Tangshan
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Tangshan
Tangshan

Nickname(s): 
Phoenix City
Location of Tangshan City jurisdiction in Hebei
Location of Tangshan City jurisdiction in Hebei
Tangshan is located in Hebei
Tangshan
Tangshan
Location of the city centre in Hebei
Coordinates (Tangshan government): 39°37?52?N 118°10?48?E / 39.631°N 118.180°E / 39.631; 118.180Coordinates: 39°37?52?N 118°10?48?E / 39.631°N 118.180°E / 39.631; 118.180
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHebei
Government
 o Party SecretaryJiao Yanlong ()
 o MayorDing Xiufeng ()
Area
 o Prefecture-level city13,472 km2 (5,202 sq mi)
 o Urban
249 km2 (96 sq mi)
 o Metro
3,874 km2 (1,496 sq mi)
Population
(2010 census)
 o Prefecture-level city7,536,521
 o Density560/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
 o Urban
1,976,971
 o Urban density7,900/km2 (21,000/sq mi)
 o Metro
3,187,171
 o Metro density820/km2 (2,100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
063000
Area code(s)315
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE-02
GDP¥605.383 billion (2016)
GDP per capita¥80458 (2016)
License Plate Prefix?B
Websitetangshan.gov.cn

Tangshan (Chinese: ; pinyin: Tángsh?n) is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in the northeast of Hebei province. It has become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale, flattening much of the city and killing at least 255,000 residents according to official estimates. The city has since been rebuilt, has become a tourist attraction and has among the 10 largest ports in China.[1]

The city of Tangshan is approximately 149 kilometers, 92 miles or 80 nautical miles east by south east of the country's capital city of Beijing. It takes roughly 2 hours by road to get from Tangshan to Beijing and 1 hour by road to reach Tianjin.[2]

Tangshan's prefecture population was 7,577,289 at the 2010 census, with 3,187,171 in the built-up (or metro) area made of the 6 urban core districts.

Etymology

Tangshan is named after Dacheng Mountain (), which is also called Mount Tang, in the middle of Tangshan city.

In A.D. 645, Li Shimin- an emperor of Tang Dynasty and his army were stationed at Dacheng Mountain on his way back from Korean Peninsula. Unfortunately, Caofei, his beloved concubine, died here. In order to commemorate his Caofei, he named the mountain with the name of the state--Tang. Later, the name of the mountain became the name of the city.

History

Early history

Tangshan has a long history, with ancient humans living in the area as early as 4,000 years ago. It fell within the territory of the Guzhu Kingdom (1600BC) at the time of the Shang Dynasty and later became a part of the State of Yan, one of the seven Warring States (403 – 221BC). During the Han Dynasty (206BC – 220AD) it became part of the ancient province of Youzhou. It was under the jurisdiction of Yongping Province and Zunhua State successively during the Qing dynasty (1644-1911).

Tang, Ming and Qing dynasties

Tangshan was a village at the time of the Tang dynasty (619-907) and developed further in agriculture, oil exploitation and ceramics during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

During the Hundred Days' Reform in the late Qing dynasty, the Kaiping Mining Administration was established in the third year of the Guangxu Emperor (1877). In 1878, Qiaotun town was established at Tangshan and renamed Tangshan Town in 1889. In 1938, Tangshan City was formally founded. The administrative system of Tangshan during the Republic of China Republican era continued to follow the Qing system. In 1929, Zhili Province changed its name to Hebei Province. On January28, 1939, because of Tangshan's special economic and political position, the Eastern-Hebei Anti-communist Government established Tangshan City which was initially called "Tangshan Municipal Government" and later changed to "Tangshan Municipal Office". After Japan surrendered in 1945, the Chinese Nationalist Party in Peking (now known as Beijing) took over the political control of Tangshan from Japan and set up an Administration Inspectors Office. In April 1946, it was decided at the 132nd Meeting of the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee to set up Tangshan City and on May5 of the same year, the Tangshan Municipal government was founded.

People's Republic

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October1, 1949, Tangshan remained a provincially administered municipality with 12 areas under its jurisdiction. In March 1955, it was decided at the 2nd session of the first People's Congress of Tangshan City to change Tangshan Municipal people's government to Tangshan people's committee without changing its administration areas.

On April28, 1958, the State Council approved the establishment of Tangshan prefecture. On August29, 1958, it was decided at the Seventh Session of the first People's Congress of Hebei Province to move the Tangshan Commissioner Office from Changli County to Tangshan City.

The CPC Central Committee decided to designate Tangshan city as one of the 45 cities open to the world on June3, 1959. On June 8, 1959, the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee and the Hebei Provincial People's Congress decided to combine the Tangshan Commissioners Office and the Tangshan People's Committee into the Tangshan People's Committee. On April2, 1960, the State Council officially approved the abolition of Tangshan prefecture. Qinhuangdao city, Qian'an, Changli, Laoting, Baodi, Yutian, Jixian County and Zunhua which were formerly administrated by Tangshan Prefecture were incorporated into the Tangshan Municipality. Luanxian County, Fengrun County (formerly a district) and Baigezhuang Farm were also incorporated into Tangshan Municipality. Meanwhile, Tangshan became a provincially administered municipality.

Statue of Mao Zedong in Tangshan

On May23, 1961, the State Council approved the reinstatement of Tangshan prefecture, which was adopted at the 14th Meeting of the Hebei Provincial People's Committee on June3, 1959. Tangshan prefecture and Tangshan municipality were separated again and Tangshan turned into a specially administered municipality.

The Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee affiliated to the Revolutionary Committee of Tangshan Region was set up on January6, 1968, On March 11, 1978, Tangshan turned to be a provincially administered municipality.

In October 1982, it was decided at the Seventh People's Congress of Tangshan city to abolish the Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee and set up the Tangshan Municipal People's Government.

The State Council approved the move on March 3, 1983 and thereafter implemented the city-governing-county system. On May13, 1983, the Hebei Provincial People's Government announced the cancellation of the Civic Administration office of Tangshan region, which ceased operation on May15, 1983.

On December15, 1984, the State Council approved Tangshan city as one of 13 national "comparatively big" cities.

1976 Tangshan earthquake

Tangshan suffered an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 (7.5 according to official reports) at 3:42am on July28, 1976, which resulted in many casualties. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that the actual number of fatalities was two to three times that number, making it the most destructive earthquake in modern history. As a result of the earthquake, most of the town had to be rebuilt. The earthquake was depicted in the 2010 movie Aftershock.

Geography

Tangshan is located in the central section of the Bohai Economic Rim, facing the Bohai Sea to the south. Lying on the North China Plain, Tangshan is adjacent to the Yan Mountains to the north, borders the Luan River and Qinhuangdao to the east, and to the west adjoins with Beijing and Tianjin. Because of its location in the northeast of Hebei, it is a strategic area and a corridor linking two China's north and northeast regions. The largest river in the prefecture is the Luan River.

Climate

Tangshan has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with cold and very dry winters, and hot, rainy summers. Spring and autumn are short with some rainfall. The monthly 24-hour average temperature in January is -5.1 °C (22.8 °F), and 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 11.5 °C (52.7 °F). Close to 60% of the annual precipitation of 610 millimetres (24.0 in) falls in July and August alone. The frost-free period lasts 180-190 days, and the area receives 2,600-2,900 hours of sunshine annually.

Climate data for Tangshan (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.1
(53.8)
19.5
(67.1)
23.5
(74.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.1
(97.0)
39.6
(103.3)
39.6
(103.3)
36.0
(96.8)
33.1
(91.6)
31.4
(88.5)
22.7
(72.9)
13.2
(55.8)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
4.1
(39.4)
10.7
(51.3)
19.6
(67.3)
25.2
(77.4)
29.1
(84.4)
30.2
(86.4)
29.4
(84.9)
25.9
(78.6)
19.1
(66.4)
9.8
(49.6)
3.0
(37.4)
17.3
(63.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) -5.1
(22.8)
-2.0
(28.4)
4.6
(40.3)
13.1
(55.6)
19.0
(66.2)
23.4
(74.1)
25.7
(78.3)
24.7
(76.5)
20.0
(68.0)
12.8
(55.0)
4.0
(39.2)
-2.5
(27.5)
11.5
(52.7)
Average low °C (°F) -10.2
(13.6)
-7.0
(19.4)
-0.8
(30.6)
7.1
(44.8)
13.0
(55.4)
18.2
(64.8)
21.7
(71.1)
20.5
(68.9)
14.6
(58.3)
7.5
(45.5)
-0.7
(30.7)
-7.0
(19.4)
6.4
(43.5)
Record low °C (°F) -22.7
(-8.9)
-19.8
(-3.6)
-14.6
(5.7)
-4.7
(23.5)
3.5
(38.3)
9.4
(48.9)
14.6
(58.3)
11.2
(52.2)
4.7
(40.5)
-5.6
(21.9)
-14.5
(5.9)
-17.0
(1.4)
-22.7
(-8.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4.3
(0.17)
4.4
(0.17)
9.6
(0.38)
21.3
(0.84)
42.7
(1.68)
86.6
(3.41)
192.8
(7.59)
162.5
(6.40)
48.2
(1.90)
23.5
(0.93)
9.9
(0.39)
4.5
(0.18)
610.3
(24.04)
Average precipitation days 2.4 2.4 3.4 4.6 6.6 9.0 12.9 10.7 6.4 4.8 3.0 2.0 68.2
Source: Weather China

