a fast burn rate are why all the propellant is not used as fast as possible.
If it were not for air resistance and the reduction of propellant during flight, specific impulse would be a direct measure of the engine's effectiveness in converting propellant weight or mass into forward momentum.
Specific impulse | Effective exhaust velocity |
Specific fuel consumption | ||
---|---|---|---|---|
By weight | By mass | |||
SI | = x s | = 9.80665·x N·s/kg | = 9.80665·x m/s | = 101,972/x g/(kN·s) |
English engineering units | = x s | = x lbf·s/lb | = 32.17405·x ft/s | = 3,600/x lb/(lbf·hr) |
The most common unit for specific impulse is the second, as values are identical regardless of whether the calculations are done in SI, imperial, or customary units. Nearly all manufacturers quote their engine performance in seconds, and the unit is also useful for specifying aircraft engine performance.^{[5]}
The use of metres per second to specify effective exhaust velocity is also reasonably common. The unit is intuitive when describing rocket engines, although the effective exhaust speed of the engines may be significantly different from the actual exhaust speed, especially in gas-generator cycle engines. For airbreathing jet engines, the effective exhaust velocity is not physically meaningful, although it can be used for comparison purposes.^{[6]}
Meters per second are numerically equivalent to Newton-seconds per kg (N·s/kg), and SI measurements of specific impulse can be written in terms of either units interchangeably.^{[]} This unit highlights the definition of specific impulse as impulse-per-unit-mass-of-propellant.
Specific fuel consumption is inversely proportional to specific impulse and has units of g/(kN·s) or lb/(lbf·hr). Specific fuel consumption is used extensively for describing the performance of air-breathing jet engines.^{[7]}
Specific impulse, measured in seconds, can be though of as "how many seconds one pound of fuel can produce one pound of thrust," or more precisely, "how many seconds this propellant, when paired with this engine, can accelerate its own initial mass at 1 g." The more seconds it can accelerate its own mass, the more delta-V it delivers to the whole system.
In other words, given a particular engine and a mass of a particular propellant, specific impulse measures for how long a time that engine can exert a continuous force (thrust) until fully burning that mass of propellant. A given mass of a more energy-dense propellant can burn for a longer duration than some less energy-dense propellant made to exert the same force while burning in an engine. Different engine designs burning the same propellant may not be equally efficient at directing their propellant's energy into effective thrust.
For all vehicles, specific impulse (impulse per unit weight-on-Earth of propellant) in seconds can be defined by the following equation:^{[8]}
where:
The English unit pound mass is more commonly used than the slug, and when using pounds per second for mass flow rate, the conversion constant g_{0} becomes unnecessary, because the slug is dimensionally equivalent to pounds divided by g_{0}:
I_{sp} in seconds is the amount of time a rocket engine can generate thrust, given a quantity of propellant whose weight is equal to the engine's thrust. The last term on the right, , is necessary for dimensional consistency ()
The advantage of this formulation is that it may be used for rockets, where all the reaction mass is carried on board, as well as airplanes, where most of the reaction mass is taken from the atmosphere. In addition, it gives a result that is independent of units used (provided the unit of time used is the second).
In rocketry, the only reaction mass is the propellant, so an equivalent way of calculating the specific impulse in seconds is used. Specific impulse is defined as the thrust integrated over time per unit weight-on-Earth of the propellant:^{[9]}
where
In rockets, due to atmospheric effects, the specific impulse varies with altitude, reaching a maximum in a vacuum. This is because the exhaust velocity isn't simply a function of the chamber pressure, but is a function of the difference between the interior and exterior of the combustion chamber. Values are usually given for operation at sea level ("sl") or in a vacuum ("vac").
Because of the geocentric factor of g_{0} in the equation for specific impulse, many prefer an alternative definition. The specific impulse of a rocket can be defined in terms of thrust per unit mass flow of propellant. This is an equally valid (and in some ways somewhat simpler) way of defining the effectiveness of a rocket propellant. For a rocket, the specific impulse defined in this way is simply the effective exhaust velocity relative to the rocket, v_{e}. "In actual rocket nozzles, the exhaust velocity is not really uniform over the entire exit cross section and such velocity profiles are difficult to measure accurately. A uniform axial velocity, v _{e}, is assumed for all calculations which employ one-dimensional problem descriptions. This effective exhaust velocity represents an average or mass equivalent velocity at which propellant is being ejected from the rocket vehicle."^{[10]} The two definitions of specific impulse are proportional to one another, and related to each other by:
where
This equation is also valid for air-breathing jet engines, but is rarely used in practice.
(Note that different symbols are sometimes used; for example, c is also sometimes seen for exhaust velocity. While the symbol might logically be used for specific impulse in units of (N·s^3)/(m·kg); to avoid confusion, it is desirable to reserve this for specific impulse measured in seconds.)
It is related to the thrust, or forward force on the rocket by the equation:^{[11]}
where is the propellant mass flow rate, which is the rate of decrease of the vehicle's mass.
