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Sukh?vat?, or the Western Paradise, refers to the western pure land of Amit?bha in Mahayana Buddhism. The Sanskrit sukhavat? (sukh?vat?) is the feminine form of sukh?vat ("full of joy; blissful"),[1][2] from sukha ("delight, joy") and -vat ("full of").[3]

In other languages

There are a number of translations for Sukh?vat?. The Tibetan name is Dewachen (Tibetan: , Wylie: bde ba can, "Blissful [Land]"). In Chinese, it is called Jílè (, "Ultimate Bliss"), ?nlè (, "Peaceful Bliss"), or X?ti?n (, "Western Heaven"). In Japanese, it is pronounced Gokuraku (, "Ultimate Bliss") or Anraku (, "Peaceful Bliss"). In Korean, it is called the "Western Pure Land of Ultimate Bliss" (Korean; Hanja; RRSeobang Geungnak Jeongto) or simply Jeongto "Pure Land" (Korean; Hanja). In Vietnamese, it is called C?c l?c (Hán Nôm: "Ultimate Bliss") or Tây Phng T?nh (? "Western Pure Land").

Nine levels of birth

In the final part of the Amit?yurdhy?na S?tra, Gautama Buddha discusses the nine levels into which those born into the pure land are categorized.[4]

Buddhist funerals

In Tibetan Buddhism, the world of Sukhavati is invoked during Buddhist funerals as a favorable destination for the deceased.[4] Such rituals are often accompanied with the tantric technique of phowa ("transference of consciousness") to the pure land of Amit?bha, performed by a lama on the behalf of the departed. Halkias (2013:148) explains that "Sukhavati features in funeral rites and scriptures dedicated to the ritual care of the dead ('das-mchod). The structure and performance of Tibetan death ceremonies varies according to a set sequence of events...For the duration of these rites, the consciousness of the dead is coaxed into increasing levels of clarity until the time for the ritual transference to Sukhavati."

See also


  1. ^ "sukhavati". Merriam-Webster. Sanskrit sukhavat?, sukh?vat?, from feminine of sukhavat, sukh?vat blissful, from sukha bliss, happiness
  2. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 1899. sukhavat?, f. N. of the heaven of Buddha Amit?bha (see under sukh?-vat [...] possessing ease or comfort, full of joy or pleasure
  3. ^ "vat". Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit.
  4. ^ a b Ceremony of Sukhavati

Further reading

External links

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