Speculative fiction is an umbrella genre encompassing fiction with certain elements that do not exist in the real world, often in the context of supernatural, futuristic or other imaginative themes. This includes, but is not limited to, science fiction, fantasy, superhero fiction, horror, utopian and dystopian fiction, fairytale fantasy, supernatural fiction as well as combinations thereof (e.g. science fantasy).
Speculative fiction as a category ranges from ancient works to both paradigm-changing and neotraditional works of the 21st century. Speculative fiction can be recognized in works whose authors' intentions or the social contexts of the versions of stories they portrayed are now known, since ancient Greek dramatists such as Euripides (ca. 480-406 BCE) whose play Medea seems to have offended Athenian audiences when he fictionally speculated that shamaness Medea killed her own children instead of their being killed by other Corinthians after her departure, and whose play Hippolytus, narratively introduced by Aphrodite, Goddess of Love in person, is suspected to have displeased his contemporary audiences because he portrayed Phaedra as too lusty.
In historiography, what is now called speculative fiction has previously been termed "historical invention", "historical fiction", and similar names. It is extensively noted in literary criticism of the works of William Shakespeare as when he co-locates Athenian Duke Theseus and Amazonian Queen Hippolyta, English fairy Puck, and Roman god Cupid across time and space in the Fairyland of its Merovingian Germanic sovereign Oberon in A Midsummer Night's Dream.
In mythography the concept of speculative fiction has been termed "mythopoesis" or mythopoeia, "fictional speculation", the creative design and generation of lore, regarding such works as J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings. Such supernatural, alternate history and sexuality themes continue in works produced within the modern speculative fiction genre.
The creation of speculative fiction in its general sense of hypothetical history, explanation, or ahistorical storytelling has also been attributed to authors in ostensibly non-fiction mode since as early as Herodotus of Halicarnassus (fl. 5th century BCE), in his Histories, and was already both practiced and edited out by early encyclopaedic writers like Sima Qian (ca. 145 or 135 BCE-86 BCE), author of Shiji.
These examples highlight the caveat that many works now regarded as intentional or unintentional speculative fiction long predate the coining of the genre term; its concept in its broadest sense captures both a conscious and unconscious aspect of human psychology in making sense of the world, and responding to it by creating imaginative, inventive, and artistic expressions. Such expressions can contribute to practical progress through interpersonal influences, social and cultural movements, scientific research and advances, and philosophy of science.
In its English-language usage in arts and literature since the mid 20th century, "speculative fiction" as a genre term is often attributed to Robert A. Heinlein. He first used the term in an editorial in The Saturday Evening Post, February 8, 1947. In the article, Heinlein used "Speculative Fiction" as a synonym for "science fiction"; in a later piece, he explicitly stated that his use of the term did not include fantasy. However, though Heinlein may have come up with the term on his own, there are earlier citations: a piece in Lippincott's Monthly Magazine in 1889 used the term in reference to Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward: 2000-1887 and other works; and one in the May 1900 issue of The Bookman said that John Uri Lloyd's Etidorhpa, The End of the Earth had "created a great deal of discussion among people interested in speculative fiction". A variation on this term is "speculative literature".
The use of "speculative fiction" in the sense of expressing dissatisfaction with traditional or establishment science fiction was popularized in the 1960s and early 1970s by Judith Merril and other writers and editors, in connection with the New Wave movement. It fell into disuse around the mid-1970s.
The Internet Speculative Fiction Database contains a broad list of different subtypes.
In the 2000s, the term came into wider use as a convenient collective term for a set of genres. However, some writers, such as Margaret Atwood, continue to distinguish "speculative fiction" specifically as a "no Martians" type of science fiction, "about things that really could happen."
According to publisher statistics, men outnumber women about two to one among English-language speculative fiction writers aiming for professional publication. However, the percentages vary considerably by genre, with women outnumbering men in the fields of urban fantasy, paranormal romance and young adult fiction.
"Speculative fiction" is sometimes abbreviated "spec-fic", "specfic", "S-F", "SF" or "sf". However, the last three abbreviations are ambiguous as they have long been used to refer to science fiction (which lies within this general range of literature) and in several other contexts.
The term has been used by some critics and writers dissatisfied with what they consider to be a limitation of science fiction: the need for the story to hold to scientific principles. They argue that "Speculative Fiction" better defines an expanded, open, imaginative type of fiction than does "genre fiction", and the categories of "Fantasy," "Mystery," "Horror" and "Science Fiction".Harlan Ellison used the term to avoid being pigeonholed as a writer. Ellison, a fervent proponent of writers embracing more literary and modernist directions, broke out of genre conventions to push the boundaries of "Speculative Fiction."
The term "suppositional fiction" is sometimes used as a sub-category designating fiction in which characters and stories are constrained by an internally consistent world, but not necessarily one defined by any particular genre.
Speculative fiction may include elements of one or more of the following genres:
|Fantasy||Includes elements and beings originating from or inspired by traditional stories, such as mythical creatures (dragons, elves, dwarves and fairies, for example), magic, witchcraft, potions, etc.||The Lord of the Rings, The Chronicles of Narnia, Harry Potter, A Song of Ice and Fire|
|Science fiction (sci-fi)||Features technologies and other elements that do not exist in real life but may be supposed to be created or discovered in the future through scientific advancement, such as advanced robots, interstellar travel, aliens, time travel, mutants and cyborgs. Many sci-fi stories are set in the future.||The Time Machine, Dune, Star Trek, 2001: A Space Odyssey, Planet of the Apes, The Left Hand of Darkness, Star Wars, Blade Runner, Jurassic Park|
|Horror||Focuses on terrifying stories that incite fear. Villains may be either supernatural, such as monsters, vampires, ghosts and demons, or mundane people, such as psychopathic and cruel murderers. Often features violence and death.||The Exorcist, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Books of Blood, The Hellbound Heart|
|Utopian||Takes place in a highly desirable society, often presented as advanced, happy, intelligent or even perfect or problem-free.||Island, Ecotopia, 17776|
|Dystopian||Takes place in a highly undesirable society, often plagued with strict control, violence, chaos, brainwashing or other negative elements.||Brave New World, 1984, Brazil, The Handmaid's Tale, The Hunger Games|
|Alternate history||Focusing on historical events as if they happened in a different way, and their implications in the present.||The Man In The High Castle, The Last Starship from Earth, The Tales of Alvin Maker, The Guns of the South, Fatherland|
|Apocalyptic||Takes place before and during a massive, worldwide catastrophe, typically a climatic or pandemic natural disaster of extremely large scale or a nuclear holocaust.||On The Beach, Threads, The Day After Tomorrow, 2012|
|Post-apocalyptic||Focuses on groups of survivors after similar massive, worldwide disasters.||The Stand, Mad Max, Waterworld, Fallout, Metro 2033|
|Superhero||Centers on superheroes (i.e., heroes with extraordinary abilities or powers) and their fight against evil forces such as supervillains. Typically incorporates elements of science fiction or fantasy, and may be a subgenre of them.||DC, Marvel, Kamen Rider, Super Sentai, Metal Heroes, Power Rangers|
|Supernatural||Similar to horror, it exploits or requires as plot devices or themes some contradictions of the commonplace natural world and materialist assumptions about it.||The Castle of Otranto, Weaveworld, Imajica, Paranormal Activity, Fallen|