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His title Maharajadhiraja ("king of great kings") suggests that he was the first emperor of the dynasty. It is not certain how he turned his small ancestral kingdom into an empire, although a widely accepted theory among modern historians is that his marriage to the Lichchhavi princess Kumaradevi helped him extend his political power.
Defeated several kings of northern India, and annexed their territories to his empire. He also marched along the south-eastern coast of India, advancing as far as the Pallava kingdom. In addition, he subjugated several frontier kingdoms and tribal oligarchies. His empire extended from Ravi River in the west to the Brahmaputra River in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to central India in the south-west; several rulers along the south-eastern coast were his tributaries.
Continued the expansionist policy of his father Samudragupta: historical evidence suggests that he defeated the Western Kshatrapas, and extended the Gupta empire from the Indus River in the west to the Bengal region in the east, and from the Himalayan foothills in the north to the Narmada River in the south.
It is stated that he restored the fallen fortunes of the Gupta family, which has led to suggestions that during his predecessor's last years, the Empire may have suffered reverses, possibly against the Pushyamitras or the Hunas. He is generally considered the last of the great Gupta Emperors.
The beginning of the Satavahana rule is dated variously from 271 BCE to 30 BCE. Satavahanas dominated the Deccan region from 1st century BCE to 3rd century CE. It lasted till the early 3rd century CE. The following Satavahana kings are historically attested by epigraphic records, although the Puranas name several more kings (see Satavahana dynasty#List of rulers):
Alias The Great Saviour. His empire covered northwestern Gandhara and greater Bactria towards China, where Kushan presence has been asserted in the Tarim Basin. Under his reign, embassies were also sent to the Chinese court.
He was the last great Kushan emperor, and the end of his rule coincides with the invasion of the Sassanians as far as northwestern India, and the establishment of the Indo-Sassanians or Kushanshahs from around 240 CE.
Chahamanas of Shakambhari (6th century - 12th century)
Chahamana Dynasty (6th century - 12th century)
The Chahamanas of Shakambhari, colloquially known as the Chauhans of Sambhar (Sambhar Lake Town), were an Indian dynasty that ruled parts of the present-day Rajasthan and its neighbouring areas between 6th to 12th centuries. The territory ruled by them was known as Sapadalaksha. They were the most prominent ruling family of the Chahamana (Chauhan) clan, and were categorized among Agnivanshi Rajputs (Agnivansha) in the later medieval legends.
Brother of Kirtivarman. Expanded the Chalukya power in present-day Gujarat and Maharashtra after defeating the Kalachuri king Buddharaja. He also consolidated his rule in the Konkan coastal region of Maharashtra and Goa after conquering Revati-dvipa from the rebel Chalukya governor Svamiraja. His reign ended when he lost a war of succession to his nephew Pulakeshin II, a son of Kirttivarman I.
Son of Kirtivarman I, he overthrew his uncle Mangalesha to gain control of the throne. Suppressed a rebellion by Appayika and Govinda, and decisively defeated the Kadambas of Banavasi in the south. Consolidated the Chalukya control over the western coast by subjugating the Mauryas of Konkana. He was victorious against the
powerful northern emperor Harsha-vardhana. He also achieved some successes against the Pallavas in the south, but was ultimately defeated, and probably killed, during an invasion by the Pallava king Narasimhavarman I.
Conducted successful military campaigns against their enemy, the Pallavas of Kanchipuram, in three occasions: the first time as a crown prince, the second time as an emperor and the third time under the leadership of his son and crown prince Kirtivarman II.
First son of Danarnava. Returned from exile and recovered his throne. Now free from the usurper, however Eastern Vengi dynasty lost some of the independence they have gained some generations ago. Begin of the growing Chola influence in Vengi kingdom.
He had to fight on many fronts, against the Cholas of Tanjore in the south and the Paramara dynasty in the north, to protect his kingdom. His rule however was an important period of development of Kannada literature. He saw his cousins in Vengi fall firmly into the hands of the Cholas who would use their marital relations with the Eastern Chalukyas and their over lordship over Vengi to frustrate and threaten the Western Chalukyas from two fronts, from the east and from the South. But, at the same time, he consolidated more firmly the Western Chalukya power in the Deccan.
Son of Vimaladitya, had support in the throne from the Cholas, whose influence grew significantly. He supported Cholas against his cousins, the Western Chalukyas. His own son managed to succeed in the Chola Empire, in 1070, as Kulottunga I, beginning the Later Cholas period, in which the Chola Empire was ruled by a branch of the Eastern Chalukyas renamed Chola.
He was a noted historian, scholar, and poet, and authored the Sanskrit encyclopedic text Manasollasa touching upon such topics as polity, governance, astronomy, astrology, rhetoric, medicine, food, architecture, painting, poetry and music - making his work a valuable modern source of socio-cultural information of the 11th- and 12th-century India.
Recovered his capital, by defeating the Kalachuris, but failed to prevent his old allies, Seuna, Hoysala and the Kakatiya dynasty, who, after deposing Someshvara by 1200, divided his empire among themselves.
Shashanka dynasty (600-626)
Shashanka (600-625), first recorded independent king of Bengal, created the first unified political entity in Bengal
Manava (625-626), ruled for 8 months before being conquered by Harshavardana and Bhaskarvarmana
Harsha dynasty (606-647)
Harshavardhana (606-647), unified Northern India and ruled it for over 40 years, he was the last non-Muslim emperor to rule a unified Northern India
Indra IV (973-982), only a claimer for the lost throne
Pala Empire (c. 750-1174)
Most of the Pala inscriptions mention only the regnal year as the date of issue, without any well-known calendar era. Because of this, the chronology of the Pala kings is hard to determine. Based on their different interpretations of the various epigraphs and historical records, different historians estimate the Pala chronology as follows:
Earlier historians believed that Vigrahapala I and Shurapala I were the two names of the same person. Now, it is known that these two were cousins; they either ruled simultaneously (perhaps over different territories) or in rapid succession.
