Sultanate of Showa
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Sultanate of Showa
The Sultanate of Showa and its neighbours

The Sultanate of Showa (Sultanate of Shewa) also known as Makhzumi Dynasty was a Muslim kingdom in present-day Ethiopia. It was situated in northern Hararghe in Harla territory in the vicinity of the town of Walale.[1][2] The port of Zeila may have influenced the kingdom.[3] The rise of the Makhzumi state at the same time resulted in the decline of the Kingdom of Axum.[4] Several engravings dating back to the 13th century showing the presence of the kingdom are found in Chelenqo, Bate, Harla near Dire Dawa and Munessa near Lake Langano.[5]

The Shewa sultanate was one of the oldest documented Muslim states in the region. The state ran along Muslim trade lines and dominions known to the Arab world as the country of Zeila.[6] Its founding dynastic family, the Makhzumis, is said to have consisted of Arab immigrants who arrived in Showa during the 9th century.[7] This ruling house governed the polity from AH 283/AD 896 to 1285-86, a period of three hundred and ninety years. The Makhzumi dynasty reigned until it was deposed by the Walashma dynasty of Yifat or Ifat (1285-1415). Ifat was once the easternmost district of Shewa Sultanate. In 1285 Ali b. Wali Asma deposed the kings of Shewa and installed a certain MHz.[8][9]

There were nine recorded Sulns of Showa (Shewa), who asserted descent from Wudd ibn Hisham al-Makhzumi.[10] The Showa chronicle records two other names before Suln Malasma (r. 1180-1183). However, it is not clear what is their relationship with the Makhzumi dynasty.

Ruler Name Reign Note
1 Amir Haboba 896 - 928 Earliest documented ruler of Hararghe. Haboba is unable to quell tribal conflicts, appeals to the Abbasid caliphate for mediators. Abdicates in favor of Abbasid mediating party leader Abadir.[11]
2 Amir Abadir Known as Father (Aw) Abadir Umar ar-Rida. Resolves tribal issues. Proselytized as far as Mogadishu.[12] Several tribes in the Horn of Africa venerate Abadir. Abdicates infavor of his father Qotb-din.
3 Amir Muhiaddin Known as Father (Aw) Barkhedle Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn. Proselytized as far as Maldives and Sri Lanka. Venerated by various tribes in the Horn of Africa and South Asia.
4 Amir Eidal Known as Father (Aw) Abdal.[13]
5 Amir Maya He is succeeded by his daughter.
6 Queen Badit - 1063 Daughter of King Maya, possibly Gudit who destroyed the Axum state[14][15]Harar chronicles lists her as Tedin Bint Maya Lama[16] The Makhzumi dynasty transitions from emirate to sultanate after the death of Badit.
7 Suln Malasma 1180 - 1183
8 Suln ?usein 1183 - 1193 He belonged to the Harla sub-clan Gidaya.[17]
10 Suln ?Abdallah 1193 - 1235
11 Suln Ma?amed 1235 - 1239 Son of Suln ?usein.
12 Suln Ganah 1252 - 1262
13 Suln M?lzarrah 1239 - 1252 Son of Suln Ma?amed. Married Fatimah Aydargun, daughter of Suln ?Ali "Baziwi" ?Umar of the Sultanate of Ifat in 1245, and mother of Sultan Dilm?rrah.
14 Suln Gir?m-Gaz'i 1262 - 1263 Son of Suln Ganah. The only other ruler in the region to hold the title Gazi "conqueror", aside from Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi. Abdicated in favor of his elder brother.
15 Suln Dil-G?mis 1263 - 1278 Son of Suln Ganah. Assumes the Axumite title "Dil" last used by Dil Na'od. Internal conflict, he was deposed by Dilm?rrah in 1269. In 1270 Yekuno Amlak establishes Amhara dynasty in the west with assistance of Gafat.[18] Dil-Gamis sought assistance from Yekuno Amlak in restoring his rule, and was briefly restored to the throne in July 1278, but was deposed again by August.
16 Suln Dilm?rrah 1269 - 1283 Son of Suln M?lzarrah. He was half-Walashma on his mother's side, and also married a Walashma princess. When Yekuno Amlak overthrew him to re-install Dil-G?mis in July 1278, the Sultanate of Ifat invaded and restored his rule. In 1280, Showa was incorporated into Ifat, and he was murdered in 1283, bringing a definitive end to the Sultanate of Showa. The Axumite title "Dil" would not be used again until the 16th century by Bati del Wambara.
17 Suln ?Abdallah 1279 - 1279 Son of Suln Ganah. Briefly deposed Suln Dilm?rrah to restore the rule of the sons of Ganah. However, this rebellion was short lived, and Showa would be annexed into Ifat the following year.
A map showing the center of the medieval Shoa Sultanate

Shewa Sultanate, established in 896, is the first Muslim state inland and according to the chronicle of the sultanate no major report of conversion to Islam was reported before the beginning of the 12th century.[19][8][9] However, beginning with the conversion of the Gbbh people in 1108, whom Trimingham suggested them being the ancestors of Argobbas, other people were converted. By mid fourteenth century Islam expanded in the region and the inhabitants leaving north of Awash river were the Muslim people of Zaber and Midra Zega (located south of modern Merhabete); the Gabal (or Warjeh people today called Tigri Worji); and Tegulat & Menz people whom at that time were Muslims.[20][21][19] The chronicle of Shewa sultanate also mentions that in 1128 the Amhara fled from the land of Werjih people whom at that time were pastoralist people and lived in the Awash valley east of Shoan plateau.[22]