A rocket must carry all its propellant with it, so the mass of the unburned propellant must be accelerated along with the rocket itself. Minimizing the mass of propellant required to achieve a given change in velocity is crucial to building effective rockets. The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation shows that for a rocket with a given empty mass and a given amount of propellant, the total change in velocity it can accomplish is proportional to the effective exhaust velocity.
A spacecraft without propulsion follows an orbit determined by its trajectory and any gravitational field. Deviations from the corresponding velocity pattern (these are called ?v) are achieved by sending exhaust mass in the direction opposite to that of the desired velocity change.
When an engine is run within the atmosphere, the exhaust velocity is reduced by atmospheric pressure, in turn reducing specific impulse. This is a reduction in the effective exhaust velocity, versus the actual exhaust velocity achieved in vacuum conditions. In the case of gas-generator cycle rocket engines, more than one exhaust gas stream is present as turbopump exhaust gas exits through a separate nozzle. Calculating the effective exhaust velocity requires averaging the two mass flows as well as accounting for any atmospheric pressure.^{[]}
For air-breathing jet engines, particularly turbofans, the actual exhaust velocity and the effective exhaust velocity are different by orders of magnitude. This is because a good deal of additional momentum is obtained by using air as reaction mass. This allows a better match between the airspeed and the exhaust speed, which saves energy/propellant and enormously increases the effective exhaust velocity while reducing the actual exhaust velocity.^{[]}
Engine type | First run | Scenario | Spec. fuel cons. | Specific impulse (s) |
Effective exhaust velocity (m/s) |
Mass | Thrust-to- weight ratio (sea level) | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
(lb/lbf·h) | (g/kN·s) | |||||||
Avio P80 solid fuel rocket motor | 2006 | Vega first stage vacuum | 13 | 360 | 280 | 2700 | 16,160 lb (7,330 kg) (Empty) | |
Avio Zefiro 23 solid fuel rocket motor | 2006 | Vega second stage vacuum | 12.52 | 354.7 | 287.5 | 2819 | 4,266 lb (1,935 kg) (Empty) | |
Avio Zefiro 9A solid fuel rocket motor | 2008 | Vega third stage vacuum | 12.20 | 345.4 | 295.2 | 2895 | 1,997 lb (906 kg) (Empty) | |
RD-843 liquid fuel rocket engine | Vega upper stage vacuum | 11.41 | 323.2 | 315.5 | 3094 | 35.1 lb (15.93 kg) (Dry) | ||
Kouznetsov NK-33 liquid fuel rocket engine | 1970s | N-1F, Soyuz-2-1v first stage vacuum | 10.9 | 308 | 331^{[12]} | 3250 | 2,730 lb (1,240 kg) (Dry) | 136.8 |
NPO Energomash RD-171M liquid fuel rocket engine | Zenit-2M, Zenit-3SL, Zenit-3SLB, Zenit-3F first stage vacuum | 10.7 | 303 | 337 | 3300 | 21,500 lb (9,750 kg) (Dry) | 79.57 | |
LE-7A liquid fuel rocket engine | H-IIA, H-IIB first stage vacuum | 8.22 | 233 | 438 | 4300 | 4,000 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) | 62.2 | |
Snecma HM-7B cryogenic rocket engine | Ariane 2, Ariane 3, Ariane 4, Ariane 5 ECA upper stage vacuum | 8.097 | 229.4 | 444.6 | 4360 | 364 lb (165 kg) (Dry) | 43.25 | |
LE-5B-2 cryogenic rocket engine | H-IIA, H-IIB upper stage vacuum | 8.05 | 228 | 447 | 4380 | 640 lb (290 kg) (Dry) | 51.93 | |
Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25 cryogenic rocket engine | 1981 | Space Shuttle, SLS first stage vacuum | 7.95 | 225 | 453^{[13]} | 4440 | 7,004 lb (3,177 kg) (Dry) | 53.79 |
