|CT scan of a bronchial stenosis (arrow) that resulted from tracheobronchial injury|
Stricture as a term is usually used when narrowing is caused by contraction of smooth muscle (e.g. achalasia, prinzmetal angina); stenosis is usually used when narrowing is caused by lesion that reduces the space of lumen (e.g. atherosclerosis). The term coarctation is another synonym, but is commonly used only in the context of aortic coarctation.
Restenosis is the recurrence of stenosis after a procedure.
The resulting syndrome depends on the structure affected.
Examples of vascular stenotic lesions include:
The types of stenoses in heart valves are:
Stenoses/strictures of other bodily structures/organs include:
Stenoses of the vascular type are often associated with unusual blood sounds resulting from turbulent flow over the narrowed blood vessel. This sound can be made audible by a stethoscope, but diagnosis is generally made or confirmed with some form of medical imaging.