|Federal district||North Caucasian|
|Economic region||North Caucasus|
|Established||October 17, 1924|
|o Governor||Vladimir Vladimirov|
|o Total||66,500 km2 (25,700 sq mi)|
| o Estimate |
|o Density||42/km2 (110/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-STA|
|License plates||26, 126|
Stavropol Krai (Russian: ?, tr. Stavropolsky kray, IPA: [st?vr?'pol?skj kraj]) is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia. It is geographically located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia, and is administratively part of the North Caucasian Federal District. Stavropol Krai has a population of 2,786,281 (2010).
Stavropol Krai is bordered by Krasnodar Krai to the west, Rostov Oblast to the north-west, Kalmykia to the north, Dagestan to the east, and Chechnya, Ingushetia, North Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia to the south. It is one of the most multi-ethnic federal subjects in Russia, with thirty-three ethnic groups with more than 2,000 persons each. The western area of Stavropol Krai is considered part of the Kuban region, the traditional home of the Kuban Cossacks, with most of the krai's population living in the drainage basin of the Kuban River.
The krai encompasses the central part of the Fore-Caucasus and most of the northern slopes of Caucasus Major. It borders with Rostov Oblast, Krasnodar Krai, Kalmykia, Dagestan, Chechnya, North Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachay-Cherkessia.
Most of Stavropol Krai experiences hot-summer humid continental climate (except for mountains). Winters are shorter and warmer than in most of Russia but still freezing and snowy: average January temperature is between -2 °C (28 °F) and -6 °C (21 °F). Summers are warm to hot with average July temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) to 25 °C (77 °F). Extremes range from -35 °C (-31 °F) in winter to 40 °C (104 °F) in summer. Average annual precipitation is 400 to 600 millimetres (16 to 24 in).
The krai was established as North Caucasus Krai on October 17, 1924. After undergoing numerous administrative changes, it was renamed Ordzhonikidze Krai ( ?), after Sergo Ordzhonikidze, in March 1937, and Stavropol Krai on January 12, 1943.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the region (krai) was shared between three persons: The First Secretary of the Stavropol Krai CPSU Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority), the Chairman of the Krai Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Krai Executive Committee (executive power).
In 1970-1978, Mikhail Gorbachev, a native of Stavropol Krai, occupied the position of the First Secretary of the Krai's Communist Party Committee. He left the region for Moscow in 1978, when he was promoted to a Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, to become the Party's General Secretary and the nation's leader 7 years later.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Krai Administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside the elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Stavropol Krai is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Stavropol Krai is the province's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Krai Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The krai administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the krai Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
According to the 2010 Census, the krai's population was 2,786,281; up from 2,735,139 recorded in the 2002 Census and further up from 2,410,379 recorded in the 1989 Census. The population of the krai is concentrated in the drainage basins of the Kuban River and of the Kuma River, which used to be traditional Cossack land (see History of Cossacks). The Kuban Cossacks are now generally considered[by whom?] ethnic Russians, even though they are of Ukrainian origin and still form an important minority in their own right in this[which?] area. Other notable ethnic groups include Armeno-Tat, Armenians (mostly Christian Hamsheni) and Pontic Greeks (here usually referred to as Caucasus Greeks) who have been coming to the area (largely from Turkey) as refugees or "economic migrants" from as early as the fall of the Empire of Trebizond in northeastern Anatolia to the Ottomans in 1461, through the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1768-1774 and 1828-1829, and finally following the Greek Genocide of the early 1900s.
Largest cities or towns in Stavropol Krai
2010 Russian Census
|1||Stavropol||City of krai significance of Stavropol||398,539|
|2||Pyatigorsk||City of krai significance of Pyatigorsk||142,511|
|3||Kislovodsk||City of krai significance of Kislovodsk||128,553|
|4||Nevinnomyssk||City of krai significance of Nevinnomyssk||118,360|
|5||Yessentuki||City of krai significance of Yessentuki||100,996|
|6||Mineralnye Vody||Mineralovodsky District||76,728|
The 2010 Census counted thirty-three ethnic groups of more than 2,000 persons each, making this federal subject one of the most multiethnic in Russia. The inhabitants identified themselves as belonging to more than 140 different ethnic groups, as shown in the following table:
|Population||Ethnicity||Percentage of total population|
Note: 26,855 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 survey 46.9% of the population of Stavropol Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 7% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Muslims, 1% are either Orthodox Christian believers who do not belong to churches or members of non-Russian Orthodox bodies, and 1% of the population adheres to Rodnovery or local native faiths. In addition, 19% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 16% is atheist, and 7.1% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
Stavropol Krai is administratively divided into twenty-six districts (raions ) and ten cities/towns. The districts are further subdivided into nine towns of district subordinance, seven urban-type settlements, and 284 rural okrugs and stanitsa okrugs.
Irrigated agriculture is well developed in the region. As of the beginning of 2001, Stavropol Krai had 3,361 km of irrigation canals, of which 959 km were lined (i.e., had concrete or stone walls, rather than merely soil walls, to reduce the loss of water).
Among the major irrigation canals are: