|Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China|
Zh?nghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó
Zuìg?o Rénmín F?yuàn
Emblem of the People's Courts of the People's Republic of China
|Established||22 October 1949|
|Composition method||Presidential selection with National People's Congress approval|
|Authorized by||Constitution of the People's Republic of China|
|Judge term length||5 years|
|President and Chief Justice|
|Since||15 March 2013|
|Executive Vice President|
|Since||24 April 2008|
The Supreme People's Court (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), officially the Supreme People's Court of the People's Republic of China, is the highest level of court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China. Except for cases investigated by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR,Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court.
The Supreme People's Court is regarded as the superior appellate forum in China which supervises and governs the procedure of justice by all the special people courts and the local, subordinate courts. It is also the court of last resort in the whole of China.
The court is made up of 340 judges who meet in smaller tribunals to decide cases.
The court system consists of a four-level, two-hearing system trial process.
The court was established on 22 October 1949.
In 2005, the Supreme People's Court announced its intent to "[take] back authority for death penalty approval" over concerns about "sentencing quality", and the National People's Congress officially changed the Organic Law on the People's Courts to require all death sentences to be approved by the Supreme People's Court on 31 October 2006. A 2008 report stated that since the new review process, the court has rejected 15 percent of the death sentences decided by lower courts.
On 1 January 2019, the Intellectual Property Tribunal of the Supreme People's Court was established to handle all second instance hearings from cases heard in the first instance by the Intellectual Property Courts.
The reply is a request for a specific case. Its legal binding force is limited to the case itself and does not have universal legal effect. In other cases, the judge cannot directly use the above reply as the basis for the judgement. For documents that have universal effectiveness and guide courts at all levels, the Supreme People's Court generally publishes it in the form of judicial interpretation and can make inquiries in newspapers and on the Internet.