Aerojet Rocketdyne RL-10B-2 cryogenic rocket engine | Delta III, Delta IV, SLS upper stage vacuum | 7.734 | 219.1 | 465.5 | 4565 | 664 lb (301 kg) (Dry) | 37.27 | |
Ramjet | Mach 1 | 4.5 | 130 | 800 | 7800 | |||
Turbo-Union RB.199-34R-04 Mk.103 turbofan | Tornado IDS GR.1/GR.1A/GR.1B/GR.4 static sea level (Reheat) | 2.5^{[14]} | 70.8 | 1440 | 14120 | 2,107 lb (956 kg) (Dry) | 7.59 | |
GE F101-GE-102 turbofan | 1970s | B-1B static sea level (Reheat) | 2.46 | 70 | 1460 | 14400 | 4,400 lb (2,000 kg) (Dry) | 7.04 |
Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet | MIG-21bis static sea level (Reheat) | 2.206^{[14]} | 62.5 | 1632 | 16000 | 2,679 lb (1,215 kg) (Dry) | 5.6 | |
GE J85-GE-21 turbojet | F-5E/F static sea level (Reheat) | 2.13^{[14]} | 60.3 | 1690 | 16570 | 640 lb (290 kg) (Dry) | 7.81 | |
GE F110-GE-132 turbofan | F-16E/F Block 60 or -129 upgrade static sea level (Reheat) | 2.09^{[14]} | 59.2 | 1722 | 16890 | 4,050 lb (1,840 kg) (Dry) | 7.9 | |
Honeywell/ITEC F125-GA-100 turbofan | F-CK-1 static sea level (Reheat) | 2.06^{[14]} | 58.4 | 1748 | 17140 | 1,360 lb (620 kg) (Dry) | 6.8 | |
Snecma M53-P2 turbofan | Mirage 2000C/D/N/H/TH/-5/-9/retrofit static sea level (Reheat) | 2.05^{[14]} | 58.1 | 1756 | 17220 | 3,307 lb (1,500 kg) (Dry) | 6.46 | |
Snecma Atar 09C turbojet | Mirage IIIE/EX/O(A)/O(F)/M, Mirage IV prototype static sea level (Reheat) | 2.03^{[14]} | 57.5 | 1770 | 17400 | 3,210 lb (1,456 kg) (Dry) | 4.13 | |
Snecma Atar 09K-50 turbojet | Mirage IV, Mirage 50, Mirage F1 static sea level (Reheat) | 1.991^{[14]} | 56.4 | 1808 | 17730 | 3,487 lb (1,582 kg) (Dry) | 4.55 | |
GE J79-GE-15 turbojet | F-4E/EJ/F/G, RF-4E static sea level (Reheat) | 1.965 | 55.7 | 1832 | 17970 | 3,850 lb (1,750 kg) (Dry) | 4.6 | |
Saturn AL-31F turbofan | Su-27/P/K static sea level (Reheat) | 1.96^{[15]} | 55.5 | 1837 | 18010 | 3,350 lb (1,520 kg) (Dry) | 8.22 | |
J-58 turbojet | 1958 | SR-71 at Mach 3.2 (Reheat) | 1.9^{[14]} | 53.8 | 1895 | 18580 | 6,000 lb (2,700 kg) (Dry) | |
GE F110-GE-129 turbofan | F-16C/D/V Block 50/70, F-15K/S/SA/SG/EX static sea level (Reheat) | 1.9^{[14]} | 53.8 | 1895 | 18580 | 3,980 lb (1,810 kg) (Dry) | 7.36 | |
Soloviev D-30F6 turbofan | MiG-31, S-37/Su-47 static sea level (Reheat) | 1.863^{[14]} | 52.8 | 1932 | 18950 | 5,326 lb (2,416 kg) (Dry) | 7.856 | |
Lyulka AL-21F-3 turbojet | Su-17M/UM/M2/M2D/UM3/M3/M4, Su-22U/M3/M4 static sea level (Reheat) | 1.86^{[14]} | 52.7 | 1935 | 18980 | 3,790 lb (1,720 kg) (Dry) | 5.61 | |
Klimov RD-33 turbofan | 1974 | MiG-29 static sea level (Reheat) | 1.85 | 52.4 | 1946 | 19080 | 2,326 lb (1,055 kg) (Dry) | 7.9 |
Saturn AL-41F-1S turbofan | Su-35S/T-10BM static sea level (Reheat) | 1.819 | 51.5 | 1979 | 19410 | 3,536 lb (1,604 kg) (Dry) | 8.75-9.04 | |
Volvo RM12 turbofan | 1978 | Gripen A/B/C/D static sea level (Reheat) | 1.78^{[14]} | 50.4 | 2022 | 19830 | 2,315 lb (1,050 kg) (Dry) | 7.82 |
GE F404-GE-402 turbofan | F/A-18C/D static sea level (Reheat) | 1.74^{[14]} | 49 | 2070 | 20300 | 2,282 lb (1,035 kg) (Dry) | 7.756 | |
Kuznetsov NK-32 turbofan | 1980 | Tu-144LL, Tu-160 static sea level (Reheat) | 1.7 | 48 | 2100 | 21000 | 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) (Dry) | 7.35 |
Snecma M88-2 turbofan | 1989 | Rafale static sea level (Reheat) | 1.663 | 47.11 | 2165 | 21230 | 1,978 lb (897 kg) (Dry) | 8.52 |
Eurojet EJ200 turbofan | 1991 | Eurofighter, Bloodhound LSR prototype static sea level (Reheat) | 1.66-1.73 | 47-49^{[16]} | 2080-2170 | 20400-21300 | 2,180.0 lb (988.83 kg) (Dry) | 9.17 |
GE J85-GE-21 turbojet | F-5E/F static sea level (Dry) | 1.24^{[14]} | 35.1 | 2900 | 28500 | 640 lb (290 kg) (Dry) | 5.625 | |
RR/Snecma Olympus 593 turbojet | 1966 | Concorde at Mach 2 cruise (Dry) | 1.195^{[17]} | 33.8 | 3010 | 29500 | 7,000 lb (3,175 kg) (Dry) | |
Snecma Atar 09C turbojet | Mirage IIIE/EX/O(A)/O(F)/M, Mirage IV prototype static sea level (Dry) | 1.01^{[14]} | 28.6 | 3560 | 35000 | 3,210 lb (1,456 kg) (Dry) | 2.94 | |
Snecma Atar 09K-50 turbojet | Mirage IV, Mirage 50, Mirage F1 static sea level (Dry) | 0.981^{[14]} | 27.8 | 3670 | 36000 | 3,487 lb (1,582 kg) (Dry) | 2.35 | |
Snecma Atar 08K-50 turbojet | Super Étendard static sea level | 0.971^{[14]} | 27.5 | 3710 | 36400 | 2,568 lb (1,165 kg) (Dry) | ||
Tumansky R-25-300 turbojet | MIG-21bis static sea level (Dry) | 0.961^{[14]} | 27.2 | 3750 | 36700 | 2,679 lb (1,215 kg) (Dry) | ||
Lyulka AL-21F-3 turbojet | Su-17M/UM/M2/M2D/UM3/M3/M4, Su-22U/M3/M4 static sea level (Dry) | 0.86 | 24.4 | 4190 | 41100 | 3,790 lb (1,720 kg) (Dry) | 3.89 | |
GE J79-GE-15 turbojet | F-4E/EJ/F/G, RF-4E static sea level (Dry) | 0.85 | 24.1 | 4240 | 41500 | 3,850 lb (1,750 kg) (Dry) | 2.95 | |
Snecma M53-P2 turbofan | Mirage 2000C/D/N/H/TH/-5/-9/retrofit static sea level (Dry) | 0.85^{[14]} | 24.1 | 4240 | 41500 | 3,307 lb (1,500 kg) (Dry) | 4.37 | |
Volvo RM12 turbofan | 1978 | Gripen A/B/C/D static sea level (Dry) | 0.824^{[14]} | 23.3 | 4370 | 42800 | 2,315 lb (1,050 kg) (Dry) | 5.244 |
RR Turbomeca Adour Mk 106 turbofan | 1999 | Jaguar retrofit static sea level (Dry) | 0.81 | 23 | 4400 | 44000 | 1,784 lb (809 kg) (Dry) | 4.725 |
Honeywell/ITEC F124-GA-100 turbofan | 1979 | L-159, X-45 static sea level | 0.81^{[14]} | 22.9 | 4440 | 43600 | 1,050 lb (480 kg) (Dry) | 5.3 |
Honeywell/ITEC F125-GA-100 turbofan | F-CK-1 static sea level (Dry) | 0.8^{[14]} | 22.7 | 4500 | 44100 | 1,360 lb (620 kg) (Dry) | 4.43 | |
PW JT8D-9 turbofan | 737 Original cruise | 0.8^{[18]} | 22.7 | 4500 | 44100 | 3,205-3,402 lb (1,454-1,543 kg) (Dry) | ||
PW J52-P-408 turbojet | A-4M/N, TA-4KU, EA-6B static sea level | 0.79 | 22.4 | 4560 | 44700 | 2,318 lb (1,051 kg) (Dry) | 4.83 | |
Saturn AL-41F-1S turbofan | Su-35S/T-10BM static sea level (Dry) | 0.79 | 22.4 | 4560 | 44700 | 3,536 lb (1,604 kg) (Dry) | 5.49 | |
Snecma M88-2 turbofan | 1989 | Rafale static sea level (Dry) | 0.782 | 22.14 | 4600 | 45100 | 1,978 lb (897 kg) (Dry) | 5.68 |
Klimov RD-33 turbofan | 1974 | MiG-29 static sea level (Dry) | 0.77 | 21.8 | 4680 | 45800 | 2,326 lb (1,055 kg) (Dry) | 4.82 |
RR Pegasus 11-61 turbofan | AV-8B+ static sea level | 0.76 | 21.5 | 4740 | 46500 | 3,960 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) | 6 | |
Eurojet EJ200 turbofan | 1991 | Eurofighter, Bloodhound LSR prototype static sea level (Dry) | 0.74-0.81 | 21-23^{[16]} | 4400-4900 | 44000-48000 | 2,180.0 lb (988.83 kg) (Dry) | 6.11 |
GE F414-GE-400 turbofan | 1993 | F/A-18E/F static sea level (Dry) | 0.724^{[19]} | 20.5 | 4970 | 48800 | 2,445 lb (1,109 kg) (Dry) | 5.11 |
Kuznetsov NK-32 turbofan | 1980 | Tu-144LL, Tu-160 static sea level (Dry) | 0.72-0.73 | 20-21 | 4900-5000 | 48000-49000 | 7,500 lb (3,400 kg) (Dry) | 4.06^{[14]} |
Honeywell ALF502R-5 geared turbofan | BAe 146-100/200/200ER/300 cruise | 0.72^{[20]} | 20.4 | 5000 | 49000 | 1,336 lb (606 kg) (Dry) | 5.22 | |
Soloviev D-30F6 turbofan | MiG-31, S-37/Su-47 static sea level (Dry) | 0.716^{[14]} | 20.3 | 5030 | 49300 | 5,326 lb (2,416 kg) (Dry) | 3.93 | |
