Taiwanese Romanization System
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Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
Traditional Chinese?
Simplified Chinese?
Tâi-lô
Traditional Chinese?
Simplified Chinese?

The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-j? Phing-im Hong-àn, [taiuan banlami lomadi? p?im? hoan], Chinese: ; pinyin: Táiw?n M?nnány? Luóm?zì P?ny?n F?ng'àn; Pe?h-?e-j?: Tâi-oân Bân-lâm-gí Lô-má-j? Pheng-im Hong-àn; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien. It is derived from Pe?h-?e-j? and since 2006 has been one of the officially promoted phonetic notation system by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.[1] It is nearly identical to Pe?h-?e-j? apart from using ts tsh j instead of c ch j for the fricatives /ts ts? dz/, the substitution of o for u in vowel combinations oa oe etc. etc. and the substitution of e for i in eng.

Taiwanese Romanization System

Alphabet

Taiwanese Romanization System uses 16 basic Latin letters (A, B, E, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, S, T, U), 7 digraphs (Kh, Ng, nn, Oo, Ph, Th, Ts) and a trigraph (Tsh). In addition, it uses 6 diacritics to represent tones.

Capital letter A B E G H I J K Kh L M N Ng O Oo P Ph S T Th Ts Tsh U
Lower case a b e g h i j k kh l m n ng nn o oo p ph s t th ts tsh u
IPA [a] [b] [e] [?] [h, ?] [i] [d?z] [k] [k?] [l] [m] [n] [?] [] [o] [?] [p] [p?] [s] [t] [t?] [t?s] [t?s?] [u]
  • "nn" is only used after a vowel to express nasalization, so it has no capital letter.
  • Palatalization occurs when "j, s, ts, tsh" are followed by "i", so "ji, si, tsi, tshi" are sometimes governed as trigraphs and tetragraphs.
  • Of the 10 unused basic Latin letters, "R" is sometimes used to express dialectal vowels (somewhat similar to erhua), while the others (C, D, F, Q, V, W, X, Y, Z) are only used in loanwords.

Sample texts

Tâi-lô
Pe?h-u?-j? (PUJ) s? 1 khuán i?ng Latin (Lô-má) phìng-im h?-thóng lâi siá Tâi-uân ê gí-giân ê su-b?n bûn-j?. In-u? tong-tshoo s? thuân-kàu-s? ín--jp-lâi ê, sóo-í ia?h-?-lâng k? PUJ kiò-tsò Kàu-hu? Lô-má-j?, he?k-tsiá s? kán-tshing Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hi?n-t?i ê sú-i?ng-tsiá b?-tsió m?-s? kàu-tôo, kàu-tôo m? tsin ts? b?-hiáu PUJ.
Pe?h-?e-j?
Pe?h-?e-j? (POJ) s? 1 khoán i?ng Latin (Lô-má) phèng-im h?-thóng lâi siá Tâi-ôan ê gí-giân ê su-b?n bûn-j?. In-?i tong-chho? s? thôan-kàu-s? ín--jp-lâi ê, só?-í ia?h-?-lâng k? POJ kiò-chò Kàu-h?e Lô-má-j?, he?k-chiá s? kán-chheng Kàu-lô. Put-jî-kò hi?n-t?i ê sú-i?ng-chiá b?-chió m?-s? kàu-tô?, kàu-tô? m? chin ch? b?-hiáu POJ.
Hàn-j?
(POJ)?1Latin(),POJ?,,?POJ?
IPA
[pe?uedi ?i ti?k?uan io? latin (loma) p?i?im het?o? lai ?a taiuan e gigi?n e subin bundi ? inui to?t?s? ?i t?uankausu indi?lai e s?i ia?ula? ka pe?uedi kiot?so kauhue lomadi hi?tia ?i kanti? kaulo ? pu?diko hi?ntai e suio?tia betio mi kaut? kaut? ma tin t?se behiau pe?uedi ?]

