Sultan of Delhi
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Sultan of Delhi

The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents.

Early later documented rulers and dynasties who are deemed to have ruled a portion of the Indian subcontinent are included in this list.

Chronological list of Hindu empires and dynasties

Kuru dynasty (c. 1200 BCE - 500 BCE)

Magadha dynasties

Legendary kings

This list includes the legendary kings of Magadha.

  • Dharma
  • Sunita
  • Satyajit
  • Biswajit
  • Ripunjaya.

Pradyota dynasty (c. 779 BCE - 544 BCE)

  • Pradyota Mahasena
  • Palaka
  • Visakhayupa
  • Ajaka
  • Varttivarddhana

Haryanka dynasty (c. 544 BCE - 413 BCE)

  • Bimbisara (558-491 BCE), founder of the first Magadhan empire
  • Ajatashatru (491-461 BCE)
  • Udayin
  • Anirudha
  • Munda
  • Darshaka (from 461 BCE)
  • N?gad?saka (last ruler of the Haryanka dynasty)

Shishunaga dynasty (c. 413 BCE - 345 BCE)

  • Shishunaga (412-395 BCE), king of Magadha
  • Kalashoka (Kakavarna)
  • Kshemadharman
  • Kshatraujas
  • Nandivardhana
  • Mahanandin (until 345 BCE), his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda

Nanda dynasty (c. 345 BCE - 321 BCE)

  • Mahapadma Nanda (from 345 BCE), son of Mahanandin, founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire
  • Pandhukananda
  • Panghupatinanda
  • Bhutapalananda
  • Rashtrapalananada
  • Govishanakananda
  • Dashasidkhakananda
  • Kaivartananda
  • Karvinatha Nand (Illegitimate son of Mahapadma Nanda)
  • Dhana Nanda (Agrammes, Xandrammes) (until 321 BCE), lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him.

Maurya dynasty (c. 321 BCE - 185 BCE)

Ruler Reign Notes
Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Maurya and Bhadrabahu.png 321 - 298 BCE
Bindusara Amitraghata I42 1karshapana Maurya Bindusara MACW4165 1ar (8486583162).jpg 298 - 273 BCE
Ashoka the Great Ashoka's visit to the Ramagrama stupa Sanchi Stupa 1 Southern gateway.jpg 273 - 232 BCE His son, Kunala, was blinded, and died before his father. Ashoka was succeeded by his grandson.
Dasharatha Dasaratha Maurya inscription on entrance of Vadathika cave.jpg 232 - 224 BCE Grandson of Ashoka.
Samprati 224 - 215 BCE Brother of Dasharatha.
Shalishuka Mauryan Empire. temp. Salisuka or later. Circa 207-194 BC.jpg 215 - 201 BCE
Devavarman 201 - 195 BCE
Shatadhanvan 195 - 187 BCE The Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign
Brihadratha 187 - 185 BCE Assassinated by Pushyamitra Shunga

Shunga dynasty (c. 185 BCE - 73 BCE)

  • Pushyamitra Shunga (185-149 BCE), founded the dynasty after assassinating Brihadratha
  • Agnimitra (149-141 BCE), son and successor of Pushyamitra
  • Vasujyeshtha (141-131 BCE)
  • Vasumitra (131-124 BCE)
  • Andhraka (124-122 BCE)
  • Pulindaka (122-119 BCE)
  • Ghosha (119-116 BCE)
  • Vajramitra (116-110 BCE)
  • Bhagabhadra (c. 110 BCE), mentioned by the Puranas
  • Devabhuti (83-73 BCE), the last Shunga king

Kanva dynasty (c. 73 BCE - 26 BCE)

  • Vasudeva (c. 75 BCE - 66 BCE)
  • Bhumimitra (c. 66 - c. 52 BCE)
  • Narayana (c. 52 - c. 40 BCE)
  • Susarman (c. 40 - c. 26 BCE)

Gupta dynasty (c. 240-605 CE)

Ruler Reign Notes
Sri-Gupta I Maharaja Sri Gupta inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg 240 - 290 CE Founder of the dynasty.
Ghatotkacha Maharaja Sri Ghatotkacha inscription on the Allahabad pillar Samudragupta inscription.jpg 290 - 320 CE
Chandra-Gupta I Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I on a coin.jpg 320 - 325 CE His title Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings") suggests that he was the first emperor of the dynasty. It is not certain how he turned his small ancestral kingdom into an empire, although a widely accepted theory among modern historians is that his marriage to the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi helped him extend his political power.
Samudra-Gupta SamudraguptaCoin.jpg 325 - 375 CE Defeated several kings of northern India, and annexed their territories to his empire. He also marched along the south-eastern coast of India, advancing as far as the Pallava kingdom. In addition, he subjugated several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies. His empire extended from Ravi River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to central India in the south-west; several rulers along the south-eastern coast were his tributaries.
Kacha Kachagupta of the Gupta Empire circa AD 335.jpg 4th-century CE Rival brother/king, possibly an usurper, there are coins who attest him as ruler; possibly identical with Samudra-Gupta.
Rama-Gupta 375 - 380 CE
Chandra-Gupta II Vikramaditya ChandraguptaIIOnHorse.jpg 380 - 415 CE Continued the expansionist policy of his father Samudragupta: historical evidence suggests that he defeated the Western Kshatrapas, and extended the Gupta empire from the Indus River in the west to the Bengal region in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the Narmada River in the south.
Kumara-Gupta I KumaraguptaFightingLion.jpg 415 - 455 CE He seems to have maintained control of his inherited territory, which extended from Gujarat in the west to Bengal region in the east.
Skanda-Gupta Skandagupta Circa 455-480 CE.jpg 455 - 467 CE It is stated that he restored the fallen fortunes of the Gupta family, which has led to suggestions that during his predecessor's last years, the Empire may have suffered reverses, possibly against the Pushyamitras or the Hunas. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors.
Puru-Gupta 467 - 472 CE
Kumara-Gupta II Kramaditya Kumaragupta II Kramaditya Circa 530-540 CE.jpg 472 - 479 CE
Buddha-Gupta Budhagupta in Malwa Circa 476-495 CE.jpg 479 - 496 CE He had close ties with the rulers of Kannauj and together they sought to run the Alchon Huns (Hunas) out of the fertile plains of Northern India.
Narasimha-Gupta Baladitya Narasinhagupta I Circa 414-455 AD.jpg 496 - 530 CE
Kumara-Gupta III 530 - 540 CE
Vishnu-Gupta Candraditya Vishnugupta Candraditya Circa 540-550 CE.jpg 540 - 570 CE
Bhanu-Gupta ? A lesser-known king with uncertain position in the list.

Ancient southern dynasties

Pandyan dynasty (c. 550 BCE - 345 CE)

Central Pandyas

Early Pandyas

  • Nedunj Cheliyan I (Aariyap Padai Kadantha Nedunj Cheliyan)
  • Pudappandiyan
  • Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi
  • Nedunj Cheliyan II (Pasumpun Pandiyan)
  • Nan Maran
  • Nedunj Cheliyan III (Talaiyaalanganathu Seruvendra Nedunj Cheliyan )
  • Maran Valudi
  • Musiri Mutriya Cheliyan
  • Ukkirap Peruvaluthi

First Empire

  • Kadungon (c. 600-700 CE), revived the dynasty
  • Maravarman Avani Culamani (590-620 CE)
  • Cezhiyan Cendan (620-640 CE)
  • Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran (640-674 CE)
  • Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran (675-730 CE)
  • Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasinga (730-765 CE)
  • Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (765-790 CE)
  • Rasasingan II (790-800 CE)
  • Varagunan I (800-830 CE)
  • Sirmara Srivallabha (830-862 CE)
  • Varaguna II (862-880 CE)
  • Parantaka Viranarayana (862-905 CE)
  • Rajasima Pandian II (905-920 CE)

Pandyan Revival

  • Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (1251-1268), revived Pandyan glory, considered one of the greatest conquerors of Southern India
  • Maravarman Sundara Pandyan
  • Maravarman Kulasekaran I (1268-1308)
  • Sundara Pandya (1308-1311), son of Maravarman Kulasekaran, fought with his brother Vira Pandya over the throne
  • Vira Pandya (1308-1311), son of Maravarman Kulasekaran, fought with his brother of Sundara Pandya over the throne, Madurai was conquered by the Khalji dynasty

Pandalam Dynasty (c. 1200)

Chera dynasty (c. 300 BCE - 1124 CE)

Note that years are still highly disputed among the scholars, and the given is only one version.

Ancient Chera kings

  1. Udiyancheralatan
  2. Antuvancheral
  3. Imayavaramban Nedun-Cheralatan (56-115 CE)
  4. Cheran Chenkutuvan (from 115)
  5. Palyanai Sel-Kelu Kuttuvan (115-130)
  6. Poraiyan Kadungo (from 115)
  7. Kalankai-Kanni Narmudi Cheral (115-140)
  8. Vel-Kelu Kuttuvan (130-185)
  9. Selvak-Kadungo (131-155)
  10. Adukotpattu Cheralatan (140-178)
  11. Kuttuvan Irumporai (178-185)
  12. Tagadur Erinda Perumcheral (185-201)
  13. Yanaikat-sey Mantaran Cheral (201-241)
  14. Ilamcheral Irumporai (241-257)
  15. Perumkadungo (257-287)
  16. Ilamkadungo (287-317)
  17. Kanaikal Irumporai (367-397)

Kulashekhara dynasty (1020-1314 CE)

  1. Kulashekhara Varman (800-820 CE), also called Kulashekhara Alwar
  2. Rajashekhara Varman (820-844 CE), also called Cheraman Perumal
  3. Sthanu ravi Varman (844-885 CE), contemporary of Aditya Chola
  4. Rama Varma Kulashekhara (885-917 CE)
  5. Goda Ravi Varma (917-944 CE)
  6. Indu Kotha Varma (944-962 CE)
  7. Bhaskara Ravi Varman I (962-1019 CE)
  8. Bhaskara Ravi Varman II (1019-1021 CE)
  9. Vira Kerala (1021-1028 CE)
  10. Rajasimha (1028-1043 CE)
  11. Bhaskara Ravi Varman III (1043-1082 CE)
  12. Rama Varman Kulashekhara (1090-1122 CE), also called Cheraman Perumal
  13. Ravi Varman Kulashekhara (c. 1250 - 1314), last of the Cheras

Chola dynasty (c. 300 BCE - 1279 CE)

Sangam Cholas

Imperial Cholas (848-1279 CE)

Foreign invaders in north-western India

These empires were vast, centered in Persia or the Mediterranean; their satrapies (provinces) in India were at their outskirts.

Satavahana dynasty (c. 271 BCE - 220 CE)

The beginning of the Satavahana rule is dated variously from 271 BCE to 30 BCE.[1] Satavahanas dominated the Deccan region from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE.[2] It lasted till the early 3rd century CE. The following Satavahana kings are historically attested by epigraphic records, although the Puranas name several more kings (see Satavahana dynasty#List of rulers):

Vakataka dynasty (c. 250 - c. 500 CE)

The Pravarapura-Nandivardhana branch

The Vatsagulma branch

Indo-Scythian rulers (c. 90 BCE - 45 CE)

Northwestern India (c. 90 BCE - 10 CE)

Mathura area (c. 20 BCE - 20 CE)

  • Hagamasha (satrap)
  • Hagana (satrap)
  • Rajuvula (Great Satrap) (c. 10 CE)
  • Sodasa, son of Rajuvula

Apracharaja rulers (12 BCE - 45 CE)

  • Vijayamitra (12 BCE - 15 CE)
  • Itravasu (c. 20 CE)
  • Aspavarma (15-45 CE)

Minor local rulers

  • Bhadrayasha Niggas
  • Mamvadi
  • Arsakes

Indo-Parthian rulers (c. 21-100 CE)

Western Kshatrapas (c. 35-405 CE)

Kushana dynasty (1-225)

Ruler Reign Notes
Heraios Heraios profile.jpg 1 - 30 CE King or clan chief of the Kushans. Founder of the dynasty.
Kujula Kadphises KujulaKadphisesCoinAugustusImitation.jpg 30 - 80 CE United the Yuezhi confederation during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor.
Vima Takto Soter Megas Coin of Kushan King Vima Takto.jpg 80 - 90 CE Alias The Great Saviour. His empire covered northwestern Gandhara and greater Bactria towards China, where Kushan presence has been asserted in the Tarim Basin. Under his reign, embassies were also sent to the Chinese court.
Vima Kadphises WimaKadphises.JPG 90 - 127 CE The first great Kushan emperor. He introduced gold coinage, in addition to the existing copper and silver coinage. Most of the gold seems to have been obtained through trade with the Roman Empire.
Kanishka I the Great KanishkaCoin3.JPG 127 - 144 CE Came to rule an empire in Bactria extending to Pataliputra on the Gangetic plain. His conquests and patronage of Buddhism played an important role in the development of the Silk Road, and in the transmission of Mahayana Buddhism from Gandhara across the Karakoram range to China.
Huvishka KushanCoinage2.jpg 144 - 191 CE His rule was a period of retrenchment and consolidation for the Empire.
Vasudeva I Coin of the Kushan king Vasudeva I.jpg 191 - 232 CE He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sassanians as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sassanians or Kushanshahs from around 240 CE.
Kanishka II KanishkaIIObverse.JPG 232 - 245 CE It is likely he lost part of his empire to the Kushano-Sassanians.
Vashishka Vasishka.jpg 245 - 250 CE
Kanishka III Dinar of Kanishka III or Vashishka LACMA M.77.56.18 (2 of 2).jpg 250 - 275 CE
Vasudeva II Coin of VasudevaII.jpg 275 - 310 CE
Chhu 310 - 325 CE
Vasudeva III c.300 CE? Kings whose existence is uncertain.
Vasudeva IV
Vasudeva V
Shaka Kushan/Shaka I KushanCoinage.jpg 325 - 350 CE
Kipunada Kipunada.jpg 350 - 375 CE May have been a subject of Samudragupta from Gupta Empire.

Nagas of Padmavati (early 3rd century-mid-4th century)

  • Vrisha-naga alias Vrisha-bhava or Vrishabha, possibly ruled at Vidisha in the late 2nd century
  • Vrishabha or Vrisha-bhava may also be the name of a distinct king who succeeded Vrisha-naga
  • Bhima-naga, r. c. 210-230 CE, probably the first king to rule from Padmavati
  • Skanda-naga
  • Vasu-naga
  • Brihaspati-naga
  • Vibhu-naga
  • Ravi-naga
  • Bhava-naga
  • Prabhakara-naga
  • Deva-naga
  • Vyaghra-naga
  • Ganapati-naga

Pallava dynasty (275-882)

Early Pallavas (275-355)

  • Simha Varman I (King) (275-300 or 315-345)
  • Skanda Varman I (Queen) (345-355)

Middle Pallavas (355-537)

  • Visnugopa (350-355)
  • Kumaravisnu I (355-370)
  • Skanda Varman II (370-385)
  • Vira Varman (385-400)
  • Skanda Varman III (400-438)
  • Simha Varman II (438-460)
  • Skanda Varman IV (460-480)
  • Nandi Varman I (480-500)
  • Kumaravisnu II (c. 500-510)
  • Buddha Varman (c. 510-520)
  • Kumaravisnu III (c. 520-530)
  • Simha Varman III (c. 530-537)

Later Pallavas (537-882)

Kadambas of Chandravalli at Chitradurga (345-525 CE)

Western Ganga dynasty of Talakad (350-1024 CE)

  • Konganivarma Madhava (350-370)
  • Madhava II (370-390)
  • Harivarman (390-410)
  • Vishnugopa (410-430)
  • Tadangala Madhava (430-466)
  • Avinita (466-495)
  • Durvinita (495-535)
  • Mushkara (535-585)
  • Srivikrama (585-635)
  • Bhuvikarma (635-679)
  • Shivamara I (679-725)
  • Sripurusha (725-788)
  • Shivamara II (788-816)
  • Rajamalla I (817-853)
  • Nitimarga Ereganga (853-869)
  • Rajamalla II (870-907)
  • Ereyappa Nitimarga II (907-919)
  • Narasimhadeva (919-925)
  • Rajamalla III (925-935)
  • Butuga II (935-960)
  • Takkolam in (949)
  • Maruladeva (960-963)
  • Marasimha III (963-974)
  • Rajamalla IV (974-985)
  • Rakkasa Ganga (985-1024)

Rai dynasty (c. 524-632 CE)

Maitrakas of Vallabhi (470-776 CE)

  • Bhatarka (c. 470-c. 492)
  • Dharasena I (c. 493-c. 499)
  • Dronasinha (also known as Maharaja) (c. 500-c. 520)
  • Dhruvasena I (c. 520-c. 550)
  • Dharapatta (c. 550-c. 556)
  • Guhasena (c. 556-c. 570)
  • Dharasena II (c. 570-c. 595)
  • Siladitya I (also known as Dharmaditya) (c. 595-c. 615)
  • Kharagraha I (c. 615-c. 626)
  • Dharasena III (c. 626-c. 640)
  • Dhruvasena II (also known as Baladitya) (c. 640-c. 644)
  • Chkravarti king Dharasena IV (also known as Param Bhatarka, Maharajadhiraja, Parameshwara) (c. 644-c. 651)
  • Dhruvasena III (c. 651-c. 656)
  • Kharagraha II (c. 656-c. 662)
  • Siladitya II (c. 662-?)
  • Siladitya III
  • Siladitya IV
  • Siladitya V
  • Siladitya VI
  • Siladitya VII (c. 766-c. 776)[3]

Chahamanas of Shakambhari (6th century - 12th century)

Chahamana Dynasty (6th century - 12th century)

The Chahamanas of Shakambhari, colloquially known as the Chauhans of Sambhar (Sambhar Lake Town), were an Indian dynasty that ruled parts of the present-day Rajasthan and its neighbouring areas between 6th to 12th centuries. The territory ruled by them was known as Sapadalaksha. They were the most prominent ruling family of the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan, and were categorized among Agnivanshi Rajputs (Agnivansha) in the later medieval legends.

Chalukya dynasty (500-1200)

Ruler Reign Capital Notes
Jayasimha I 500 - 520 CE Badami Founder of the dynasty. He ruled the area around modern Bijapur in the early 6th century.
Ranaraga 520 - 540 CE Badami
Pulakeshin I 540 - 567 CE Badami He ruled parts of the present-day Maharashtra and Karnataka states in the western Deccan region of India.
Kirtivarman I 567 - 592 CE Badami He expanded the Chalukya kingdom by defeating the Nalas, the Mauryas of Konkana, the Kadambas, the Alupas, and the Gangas of Talakad.
Mangalesha 6th century Kannada inscription in cave temple number 3 at Badami.jpg 592 - 610 CE Badami Brother of Kirtivarman. Expanded the Chalukya power in present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra after defeating the Kalachuri king Buddharaja. He also consolidated his rule in the Konkan coastal region of Maharashtra and Goa after conquering Revati-dvipa from the rebel Chalukya governor Svamiraja. His reign ended when he lost a war of succession to his nephew Pulakeshin II, a son of Kirttivarman I.
Pulakeshin II Pulikesin II, the Chalukhaya, receives envoys from Persia (1).jpg 610 - 642 CE Badami Son of Kirtivarman I, he overthrew his uncle Mangalesha to gain control of the throne. Suppressed a rebellion by Appayika and Govinda, and decisively defeated the Kadambas of Banavasi in the south. Consolidated the Chalukya control over the western coast by subjugating the Mauryas of Konkana. He was victorious against the

powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana. He also achieved some successes against the Pallavas in the south, but was ultimately defeated, and probably killed, during an invasion by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I.

Kubja Vishnu-Vardhana I 615/24 - 641 CE Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Pulakeshin II. Ruled under him as viceroy in Vengi, and then declared independence in 624.
Jayasimha II 641 - 673 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Adityavarman 642 - 645 CE Badami First son of Pulakeshin II. Probably ruled under the Pallavas.
Abhinavaditya 645 - 646 CE Badami Son of the predecessor.
Chandraditya 646 - 649 CE Badami Second son of Pulakeshin II.
Vijaya-Bhattarika (regent) 649-655 CE Badami Regent for her minor son. She was deposed by her brother-in-law.
A son of Chandraditya Badami
Vikramaditya I 655 - 680 CE Badami He restored order in the fractured kingdom and made the Pallavas retreat from the capital.
Indra Bhattaraka 673 CE Vengi (Eastern) Brother of Jayasimha II. Ruled for a week.
Vishnu-Vardhana II 673 - 682 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vinayaditya 680 - 696 CE Badami He carried campaigns against the Pallavas, Kalabhras, Haihayas, Vilas, Cholas, Pandyas, Gangas and many more.
Mangi Yuvaraja 682 - 706 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya I 696 - 733 CE Badami His long reign was marked by general peace and prosperity. Vijayaditya also built a number of temples. He fought against the Pallavas and extracted tributes from Parameshwar Varma V.
Jayasimha III 706 - 718 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Kokkli 718 - 719 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnu-Vardhana III 719 - 755 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vikramaditya II 8th century Kannada inscription on victory pillar at Pattadakal.jpg 733 - 746 CE Badami Conducted successful military campaigns against their enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram, in three occasions: the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II.
Kirtivarman II Rahappa 746- 757 CE Badami His reign was continuously troubled by the growing power of the Rashtrakutas and Pandyas. He finallt succumbed to the Rashtrakutas, who ended the power of the family in Badami.
Vijayaditya II 755 - 772 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vishnu-Vardhana IV 755 - 808 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya III 808 - 847 CE Vengi (Eastern) His first military victories against the Rashtrakutas made the path for the independence of the dynasty from this occupant.
Kali Vishnu-Vardhana V 847 - 849 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya IV 849 - 892 CE Vengi (Eastern) Brothers, ruled together.
Vikramaditya III Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla I Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima I 892 - 921 CE Vengi (Eastern) During his rule, Vengi could claim some independence as capital from the Rashtrakutas.
Vijayaditya V 921 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Amma I 921 - 927 CE Vengi (Eastern) Probably brothers, ruled jointly.
Vishnu-Vardhana VI Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya VI 927 CE Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for fifteen days.
Tadapa 927 CE Vengi (Eastern) Ruled for a month.
Vikramaditya IV 927 - 928 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima II 928 - 929 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Yuddhamalla II 929 - 935 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Bhima III 935 - 947 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Amma II 947 - 970 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Danarnava 970 - 973 CE Vengi (Eastern) Deposed by Jata Choda Bhima. Sought for help within the Chola Empire.
Tailapa II Ahvamalla Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 913 (c.991 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Ahvamalla Tailapa II.JPG 973 - 997 CE Kalyani (Western) 6th great-grandson of Vijayaditya I. Ousted the Rashtrakutas in the West and recovered the power once held by his family.
Jata Choda Bhima 973 - 999 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Satyashraya 997 - 1008 CE Kalyani (Western)
Shaktivarman I 999 - 1011 CE Vengi (Eastern) First son of Danarnava. Returned from exile and recovered his throne. Now free from the usurper, however Eastern Vengi dynasty lost some of the independence they have gained some generations ago. Begin of the growing Chola influence in Vengi kingdom.
Vikramaditya V 1008 - 1015 CE Kalyani (Western) Nephew of Satyahraya, as son of his brother, Dashavarman.
Vimaladitya 1011 - 1018 CE Vengi (Eastern) Second son of Danarnava. In his exile period with his father and brother, he was married to Kundavai, daughter of Rajaraja I from the Chola Empire.
Jayasimha III Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 957 (c.1035 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Jayasimha II.JPG 1015 - 1043 CE Kalyani (Western) He had to fight on many fronts, against the Cholas of Tanjore in the south and the Paramara dynasty in the north, to protect his kingdom. His rule however was an important period of development of Kannada literature. He saw his cousins in Vengi fall firmly into the hands of the Cholas who would use their marital relations with the Eastern Chalukyas and their over lordship over Vengi to frustrate and threaten the Western Chalukyas from two fronts, from the east and from the South. But, at the same time, he consolidated more firmly the Western Chalukya power in the Deccan.
Rajaraja Narendra King Rajaraja Narendra founder of rajahmundry city.jpg 1018 - 1061 CE Vengi (Eastern) Son of Vimaladitya, had support in the throne from the Cholas, whose influence grew significantly. He supported Cholas against his cousins, the Western Chalukyas. His own son managed to succeed in the Chola Empire, in 1070, as Kulottunga I, beginning the Later Cholas period, in which the Chola Empire was ruled by a branch of the Eastern Chalukyas renamed Chola.
Someshvara I Trilokyamalla Western Chalukyas of Kalyana King Somesvara I Trailokyamalla 1043-1068.jpg 1042 - 1068 CE Kalyani (Western) His several military successes in Central India made him a formidable ruler of a vast empire. During his rule, the Chalukyan empire extended to Gujarat and Central India in the north.
Shaktivarman II 1061 - 1062 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vijayaditya VII 1062 - 1075 CE Vengi (Eastern) Also son of Vimaladitya, but half-brother of Rajaraja Narendra. Ascended to the throne with support from Western Chalukyas.
Someshvara II Bhuvanaikamalla Old Kannada inscription dated Shaka 990 (c.1068 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Bhuvanaikamalla Someshvara II.JPG 1068 - 1076 CE Kalyani (Western) First son of Someshvara I, deposed by his younger brother, Vikramaditya.
Rajaraja 1075 - 1079 CE Vengi (Eastern)
Vikramaditya VI Tribhuvanamalla Old Kannada inscription (c.1108 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Tribhuvanamalla Vikramaditya VI.jpg 1076 - 1126 CE Kalyani (Western) Second son of Someshvara I. Under his reign, the Western Chalukya Empire reached its zenith. He is noted for his patronage of art and letters. His court was adorned with famous Kannada and Sanskrit poets. Intervened in Chola politics, sitting his brother-in-law, Athirajendra Chola, on the Chola Empire throne.
Vishnu-Vardhana VII 1079 - 1102 CE Vengi (Eastern) Last known Chalukya ruler of Vengi.
Someshvara III Old Kannada inscription (1129 AD) at Kedareshvara temple in Balligavi.JPG 1126 - 1138 CE Kalyani (Western) He was a noted historian, scholar, and poet, and authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music - making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th- and 12th-century India.
Jagadhekamalla II Old Kannada inscription (c.1148 AD) of Kalyani (Western) Chalukya King Jagadekamalla II.JPG 1138 - 1151 CE Kalyani (Western) His rule saw the slow decline of the Chalukya empire with the loss of Vengi entirely, though he was still able to control the Hoysalas in the south and the Seuna and Paramara in the north.
Tailapa III 1151 - 1164 CE Kalyani (Western) Faced many feudatory risings against Chalukya rule.
Jagadhekamalla III 1164 - 1183 CE Kalyani (Western) His rule was completely overshowded by the emergence of the Southern Kalachuris under Bijjala II who took control of Kalyani. He had to escape to the Banavasi region.
Someshvara IV Chalukyas of Kalyana (Western Chalukyas) Possibly King Somesvara IV Chalukya. 1181-4 1189.jpg 1183 - 1200 CE Kalyani (Western) Recovered his capital, by defeating the Kalachuris, but failed to prevent his old allies, Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasty, who, after deposing Someshvara by 1200, divided his empire among themselves.

Shashanka dynasty (600-626)

  • Shashanka (600-625), first recorded independent king of Bengal, created the first unified political entity in Bengal
  • Manava (625-626), ruled for 8 months before being conquered by Harshavardana and Bhaskarvarmana

Harsha dynasty (606-647)

  • Harshavardhana (606-647), unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India

Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty (650-1036 CE)

Rashtrakutas of Manyaketha (735-982)

Pala Empire (c. 750-1174)

Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine.[4] Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:[5]

RC Majumdar (1971)[6] AM Chowdhury (1967)[7] BP Sinha (1977)[8] DC Sircar (1975-76)[9] D. K. Ganguly (1994)[4]
Gopala I 750-770 756-781 755-783 750-775 750-774
Dharmapala 770-810 781-821 783-820 775-812 774-806
Devapala 810-c. 850 821-861 820-860 812-850 806-845
Mahendrapala NA (Mahendrapala's existence was conclusively established through a copper-plate charter discovered later.) 845-860
Shurapala I 850-853 861-866 860-865 850-858 860-872
Vigrahapala I 858-60 872-873
Narayanapala 854-908 866-920 865-920 860-917 873-927
Rajyapala 908-940 920-952 920-952 917-952 927-959
Gopala II 940-957 952-969 952-967 952-972 959-976
Vigrahapala II 960-c. 986 969-995 967-980 972-977 976-977
Mahipala I 988-c. 1036 995-1043 980-1035 977-1027 977-1027
Nayapala 1038-1053 1043-1058 1035-1050 1027-1043 1027-1043
Vigrahapala III 1054-1072 1058-1075 1050-1076 1043-1070 1043-1070
Mahipala II 1072-1075 1075-1080 1076-1078/9 1070-1071 1070-1071
Shurapala 1075-1077 1080-1082 1071-1072 1071-1072
Ramapala 1077-1130 1082-1124 1078/9-1132 1072-1126 1072-1126
Kumarapala 1130-1125 1124-1129 1132-1136 1126-1128 1126-1128
Gopala III 1140-1144 1129-1143 1136-1144 1128-1143 1128-1143
Madanapala 1144-1162 1143-1162 1144-1161/62 1143-1161 1143-1161
Govindapala 1155-1159 NA 1162-1176 or 1158-1162 1161-1165 1161-1165
Palapala NA NA NA 1165-1199 1165-1200

Note:[5]

  • Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
  • AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
  • According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.

Paramara dynasty of Malwa (9th century to c. 1305)

The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:[10][page needed]

Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri (850-1334 CE)

  • Dridhaprahara
  • Seunachandra (850-874)
  • Dhadiyappa (874-900)
  • Bhillama I (900-925)
  • Vadugi (Vaddiga) (950-974)
  • Dhadiyappa II (974-975)
  • Bhillama II (975-1005)
  • Vesugi I (1005-1020)
  • Bhillama III (1020-1055)
  • Vesugi II (1055-1068)
  • Bhillama III (1068)
  • Seunachandra II (1068-1085)
  • Airamadeva (1085-1115)
  • Singhana I (1115-1145)
  • Mallugi I (1145-1150)
  • Amaragangeyya (1150-1160)
  • Govindaraja (1160)
  • Amara Mallugi II (1160-1165)
  • Kaliya Ballala (1165-1173)
  • Bhillama V (1173-1192), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Jaitugi I (1192-1200)
  • Singhana II (1200-1247)
  • Kannara (1247-1261)
  • Mahadeva (1261-1271)
  • Amana (1271)
  • Ramachandra (1271-1312)
  • Singhana III (1312-1313)
  • Harapaladeva (1313-1318)
  • Mallugi III (1318-1334)

Kabul Shahi dynasties

Brahmin Shahi dynasty (c. 890-964)

  • Lalliya (c. 890-895)
  • Kamaluka (895-921)
  • Bhima (921-964), son of Kamaluka

Shahi dynasty (964-1026 CE)

  • Jayapala (964-1001)
  • Anandapala (1001-1011)
  • Trilochanpala (1011-1022)
  • Bhímapála (1022-1026)

Chandra dynasty (900-1050)

Hoysala dynasty (1000-1346)

  • Nripa Kama (1000-1045)
  • Vinayaditya I (1045-1098)
  • Ereyanga (1098-1100)
  • Ballala (1100-1108)
  • Vishnuvardhana (1108-1142)
  • Narasimha I (1142-1173), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukya
  • Ballala II (1173-1220)
  • Narasimha II (1220-1235)
  • Vira Someshwara (1235-1253)
  • Narasimha III and Ramanatha (1253-1295)
  • Ballala III (1295-1342)

Sena dynasty rule over Bengal (1070-1230 CE)

  • Hemanta Sen (1070-1096)
  • Vijay Sen (1096-1159)
  • Ballal Sen (1159-1179)
  • Lakshman Sen (1179-1206)
  • Vishwarup Sen (1206-1225)
  • Keshab Sen (1225-1230)

Eastern Ganga dynasty (1078-1434)

  • Anantavarman Chodaganga (1078-1147)
  • Ananga Bhima Deva II (1170-1198)
  • Anangabhima Deva III (1211-1238)
  • Narasimha Deva I (1238-1264)
  • Bhanu Deva I (1264-1279)
  • Narasimha Deva II (1279-1306)
  • Bhanu Deva II (1306-1328)
  • Narasimha Deva III (1328-1352)
  • Bhanu Deva III (1352-1378)
  • Narasimha Deva IV (1378-1414)
  • Bhanu Deva IV (1414-1434)

Kakatiya dynasty (1083-1323 CE)

  • Beta I (1000-1030)
  • Prola I (1030-1075)
  • Beta II (1075-1110)
  • Prola II (1110-1158)
  • Prataparudra I/Rudradeva I (1158-1195)
  • Mahadeva (1195-1198). Brother of King Rudradeva
  • Ganapathi deva (1199-1261)
  • Rudrama devi (1262-1296)
  • Prataparudra II/ Rudradeva II (1296-1323). Grandson of Queen Rudrama

Kalachuris of Kalyani (Southern) dynasty (1130-1184)

  • Bijjala II (1130-1167), proclaimed independence from Kalyani Chalukyas in 1162 CE
  • Sovideva (1168-1176)
  • Mallugi -> overthrown by his brother Sankama
  • Sankama (1176-1180)
  • Ahavamalla (1180-83)
  • Singhana (1183-84)

Chutiya dynasty ruled over eastern Assam (1187-1524)

  • Birpal (1187-1224)
  • Ratnadhwajpal (1224-1250)
  • Vijayadhwajpal (1250-1278)
  • Vikramadhwajpal (1278-1302)
  • Gauradhwajpal (1302-1322)
  • Sankhadhwajpal (1322-1343)
  • Mayuradhwajpal (1343-1361)
  • Jayadhwajpal (1361-1383)
  • Karmadhwajpal (1383-1401)
  • Satyanarayan (1401-1421)
  • Laksminarayan (1421-1439)
  • Dharmanarayan (1439-1458)
  • Pratyashnarayan (1458-1480)
  • Purnadhabnarayan (1480-1502)
  • Dharmadhajpal (1502-1522)
  • Nitypal (1522-1524)

Bana dynasty rule over Magadaimandalam (c. 1190-1260 CE)

Kadava dynasty (c. 1216-1279 CE)

  • Kopperunchinga I (c. 1216 - 1242)
  • Kopperunchinga II (c. 1243 - 1279)

Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526)

Mamluk dynasty of Delhi (1206-1290)

Khalji dynasty (1290-1320)

Tughlaq dynasty (1321-1414)

After the invasion of Timur in 1398, the governor of Multan, Khizr Khan abolished the Tughluq dynasty in 1414.

Jaunpur Sultanate (1394-1479)

Sayyid dynasty (1414-1451)

Lodi dynasty (1451-1526)

Bahmani dynasty (1347-1527)

Malwa Sultanate (1392-1562)

Ghoris (1390-1436)

Khaljis (1436-1535)

Under Gujarat (1530-1534)

Barid Shahi dynasty (1489-1619)

Imad Shahi dynasty (1490-1572)

Adil Shahi dynasty (1490-1686)

Nizam Shahi dynasty (1490-1636)

Qadirid (1535-1555)

Qutb Shahi dynasty (1518-1687)

Ahom dynasty rule over Assam (1228-1826)

Baro-Bhuyan (1576-1632)

Musunuri Nayaks (1323-1368)

There were at least two Musunuri Nayak rulers:

Reddy dynasty (1325-1548 CE)

  • Prolaya Vema Reddy (1325-1335)
  • Anavota Reddy (1335-1364)
  • Anavema Reddy (1364-1386)
  • Kumaragiri Reddy (1386-1402)
  • Kataya Vema Reddy (1395-1414)
  • Allada Reddy (1414-1423)
  • Veerabhadra Reddy (1423-1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336-1646 CE)

Sangama dynasty (1336-1487)

Twipra Kingdom (1463-1949)

  • Kings of Tripura
  • Dhanya Manikya (1463-1515)
  • Dharma Manikya II (1714-1733)
  • Vijay Manikya II (1743-1760)
  • Krishna Manikya (1760-1761)
  • Rajdhar Manikya (1783-1804)
  • Ramgana Manikya (1804-1809)
  • Durga Manikya (1809-1813)
  • Kashi Chandra (1826-1830)
  • Krishna Kishore (1830-1849)
  • Ishan Chandra (1849-1862)
  • Bir Chandra (1862-1896)
  • Radha Kishore (1896-1909)
  • Birendra Kishore (1909-1923)
  • Bir Bikram Kishore (1923-1947)
  • Kirit Bikram Kishore (1947-1949)

Saluva dynasty (1490-1567)

  • Narasimha (1490-1503)
  • Narasa (Vira Narasimha) (1503-1509)
  • Achyuta (1530-1542)
  • Sadasiva (1542-1567)

Tuluva dynasty (1491-1570)

Araveeti Dynasty (1565-1680)

  • Aliya Rama raya (1542-1565) - unofficial ruler
  • Tirumala raya (1570-1572)
  • Ranga raya I (1572-1585)
  • Venkatapathi raya II (1586-1614)
  • Ranga raya II (1614)
  • Venkatapathi raya III (1630-1642)
  • Ranga raya III (1642)

Mysore

Wodeyar dynasty (first rule, 1371-1761)

  • Yaduraya Wodeyar or Raja Vijaya Raj Wodeyar (1371-1423)
  • Hiriya Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar I (1423-1459)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar I (1459-1478)
  • Hiriya Chamaraja Wodeyar II (1478-1513)
  • Hiriya bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar III (1513-1553)
  • Thimmaraja Wodeyar II (1553-1572)
  • Bola Chamaraja Wodeyar IV (1572-1576)
  • Bettada Devaraja Wodeyar (1576-1578)
  • Raja Wodeyar I (1578-1617)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar V (1617-1637)
  • Raja Wodeyar II (1637-1638)
  • (Ranadhira) Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar I (1638-1659)
  • Dodda Devaraja Wodeyar (1659-1673)
  • Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar (1673-1704)
  • Kantheerava Narasaraja Wodeyar II (1704-1714)
  • Dodda Krishnaraja Wodeyar I (1714-1732)
  • Chamaraja Wodeyar VI (1732-1734)
  • (Immadi) Krishnaraja Wodeyar II (1734-1766), ruled under Hyder Ali from 1761
  • Nanajaraja Wodeyar (1766-1772), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Bettada Chamaraja Wodeyar VII (1772-1776), ruled under Hyder Ali
  • Khasa Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII (1776-1796), ruled under Hyder Ali until 1782, then under Tipu Sultan until his deposition in 1796

The reign of the Kings of Mysore (Wodeyar line) was interrupted from 1761 to 1799.

Hyder Ali's dynasty of Mysore (1761-1799)

Wodeyar dynasty (second rule, 1799-1950)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434-1541 CE)

  • Kapilendra Deva (1434-67)
  • Purushottama Deva (1467-97)
  • Prataparudra Deva (1497-1540)
  • Kalua Deva (1540-41)
  • Kakharua Deva (1541)

Maharajas of Cochin (Perumpadapu Swaroopam, 1503-1964)

Veerakerala Varma, nephew of Cheraman Perumal Nayanar, is supposed to have been the first king of Cochin around the 7th century CE. But the records we have start in 1503.[]

  1. Unniraman Koyikal I (?-1503)
  2. Unniraman Koyikal II (1503-1537)
  3. Veera Kerala Varma (1537-1565)
  4. Keshava Rama Varma (1565-1601)
  5. Veera Kerala Varma (1601-1615)
  6. Ravi Varma I (1615-1624)
  7. Veera Kerala Varma (1624-1637)
  8. Godavarma (1637-1645)
  9. Veerarayira Varma (1645-1646)
  10. Veera Kerala Varma (1646-1650)
  11. Rama Varma I (1650-1656)
  12. Rani Gangadharalakshmi (1656-1658)
  13. Rama Varma II (1658-1662)
  14. Goda Varma (1662-1663)
  15. Veera Kerala Varma (1663-1687)
  16. Rama Varma III (1687-1693)
  17. Ravi Varma II (1693-1697)
  18. Rama Varma IV (1697-1701)
  19. Rama Varma V (1701-1721)
  20. Ravi Varma III (1721-1731)
  21. Rama Varma VI (1731-1746)
  22. Veera Kerala Varma I (1746-1749)
  23. Rama Varma VII (1749-1760)
  24. Veera Kerala Varma II (1760-1775)
  25. Rama Varma VIII (1775-1790)
  26. Shaktan Thampuran (Rama Varma IX) (1790-1805)
  27. Rama Varma X (1805-1809) - Vellarapalli-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  28. Veera Kerala Varma III (1809-1828) - Karkidaka Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month (Kollam Era))
  29. Rama Varma XI (1828-1837) - Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  30. Rama Varma XII (1837-1844) - Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  31. Rama Varma XIII (1844-1851) - Thrishur-il Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  32. Veera Kerala Varma IV (1851-1853) - Kashi-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  33. Ravi Varma IV (1853-1864) - Makara Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  34. Rama Varma XIV (1864-1888) - Mithuna Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  35. Kerala Varma V (1888-1895) - Chingam Maasathil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  36. Rama Varma XV (1895-1914) - a.k.a. Rajarshi, abdicated (d. in 1932)
  37. Rama Varma XVI (1915-1932) - Madrasil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  38. Rama Varma XVII (1932-1941) - Dhaarmika Chakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yil Theepetta Thampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  39. Kerala Varma VI (1941-1943) - Midukkan (syn: Smart, expert, great) Thampuran
  40. Ravi Varma V (1943-1946) - Kunjappan Thampuran (Brother of Midukkan Thampuran)
  41. Kerala Varma VII (1946-1948) - Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran
  42. Rama Varma XVIII (1948-1964) - Pareekshit Thampuran

Mughal Empire (1526-1857)

Mewar Dynasty

Sisodia

Suri dynasty (1540-1555)

Chogyal, monarchs of Sikkim and Ladakh (1642-1975)

1. 1642-1670 Phuntsog Namgyal (1604-1670) Ascended the throne and was consecrated as the first Chogyal of Sikkim. Made the capital in Yuksom.

2. 1670-1700 Tensung Namgyal (1644-1700) Shifted capital to Rabdentse from Yuksom.

3. 1700-1717 Chakdor Namgyal (1686-1717) His half-sister Pendiongmu tried to dethrone Chakdor, who fled to Lhasa, but was reinstated as king with the help of Tibetans.

4. 1717-1733 Gyurmed Namgyal (1707-1733) Sikkim was attacked by Nepalis.

5. 1733-1780 Phuntsog Namgyal II (1733-1780) Nepalis raided Rabdentse, the then capital of Sikkim.

6. 1780-1793 Tenzing Namgyal (1769-1793) Chogyal fled to Tibet, and later died there in exile.

7. 1793-1863 Tsugphud Namgyal (1785-1863) The longest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim. Shifted the capital from Rabdentse to Tumlong. Treaty of Titalia in 1817 between Sikkim and British India was signed in which territories lost to Nepal were appropriated to Sikkim. Darjeeling was gifted to British India in 1835. Two Britons, Dr. Arthur Campbell and Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker were captured by the Sikkimese in 1849. Hostilities between British India and Sikkim continued and led to a treaty signed, in which Darjeeling was ceded to the British Raj.

8. 1863-1874 Sidkeong Namgyal, (1819-1874)

9. 1874-1914 Thutob Namgyal (1860-1914) John Claude White appointed as the first political officer in Sikkim in 1889. Capital shifted from Tumlong to Gangtok in 1894.

10. 1914 Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal (1879-1914) The shortest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim, ruled from 10 February to 5 December 1914. Died of heart failure, aged 35, in most suspicious circumstances.

11. 1914-1963 Tashi Namgyal (1893-1963) Treaty between India and Sikkim was signed in 1950, giving India suzerainty over Sikkim.

12. 1963-1975 Palden Thondup Namgyal, (1923-1982)

Maratha Empire (1674-1818)

Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj era

The Empire was divided between two branches of the family c. 1707-10; and the division was formalized in 1731.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Kolhapur (1700-1947)

  • Chhatrapati Shivaji II (b. 1696, ruled 1700-14)
  • Sambhaji II of Kolhapur (b. 1698, r. 1714-60)
  • Rajmata Jijibai of Kolhapur|Rajmata Jijibai, regent (1760-73), senior widow of Sambhaji II
  • Rajmata Durgabai of Kolhapur|Rajmata Durgabai, regent (1773-79), junior widow of Sambhaji II
  • Shahu Shivaji II of Kolhapur (r. 1762-1813); adopted by Jijibai, his predecessor's senior widow
  • Sambhaji III of Kolhapur (b. 1801, r. 1813-21)
  • Shivaji III of Kolhapur (b. 1816, r. 1821-22) (council of regency)
  • Shahaji I of Kolhapur (b. 1802, r. 1822-38)
  • Shivaji IV of Kolhapur (b. 1830, r. 1838-66)
  • Rajaram I of Kolhapur (r. 1866-70)
  • Council of regency (1870-94)
  • Shivaji V of Kolhapur (b. 1863, r. 1871-83); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Rajarshi Shahu IV of Kolhapur (b. 1874, r. 1884-1922); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Rajaram II of Kolhapur (b. 1897 r. 1922-40)
  • Indumati Tarabai of Kolhapur, regent (1940-47), widow of Rajaram II
  • Shivaji VI of Kolhapur (b. 1941, r. 1941-46); adopted by his predecessor's widow
  • Shahaji II of Kolhapur (b. 1910, r. 1947, d. 1983); formerly Maharaja of Dewas Senior; adopted by Indumati Tarabai, widow of Rajaram II

The state acceded unto the Dominion of India following the independence of India in 1947.

Bhosale Chhatrapatis at Satara (1707-1839)

  • Shahu I (1708-1749). Son of Sambhaji I.
  • Ramaraja (1749-1777). Grandson of Rajaram and Tarabai; adopted son of Shahu I.
  • Shahu II of Satara (1777-1808). Son of Ramaraja.
  • Pratapsinh (1808-1839)
  • Shahaji III (1839-1848)
  • Pratapsinh I (adopted)
  • Rajaram III
  • Pratapsinh II
  • Raja Shahu III (1918-1950)

The Peshwas (1713-1858)

Technically they were not monarchs, but hereditary prime ministers, though in fact they ruled instead of the Maharaja after death of Chattrapati Shahu, and were hegemon of the Maratha confederation.

  • Balaji Vishwanath (1713 - 2 April 1720) (b. 1660, died 2 April 1720)
  • Peshwa Bajirao I (17 April 1720 - 28 April 1740) (b. 18 August 1700, died 28 April 1740)
  • Balaji Bajirao (4 July 1740 - 23 June 1761) (b. 8 December 1721, d. 23 June 1761)
  • Madhavrao Ballal (1761 - 18 November 1772) (b. 16 February 1745, d. 18 November 1772)
  • Narayanrao Bajirao (13 Dec 1772 - 30 August 1773) (b. 10 August 1755, d. 30 August 1773)
  • Raghunath Rao Bajirao (5 Dec 1773 - 1774) (b. 18 August 1734, d. 11 December 1783)
  • Sawai Madhavrao (1774 - 27 October 1795) (b. 18 April 1774, d. 27 October 1795)
  • Baji Rao II (6 Dec 1796 - 3 June 1818) (d. 28 January 1851)
  • Nana Sahib (1 July 1857 - 1858) (b. 19 May 1825, d. 24 September 1859)

Bhosale Maharajas of Thanjavur (?-1799)

Descended from a brother of Shivaji; ruled independently and had no formal relationship with the Maratha Empire.

The state was annexed by the British in 1799.

Bhosale Maharajas of Nagpur (1799-1881)

Holkar rulers of Indore (1731-1948)

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India. The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.

Scindia rulers of Gwalior (1731-1947)

Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.

Gaekwad dynasty of Baroda (1721-1947)

The Muslim vassals of the Mughal/British Paramountcy (1707-1856)

Nawabs of Bengal (1707-1770)

Nawabs of Oudh (1719-1858)

Nizams of Hyderabad (1720-1948)

Savanur State

Kingdom of Travancore (1729-1949)

Sikh Empire (1801-1849)

The British Empire annexed the Punjab c. 1845-49; after the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars

Emperors/Empresses of India (1857-1947)

Dominion of India (1947-1950)

Dominion of Pakistan (1947-1956)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The title "Emperor of India" did not disappear with Indian independence from Great Britain in 1947, but in 1947, as when India became the Dominion of India (1947-1950) after independence in 1947, George VI retained the title "Emperor of India" until 22 June 1947, and thereafter he remained monarch of India until it became the Republic of India in 1950.[12]

References

  1. ^ Upinder Singh (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India. Pearson Education India. pp. 381-384. ISBN 9788131711200.
  2. ^ Charles Higham (2009). Encyclopedia of Ancient Asian Civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 9781438109961.
  3. ^ Mahajan V.D. (1960, reprint 2007). Ancient India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, ISBN 81-219-0887-6, pp.594-6
  4. ^ a b Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1994). Ancient India, History and Archaeology. Abhinav. pp. 33-41. ISBN 978-81-7017-304-5.
  5. ^ a b Susan L. Huntington (1984). The "Påala-Sena" Schools of Sculpture. Brill Archive. pp. 32-39. ISBN 90-04-06856-2.
  6. ^ R. C. Majumdar (1971). History of Ancient Bengal. G. Bharadwaj. p. 161-162.
  7. ^ Abdul Momin Chowdhury (1967). Dynastic history of Bengal, c. 750-1200 CE. Asiatic Society of Pakistan. pp. 272-273.
  8. ^ Bindeshwari Prasad Sinha (1977). Dynastic History of Magadha, Cir. 450-1200 A.D. Abhinav Publications. pp. 253-. ISBN 978-81-7017-059-4.
  9. ^ Dineshchandra Sircar (1975-76). "Indological Notes - R.C. Majumdar's Chronology of the Pala Kings". Journal of Indian History. IX: 209-10.
  10. ^ Jain, Kailash Chand (1972). Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0824-9.
  11. ^ Prabhakar Gadre (1994). Bhosle of Nagpur and East India Company. Jaipur, India: Publication Scheme. p. 257. ISBN 978-81-85263-65-6. Cogent arguments were advanced against the lapse of Nagpur State. But ... the view of the Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, pravailed and the Nagpur kingdom was annexed on 13th March, 1854.
  12. ^ a b "No. 38330". The London Gazette. 22 June 1948. p. 3647. Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30.('Section 7: ...(2)The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words " Indiae Imperator " and the words " Emperor of India " and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.'). According to this Royal Proclamation, the King retained the Style and Titles 'George VI by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith', and he thus remained King of the various Dominions, including India and Pakistan, though these two (and others) eventually chose to abandon their monarchies and became republics.

Sources and external links


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