Snecma Turbomeca Larzac 04-C6 turbofan | 1972 | Alpha Jet static sea level | 0.716 | 20.3 | 5030 | 49300 | 650 lb (295 kg) (Dry) | 4.567 |
Soloviev D-30KP-2 turbofan | Il-76MD/MDK/SK/VPK, Il-78/M cruise | 0.715 | 20.3 | 5030 | 49400 | 5,820 lb (2,640 kg) (Dry) | 5.21 | |
Soloviev D-30KU-154 turbofan | Tu-154M cruise | 0.705 | 20.0 | 5110 | 50100 | 5,082 lb (2,305 kg) (Dry) | 4.56 | |
Ishikawajima-Harima F3-IHI-30 turbofan | 1981 | Kawasaki T-4 static sea level | 0.7 | 19.8 | 5140 | 50400 | 750 lb (340 kg) (Dry) | 4.9 |
RR Tay RB.183-3 Mk.620-15 turbofan | 1984 | Fokker 70, Fokker 100 cruise | 0.69 | 19.5 | 5220 | 51200 | 3,185 lb (1,445 kg) (Dry) | 4.2 |
GE CF34-3 turbofan | 1982 | CRJ100/200, CL600 series, CL850 cruise | 0.69 | 19.5 | 5220 | 51200 | 1,670 lb (760 kg) (Dry) | 5.52 |
GE CF34-8E turbofan | E170/175 cruise | 0.68 | 19.3 | 5290 | 51900 | 2,600 lb (1,200 kg) (Dry) | 5.6 | |
Honeywell TFE731-60 geared turbofan | Falcon 900EX/DX/LX, VC-900 cruise | 0.679^{[21]} | 19.2 | 5300 | 52000 | 988 lb (448 kg) (Dry) | 5.06 | |
CFM CFM56-2C1 turbofan | DC-8 Super 70 cruise | 0.671^{[20]} | 19.0 | 5370 | 52600 | 4,635 lb (2,102 kg) (Dry) | 4.746 | |
GE CF34-8C turbofan | CRJ700/900/1000 cruise | 0.67-0.68 | 19 | 5300-5400 | 52000-53000 | 2,400-2,450 lb (1,090-1,110 kg) (Dry) | 5.7-6.1 | |
CFM CFM56-3C1 turbofan | 737 Classic cruise | 0.667 | 18.9 | 5400 | 52900 | 4,308-4,334 lb (1,954-1,966 kg) (Dry) | 5.46 | |
Saturn AL-31F turbofan | Su-27/P/K static sea level (Dry) | 0.666-0.78^{[15]}^{[19]} | 18.9-22.1 | 4620-5410 | 45300-53000 | 3,350 lb (1,520 kg) (Dry) | 4.93 | |
RR Spey RB.168 Mk.807 turbofan | AMX static sea level | 0.66^{[14]} | 18.7 | 5450 | 53500 | 2,417 lb (1,096 kg) (Dry) | 4.56 | |
CFM CFM56-2A2 turbofan | 1974 | E-3D, KE-3A, E-6A/B cruise | 0.66^{[22]} | 18.7 | 5450 | 53500 | 4,819 lb (2,186 kg) (Dry) | 4.979 |
RR BR725 turbofan | 2008 | G650/ER cruise | 0.657 | 18.6 | 5480 | 53700 | 3,605 lb (1,635.2 kg) (Dry) | 4.69 |
CFM CFM56-2B1 turbofan | KC-135R/T, C-135FR, RC-135RE cruise | 0.65^{[22]} | 18.4 | 5540 | 54300 | 4,672 lb (2,119 kg) (Dry) | 4.7 | |
GE CF34-10A turbofan | ARJ21 cruise | 0.65 | 18.4 | 5540 | 54300 | 3,700 lb (1,700 kg) (Dry) | 5.1 | |
CFE CFE738-1-1B turbofan | 1990 | Falcon 2000 cruise | 0.645^{[20]} | 18.3 | 5580 | 54700 | 1,325 lb (601 kg) (Dry) | 4.32 |
RR BR710 turbofan | 1995 | C-37, Gulfstream V, G550, E-11, Project Dolphin, Saab Swordfish, Global Express/XRS, Global 5000/6000, Raytheon Sentinel, GlobalEye (original) cruise | 0.64 | 18 | 5600 | 55000 | 4,009 lb (1,818.4 kg) (Dry) | 3.84 |
GE F110-GE-129 turbofan | F-16C/D/V Block 50/70, F-15K/S/SA/SG/EX static sea level (Dry) | 0.64^{[19]} | 18 | 5600 | 55000 | 3,980 lb (1,810 kg) (Dry) | 4.27 | |
GE F110-GE-132 turbofan | F-16E/F Block 60 or -129 upgrade static sea level (Dry) | 0.64^{[19]} | 18 | 5600 | 55000 | 4,050 lb (1,840 kg) (Dry) | ||
GE CF34-10E turbofan | E190/195, Lineage 1000 cruise | 0.64 | 18 | 5600 | 55000 | 3,700 lb (1,700 kg) (Dry) | 5.2 | |
Turbo-Union RB.199-34R-04 Mk.105 turbofan | Tornado ECR static sea level (Dry) | 0.637^{[14]} | 18.0 | 5650 | 55400 | 2,160 lb (980 kg) (Dry) | 4.47 | |
CFM CF6-50C2 turbofan | A300B2-203/B4-2C/B4-103/103F/203/203F/C4-203/F4-203, DC-10-30/F/CF, KC-10A cruise | 0.63^{[20]} | 17.8 | 5710 | 56000 | 8,731 lb (3,960 kg) (Dry) | 6.01 | |
PowerJet SaM146-1S18 turbofan | Superjet LR cruise | 0.629 | 17.8 | 5720 | 56100 | 4,980 lb (2,260 kg) (Dry) | 3.5 | |