Values

Consonants

Initials
Bilabial Alveolar Alveolo-palatal Velar Glottal
Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless Voiced Voiceless
Nasal m [m]
? ?(moo)
n [n]
? ?(n?i)
ng [?]
? ?(ngá)
Plosive Unaspirated p [p]
? ?(pian)
b [b]
? ?(bûn)
t [t]
? ?(t?)
k [k]
? ?(kiû)
g [g]
? ?(gí)
Aspirated ph [p?]
? ?(pho)
th [t?]
? ?(thann)
kh [k?]
? ?(khì)
Affricate Unaspirated ts [ts]
? ?(tsan)
j [dz]
? ?(jua?h)
tsi [t?]
? ?(tsiam)
ji [d?]
? ?(ji?p)
Aspirated tsh [ts?]
? ?(tshut)
tshi [t]
? ?(tshiú)
Fricative s [s]
? ?(sann)
si [?]
? ?(siá)
h [h]
? ?(hí)
Lateral l [l]
? ?(liú)
Syllabic consonant
Bilabial Velar
Nasal m [m?]
? ?(?)
ng []
? ?(sng)

Vowels & Rhymes

Simple & Nasal
Front Central Back
Simple Nasal Simple Simple Nasal
Close i [i]
? ?(i)
inn [?]
? ?(înn)
u [u]
? ?(u)
unn [?]
? ?(tiunn)
Mid e [e]
? ?(lé)
enn [?]
? ?(senn)
o[?]
? ?(ko)
oo [?]
? ?(oo)
onn []
? ?(onn)
Open a [a]
? ?(tsa)
ann [ã]
? ?(sann)
Dialect
Tâi-lô IPA Bopomofo
ir [?] ?
er [?] ?
ee [?] ?
ere [?e] [a]
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [?] [p?] [t?] [k?] [?]
[a] a ann am an ang ap at ak ah annh
[ai] ai ainn aih ainnh
[au] au auh
[e] e enn eh ennh
[i] i inn im in ing ip it ik ih innh
[ia] ia iann iam ian iang iap iat iak iah iannh
[iau] iau iaunn iauh
[i?] io ioh
[i?] iong iok
[iu] iu iunn iuh iunnh
Vowel(s) Open syllabus Nasal Plosive
[m] [n] [?] [p?] [t?] [k?] [?]
[?] o oh
[?] oo onn om ong op ok ooh onnh
[u] u un ut uh
[ua] ua uann uan uat uah
[uai] uai uainn
[ue] ue ueh
[ui] ui
[m?] m - mh
[] ng - ngh
  • ing pronounced [], ik pronounced [k?].

Tones

Tone No. 1 2 (= 6) 3 4 5 7 8
Name
im-pîng si?ng-siann im-khì im-ji?p iông-pîng iông-khì iông-ji?p
Symbol None Acute Grave None (-p, -t, -k, -h) Circumflex macron Vertical line above (-p, -t, -k, -h)
´ ` ^ ? ?
Pitch ? ?
55 51 31 3? 24 33 5?
Example tong (?) tóng (?) tòng (?) tok (?) tông (?) t?ng (?) to?k (?)

A hyphen links elements of a compound word. A double hyphen indicates that the following syllable has a neutral tone and therefore that the preceding syllable does not undergo tone sandhi.

Notes

  1. ^ In version of Ngoo Siu-le [zh], /?e/ [ere] is spelled as [oe] while the Phonetic Symbol "?Extended Bopomofo U+31A4.svg" is replaced with "Extended Bopomofo oe.svg".

References

  1. ^ Cheng Jei-cheng (2008). Taiwan Minnanyu Luomazi Pinyin Fang'an Shiyong Shouce ? [Practical Manual for the Taiwan Southern Min Romanization System] (PDF) (in Chinese) (2nd ed.). ROC Ministry of Education. ISBN 978-986-01-6637-8.
  2. ^ ? (PDF) (in Chinese). 2007. ISBN 978-986-00-7755-1.

External links


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