AM Chowdhury rejects Govindapala and his successor Palapala as the members of the imperial Pala dynasty.
According to BP Sinha, the Gaya inscription can be read as either the "14th year of Govindapala's reign" or "14th year after Govindapala's reign". Thus, two sets of dates are possible.
Paramara dynasty of Malwa (9th century to c. 1305)
The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources include:[page needed]
Upendra, 9th century
Vairisimha (I), 9th century (considered fictional by some historians)
Siyaka (I), 9th century (considered fictional by some historians)
Tipu Sultan (Tiger of Mysore) (1782-1799), son of Hyder Ali, considered the greatest ruler of Mysore, assumed the novel style Badhshah Bahadur of Khudadad (thus claiming the paramountcy of India instead of the Mughal 'mere' Badhshah), fought the British, Marathas and Nizams of Hyderabad in the 3 Anglo-Mysore Wars (where iron rockets) were first used, allied to the French, and lost everything
Udai Singh II (1540-1572) Lost Chittor to Akbar and moved his capital to Udaipur.
Maharana Pratap (1572-1597) Defeated at the Battle of Haldighati by Mughal forces and lost whole Mewar till 1579. Later when Akbar was busy in Mughal-Safavid War in Lahore, he used guerrilla warfare to take back more than half of Mewar.
Amar Singh I (1597-1620) Accepted Mughal dominance over Mewar and became Jahangir's vassal.
Chogyal, monarchs of Sikkim and Ladakh (1642-1975)
1. 1642-1670 Phuntsog Namgyal
(1604-1670) Ascended the throne and was consecrated as the first Chogyal of Sikkim. Made the capital in Yuksom.
2. 1670-1700 Tensung Namgyal
(1644-1700) Shifted capital to Rabdentse from Yuksom.
3. 1700-1717 Chakdor Namgyal
(1686-1717) His half-sister Pendiongmu tried to dethrone Chakdor, who fled to Lhasa, but was reinstated as king with the help of Tibetans.
4. 1717-1733 Gyurmed Namgyal
(1707-1733) Sikkim was attacked by Nepalis.
5. 1733-1780 Phuntsog Namgyal II
(1733-1780) Nepalis raided Rabdentse, the then capital of Sikkim.
6. 1780-1793 Tenzing Namgyal
(1769-1793) Chogyal fled to Tibet, and later died there in exile.
7. 1793-1863 Tsugphud Namgyal
(1785-1863) The longest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim. Shifted the capital from Rabdentse to Tumlong. Treaty of Titalia in 1817 between Sikkim and British India was signed in which territories lost to Nepal were appropriated to Sikkim. Darjeeling was gifted to British India in 1835. Two Britons, Dr. Arthur Campbell and Dr. Joseph Dalton Hooker were captured by the Sikkimese in 1849. Hostilities between British India and Sikkim continued and led to a treaty signed, in which Darjeeling was ceded to the British Raj.
8. 1863-1874 Sidkeong Namgyal, (1819-1874)
9. 1874-1914 Thutob Namgyal
(1860-1914) John Claude White appointed as the first political officer in Sikkim in 1889. Capital shifted from Tumlong to Gangtok in 1894.
10. 1914 Sidkeong Tulku Namgyal
(1879-1914) The shortest-reigning Chogyal of Sikkim, ruled from 10 February to 5 December 1914. Died of heart failure, aged 35, in most suspicious circumstances.
11. 1914-1963 Tashi Namgyal
(1893-1963) Treaty between India and Sikkim was signed in 1950, giving India suzerainty over Sikkim.
Following the independence of India in 1947, the state acceded unto the Dominion of India.
The monarchy was ended in 1948, but the title is still held by Usha Devi Maharaj Sahiba Holkar XV Bahadur, Maharani of Indore since 1961.
^The title "Emperor of India" did not disappear with Indian independence from Great Britain in 1947, but in 1947, as when India became the Dominion of India (1947-1950) after independence in 1947, George VI retained the title "Emperor of India" until 22 June 1947, and thereafter he remained monarch of India until it became the Republic of India in 1950.
^Prabhakar Gadre (1994). Bhosle of Nagpur and East India Company. Jaipur, India: Publication Scheme. p. 257. ISBN978-81-85263-65-6. Cogent arguments were advanced against the lapse of Nagpur State. But ... the view of the Governor-General, Lord Dalhousie, pravailed and the Nagpur kingdom was annexed on 13th March, 1854.
^ ab"No. 38330". The London Gazette. 22 June 1948. p. 3647. Royal Proclamation of 22 June 1948, made in accordance with the Indian Independence Act 1947, 10 & 11 GEO. 6. CH. 30.('Section 7: ...(2)The assent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom is hereby given to the omission from the Royal Style and Titles of the words " Indiae Imperator " and the words " Emperor of India " and to the issue by His Majesty for that purpose of His Royal Proclamation under the Great Seal of the Realm.'). According to this Royal Proclamation, the King retained the Style and Titles 'George VI by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland and the British Dominions beyond the Seas King, Defender of the Faith', and he thus remained King of the various Dominions, including India and Pakistan, though these two (and others) eventually chose to abandon their monarchies and became republics.