CFM CFM56-7B24 turbofan | 737-700/800/900 cruise | 0.627^{[20]} | 17.8 | 5740 | 56300 | 5,216 lb (2,366 kg) (Dry) | 4.6 | |
RR BR715 turbofan | 1997 | 717 cruise | 0.62 | 17.6 | 5810 | 56900 | 4,597 lb (2,085 kg) (Dry) | 4.55-4.68 |
PW F119-PW-100 turbofan | 1992 | F-22 static sea level (Dry) | 0.61^{[19]} | 17.3 | 5900 | 57900 | 3,900 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) | 6.7 |
GE CF6-80C2-B1F turbofan | 747-400 cruise | 0.605^{[17]} | 17.1 | 5950 | 58400 | 9,499 lb (4,309 kg) | 6.017 | |
Turbo-Union RB.199-34R-04 Mk.103 turbofan | Tornado IDS GR.1/GR.1A/GR.1B/GR.4 static sea level (Dry) | 0.598^{[14]} | 16.9 | 6020 | 59000 | 2,107 lb (956 kg) (Dry) | 4.32 | |
CFM CFM56-5A1 turbofan | A320-111/211 cruise | 0.596 | 16.9 | 6040 | 59200 | 5,139 lb (2,331 kg) (Dry) | 5 | |
Aviadvigatel PS-90A1 turbofan | Il-96-400/T cruise | 0.595 | 16.9 | 6050 | 59300 | 6,500 lb (2,950 kg) (Dry) | 5.9 | |
PW PW2040 turbofan | 757-200/200ET/200F, C-32 cruise | 0.582^{[20]} | 16.5 | 6190 | 60700 | 7,185 lb (3,259 kg) | 5.58 | |
PW PW4098 turbofan | 777-300 cruise | 0.581^{[20]} | 16.5 | 6200 | 60800 | 36,400 lb (16,500 kg) (Dry) | 5.939 | |
GE CF6-80C2-B2 turbofan | 767-200ER/300/300ER cruise | 0.576^{[20]} | 16.3 | 6250 | 61300 | 9,388 lb (4,258 kg) | 5.495 | |
IAE V2525-D5 turbofan | MD-90 cruise | 0.574^{[23]} | 16.3 | 6270 | 61500 | 5,252 lb (2,382 kg) | 4.76 | |
IAE V2533-A5 turbofan | A321-231 cruise | 0.574^{[23]} | 16.3 | 6270 | 61500 | 5,139 lb (2,331 kg) | 6.42 | |
GE F101-GE-102 turbofan | 1970s | B-1B static sea level (Dry) | 0.562 | 15.9 | 6410 | 62800 | 4,400 lb (2,000 kg) (Dry) | 3.9 |
RR Trent 700 turbofan | 1992 | A330, A330 MRTT, Beluga XL cruise | 0.562 | 15.9 | 6410 | 62800 | 13,580 lb (6,160 kg) (Dry) | 4.97-5.24 |
RR Trent 800 turbofan | 1993 | 777-200/200ER/300 cruise | 0.560 | 15.9 | 6430 | 63000 | 13,400 lb (6,078 kg) (Dry) | 5.7-6.9 |
Motor Sich Progress D-18T turbofan | 1980 | An-124, An-225 cruise | 0.546 | 15.5 | 6590 | 64700 | 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) (Dry) | 5.72 |
CFM CFM56-5B4 turbofan | A320-214 cruise | 0.545 | 15.4 | 6610 | 64800 | 5,412-5,513 lb (2,454.8-2,500.6 kg) (Dry) | 5.14 | |
CFM CFM56-5C2 turbofan | A340-211 cruise | 0.545 | 15.4 | 6610 | 64800 | 5,830 lb (2,644.4 kg) (Dry) | 5.47 | |
RR Trent 500 turbofan | 1999 | A340-500/600 cruise | 0.542 | 15.4 | 6640 | 65100 | 11,000 lb (4,990 kg) (Dry) | 5.07-5.63 |
CFM LEAP-1B turbofan | 2014 | 737 MAX cruise | 0.53-0.56 | 15-16 | 6400-6800 | 63000-67000 | 6,130 lb (2,780 kg) (Dry) | |
Aviadvigatel PD-14 turbofan | 2014 | MC-21-310 cruise | 0.526 | 14.9 | 6840 | 67100 | 6,330 lb (2,870 kg) (Dry) | 4.88 |
RR Trent 900 turbofan | 2003 | A380 cruise | 0.522 | 14.8 | 6900 | 67600 | 13,770 lb (6,246 kg) (Dry) | 5.46-6.11 |
PW TF33-P-3 turbofan | B-52H, NB-52H static sea level | 0.52^{[14]} | 14.7 | 6920 | 67900 | 3,900 lb (1,800 kg) (Dry) | 4.36 | |
GE GE90-85B turbofan | 777-200/200ER cruise | 0.52^{[20]}^{[24]} | 14.7 | 6920 | 67900 | 17,400 lb (7,900 kg) | 5.59 | |
GE GEnx-1B76 turbofan | 2006 | 787-10 cruise | 0.512^{[18]} | 14.5 | 7030 | 69000 | 2,658 lb (1,206 kg) (Dry) | 5.62 |
PW PW1400G geared turbofan | MC-21 cruise | 0.51^{[25]} | 14 | 7100 | 69000 | 6,300 lb (2,857.6 kg) (Dry) | 5.01 | |
CFM LEAP-1C turbofan | 2013 | C919 cruise | 0.51 | 14 | 7100 | 69000 | 8,662-8,675 lb (3,929-3,935 kg) (Wet) | |
CFM LEAP-1A turbofan | 2013 | A320neo family cruise | 0.51^{[25]} | 14 | 7100 | 69000 | 6,592-6,951 lb (2,990-3,153 kg) (Wet) | |