Ifat or Yifat, established in early medieval times, was the easternmost district of Shewa Sultanate and was located in the strategic position between the central highlands and the Sea, especially the port of Zeila.[23][24] In 1285 Ifat's ruler Wali Asma deposed Shewan kings and established the Walasma dynasty and Shewa with its districts including its centers, Walalah and Tegulat, became one of the seven districts of Ifat sultanate.[9][25][26] Tegulat, previously the capital of Shewa Sultanate, is situated on a mountain 24 km north of Debre Berhan, located in today's North Shewa Zone (Amhara), and was known by Muslims as mar'ade which later became the seat of emperor Amda Tsion.[27][28][29] The chronicle of Amde Sion mentions Khat being widely consumed by Muslims in the city of Marade.[30]

Based on Cerulli's study of the names of the princes J. D. Fage and Roland Oliver were convinced that the inhabitants of Shewa spoke Ethiopian Semitic language likely Argobba language.[31] After Shewa was incorporated into Ifat an Egyptian courtier, Al Umari, would describe Ifat Sultanate as one of the largest as well as the richest of Ethiopias Muslim provinces, and Shewa, Adal, Jamma, Lao and Shimi are places incorporated into Ifat.[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ The Ethno-History of Halaba People (PDF). p. 15. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ Braukhaper, Ulrich (2002). Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 21. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Hbrek, Ivan (1988). Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century. UNESCO. p. 85. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ "Ethiopianist Notes". African Studies Center, Michigan State University. 1-2: 17. 1977.
  5. ^ GIANFRANCESCO, LUSINI. LINGUE DI CRISTIANI E LINGUE DI MUSULMANI D'ETIOPIA. EDIZIONI DI STORIA E LETTERATURA. p. 136.
  6. ^ Meri, Josef (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. Taylor and Francis. p. 12. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ Quath, Faati (1957). Islam Walbaasha Cabra Taarikh [Islam and Abyssinia throughout history] (in Arabic). Cairo, Egypt.
  8. ^ a b Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Pouwels The History of Islam in Africa - Google Books" Ohio University Press, 2000. p. 228.
  9. ^ a b c Stuart Munro-Hay Ethiopia, the Unknown Land: A Cultural and Historical Guide - Google Books" I.B.Tauris, 2002. p. 365.
  10. ^ Ethiopia, the Unknown Land: A Cultural and Historical Guide, Page 365-366
  11. ^ Baynes-Rock, Marcus (21 September 2015). My library My History Books on Google Play Among the Bone Eaters: Encounters with Hyenas in Harar. Penn State Press. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ Braukämper, Ulrich. Islamic History and Culture in Southern Ethiopia: Collected Essays. LIT Verlag Münster.
  13. ^ Ahmed, Wehib (2015). History of Harar and Hararis (PDF). Harar Culture Bureau. p. 105.
  14. ^ "Gudit fl. 10th century Orthodox Ethiopia". Dictionary of African Christian Biography. Retrieved 2017.
  15. ^ Munro-Hay, Stuart (3 May 2002). Ethiopia, the Unknown Land: A Cultural and Historical Guide. I.B.Tauris. p. 365. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ Ahmed, Wehib (2015). History of Harar and Hararis (PDF). Harar Culture Bureau. p. 105.
  17. ^ Ahmed, Wehib (2015). History of Harar and Hararis (PDF). Harar Culture Bureau. p. 105.
  18. ^ Pankhurst, Richard (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. Red Sea Press. p. 89.
  19. ^ a b J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3 - Google Books" Cambridge University Press, 1975. p. 107.
  20. ^ Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission Perspectives Des Études Africaines Contemporaines: Rapport Final D'un Symposium International - Google Books" 1974. p. 269.
  21. ^ Richard Pankhurst The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century - Google Books" The Red Sea Press, 1997. p. 41-42.
  22. ^ J. D. Fage, Roland Oliver The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3 - Google Books" Cambridge University Press, 1975. p. 107.
  23. ^ Nehemia Levtzion, Randall Pouwels The History of Islam in Africa - Google Books" Ohio University Press, 2000. p. 228.
  24. ^ David H. Shinn, Thomas P. Ofcansky Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia - Google Books" Scarecrow Press, 2013. p. 225.
  25. ^ a b Richard Pankhurst The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century - Google Books" The Red Sea Press, 1997. p. 45-46.
  26. ^ Harm Johannes Schneider Leprosy and Other Health Problems in Hararghe, Ethiopia - Google Books" 1975. p. 18.
  27. ^ George Wynn Brereton Huntingford The Historical Geography of Ethiopia: From the First Century Ad to 1704 - Google Books" British Academy, 1989. p. 78.
  28. ^ George Wynn Brereton Huntingford The Historical Geography of Ethiopia: From the First Century Ad to 1704 - Google Books" British Academy, 1989. p. 80.
  29. ^ Niall Finneran The Archaeology of Ethiopia - Google Books" Routledge, 2013. p. 254.
  30. ^ Maurice Randrianame, B. Shahandeh, Kalman Szendrei, Archer Tongue, International Council on Alcohol and Addictions The health and socio-economic aspects of khat use - Google Books" The Council, 1983. p. 26.
  31. ^ Fage, J.D (1975). The Cambridge History of Africa. Cambridge University. p. 107. Retrieved 2016.

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