RR Trent 7000 turbofan | 2015 | A330neo cruise | 0.506 | 14.3 | 7110 | 69800 | 14,209 lb (6,445 kg) (Dry) | 5.13 |
RR Trent 1000 turbofan | 2006 | 787 cruise | 0.506 | 14.3 | 7110 | 69800 | 13,087-13,492 lb (5,936-6,120 kg) (Dry) | |
RR Trent XWB-97 turbofan | 2014 | A350-1000 cruise | 0.478 | 13.5 | 7530 | 73900 | 16,640 lb (7,550 kg) (Dry) | 5.82 |
PW 1127G geared turbofan | 2012 | A320neo cruise | 0.463^{[18]} | 13.1 | 7780 | 76300 | 6,300 lb (2,857.6 kg) (Dry) | |
RR AE 3007H turbofan | RQ-4, MQ-4C static sea level | 0.39^{[14]} | 11.0 | 9200 | 91000 | 1,581 lb (717 kg) (Dry) | 5.24 | |
GE F118-GE-100 turbofan | 1980s | B-2A Block 30 static sea level | 0.375^{[14]} | 10.6 | 9600 | 94000 | 3,200 lb (1,500 kg) (Dry) | 5.9 |
GE F118-GE-101 turbofan | 1980s | U-2S static sea level | 0.375^{[14]} | 10.6 | 9600 | 94000 | 3,150 lb (1,430 kg) (Dry) | 6.03 |
CFM CF6-50C2 turbofan | A300B2-203/B4-2C/B4-103/103F/203/203F/C4-203/F4-203, DC-10-30/30F/30F(CF), KC-10A static sea level | 0.371^{[14]} | 10.5 | 9700 | 95000 | 8,731 lb (3,960 kg) (Dry) | 6.01 | |
GE TF34-GE-100 turbofan | A-10A, OA-10A, YA-10B static sea level | 0.37^{[14]} | 10.5 | 9700 | 95000 | 1,440 lb (650 kg) (Dry) | 6.295 | |
CFM CFM56-2B1 turbofan | KC-135R/T, C-135FR, RC-135RE static sea level | 0.36^{[22]} | 10 | 10000 | 98000 | 4,672 lb (2,119 kg) (Dry) | 4.7 | |
Motor Sich Progress D-18T turbofan | 1980 | An-124, An-225 static sea level | 0.345 | 9.8 | 10400 | 102000 | 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) (Dry) | 5.72 |
PW F117-PW-100 turbofan | C-17 static sea level | 0.34^{[20]} | 9.6 | 10600 | 104000 | 7,100 lb (3,200 kg) | 5.41-6.16 | |
PW PW2040 turbofan | 757-200/200ET/200F, C-32 static sea level | 0.33^{[20]} | 9.3 | 10900 | 107000 | 7,185 lb (3,259 kg) | 5.58 | |
CFM CFM56-3C1 turbofan | 737 Classic static sea level | 0.33 | 9.3 | 11000 | 110000 | 4,308-4,334 lb (1,954-1,966 kg) (Dry) | 5.46 | |
GE CF6-80C2 turbofan | 747-400, 767, KC-767, MD-11, A300-600R/600F, A310-300, A310 MRTT, Beluga, C-5M, Kawasaki C-2 static sea level | 0.307-0.344 | 8.7-9.7 | 10500-11700 | 103000-115000 | 9,480-9,860 lb (4,300-4,470 kg) | ||
EA GP7270 turbofan | A380-861 static sea level | 0.299^{[19]} | 8.5 | 12000 | 118000 | 14,797 lb (6,712 kg) (Dry) | 5.197 | |
GE GE90-85B turbofan | 777-200/200ER/300 static sea level | 0.298^{[19]} | 8.44 | 12080 | 118500 | 17,400 lb (7,900 kg) | 5.59 | |
GE GE90-94B turbofan | 777-200/200ER/300 static sea level | 0.2974^{[19]} | 8.42 | 12100 | 118700 | 16,644 lb (7,550 kg) | 5.59 | |
RR Trent 970-84 turbofan | 2003 | A380-841 static sea level | 0.295^{[19]} | 8.36 | 12200 | 119700 | 13,825 lb (6,271 kg) (Dry) | 5.436 |
GE GEnx-1B70 turbofan | 787-8 static sea level | 0.2845^{[19]} | 8.06 | 12650 | 124100 | 13,552 lb (6,147 kg) (Dry) | 5.15 | |
RR Trent 1000C turbofan | 2006 | 787-9 static sea level | 0.273^{[19]} | 7.7 | 13200 | 129000 | 13,087-13,492 lb (5,936-6,120 kg) (Dry) |
Engine | Effective exhaust velocity (m/s) |
Specific impulse (s) |
Exhaust specific energy (MJ/kg) |
---|---|---|---|
Turbofan jet engine (actual V is ~300 m/s) |
29,000 | 3,000 | Approx. 0.05 |
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster |
2,500 | 250 | 3 |
Liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen |
4,400 | 450 | 9.7 |
NSTAR^{[26]} electrostatic xenon ion thruster | 20,000-30,000 | 1,950-3,100 | |
VASIMR predictions^{[27]}^{[28]}^{[29]} | 30,000-120,000 | 3,000-12,000 | 1,400 |
DS4G electrostatic ion thruster^{[30]} | 210,000 | 21,400 | 22,500 |
Ideal photonic rocket^{[a]} | 299,792,458 | 30,570,000 | 89,875,517,874[ |
An example of a specific impulse measured in time is 453 seconds, which is equivalent to an effective exhaust velocity of 4,440 m/s, for the RS-25 engines when operating in a vacuum.^{[31]} An air-breathing jet engine typically has a much larger specific impulse than a rocket; for example a turbofan jet engine may have a specific impulse of 6,000 seconds or more at sea level whereas a rocket would be around 200-400 seconds.^{[32]}
An air-breathing engine is thus much more propellant efficient than a rocket engine, because the air serves as reaction mass and oxidizer for combustion which does not have to be carried as propellant, and the actual exhaust speed is much lower, so the kinetic energy the exhaust carries away is lower and thus the jet engine uses far less energy to generate thrust.^{[33]} While the actual exhaust velocity is lower for air-breathing engines, the effective exhaust velocity is very high for jet engines. This is because the effective exhaust velocity calculation assumes that the carried propellant is providing all the reaction mass and all the thrust. Hence effective exhaust velocity is not physically meaningful for air-breathing engines; nevertheless, it is useful for comparison with other types of engines.^{[34]}
The highest specific impulse for a chemical propellant ever test-fired in a rocket engine was 542 seconds (5.32 km/s) with a tripropellant of lithium, fluorine, and hydrogen. However, this combination is impractical. Lithium and fluorine are both extremely corrosive, lithium ignites on contact with air, fluorine ignites on contact with most fuels, and hydrogen, while not hypergolic, is an explosive hazard. Fluorine and the hydrogen fluoride (HF) in the exhaust are very toxic, which damages the environment, makes work around the launch pad difficult, and makes getting a launch license that much more difficult. The rocket exhaust is also ionized, which would interfere with radio communication with the rocket.^{[35]}^{[36]}^{[37]}
Nuclear thermal rocket engines differ from conventional rocket engines in that energy is supplied to the propellants by an external nuclear heat source instead of the heat of combustion.^{[38]} The nuclear rocket typically operates by passing liquid hydrogen gas through an operating nuclear reactor. Testing in the 1960s yielded specific impulses of about 850 seconds (8,340 m/s), about twice that of the Space Shuttle engines.^{[39]}
A variety of other rocket propulsion methods, such as ion thrusters, give much higher specific impulse but with much lower thrust; for example the Hall effect thruster on the SMART-1 satellite has a specific impulse of 1,640 s (16,100 m/s) but a maximum thrust of only 68 millinewtons.^{[40]} The variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR) engine currently in development will theoretically yield 20,000-300,000 m/s, and a maximum thrust of 5.7 newtons.^{[41]}
The measure of a rocket's fuel effectiveness is called its specific impulse (abbreviated as 'ISP'--or more properly Isp).... 'Mass specific impulse ... describes the thrust-producing effectiveness of a chemical reaction and it is most easily thought of as the amount of thrust force produced by each pound (mass) of fuel and oxidizer propellant burned in a unit of time. It is kind of like a measure of miles per gallon (mpg) for rockets.'