Air pollution

As air pollution in China is at an all-time high, several Hebei cities are among the most polluted in the country and Tangshan has some of the worst air quality in China. Reporting on China's airpocalypse has been accompanied by what seems like a monochromatic slideshow of the country's several cities smothered in thick smog. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, 7 cities in Hebei including Xingtai, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Langfang, Hengshui and Tangshan, are among China's 10 most polluted cities.[3]

Economy

The Caofeidian Port

Tangshan is an important heavy industrial city in North China. Its output include machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, textiles, glass, petroleum products, and cement. It has been a coal-mining center since late Qing Dynasty, as Guangdong merchant Tong King-sing opened the first coal mine using modern techniques in Kaiping in 1877.[4] Since the construction of the Caofeidian Project, it has hosted large iron and steel plants, chemical projects, and electricity plants. It is China's largest steel-producing city.[5] Tangshan is also called the "porcelain capital of North China." [6]

Modern industry in China first arose in Tangshan. The second railway in China – after the abortive Woosung Railway in Shanghai – was the six-mile track laid between Hsukochuang and Tangshan which opened in 1881;[7] this eventually grew into the Imperial Railroad of North China and China's modern Jingshan and Jingha Railways. The first fire-resistant material manufactory and the first and largest cement manufactory were constructed in Tangshan as well.

In 2008, the GDP of Tangshan was ¥356.119 billion, ranked No. 1 among all the prefecture-level cities in Hebei Province, and No. 19 in China. GDP per capita reached ¥48,190 ($6,817).[]

Tangshan's GDP in 2011 reached 544.2billion RMB, up 11.7% over the same period of last year. The overall fiscal revenue reached 55.5 billion RMB, among which the general budget revenue reached 25.56 billion RMB, up 26.6% and 30.5% respectively. The per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents reached 21785RMB and 9460RMB respectively, an increase of 11.4% and 13.8%, leading the first in Hebei Province.

Industrial zone

Demographics

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Tangshan administers 14 county-level divisions including 7 districts, 4 counties and 3 county-level cities.

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 census)[8] Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Lubei District Lùb?i Q? 743,504 112 6,638
Lunan District Lùnán Q? 311,076 355 876
?Hangu Administration Zone* Hàng? Gu?nl?q?
?Lutai Economic Development Zone* Lútái J?ngjì Jìshù K?if?q?
Guye District G?y? Q? 358,461 253 1,417
Kaiping District K?ipíng Q? 262,571 252 1,042
Fengrun District F?ngrùn Q? 916,092 1,334 687
Fengnan District F?ngnán Q? 595,467 1,568 380
Built-up area 3,187,171 3,874 823
Caofeidian District ? Cáof?idi?n Q? 184,931 700 264
Zunhua City Z?nhuà Shì 737,011 1,521 485
Qian'an City Qi?n'?n Shì 728,160 1,208 603
Luanzhou City Luánzh?u Shì 554,315 999 555
Luannan County Luánnán Xiàn 584,518 1,270 460
Laoting County Làotíng Xiàn 526,222 1,308 402
Qianxi County Qi?nx? Xiàn 390,128 1,439 271
Yutian County Yùtián Xiàn 684,833 1,165 588
*Hangu Administration Zone and Lutai Economic Development Zone is subordinate to Lunan District but formally part of Binhai New Area in Tianjin.

Education

Tangshan Museum

Universities and colleges

High schools

Culture

The Anti-seismic Monument
The Pagoda in the Site of Tiangong Temple

Specialty

Traditional Arts

Tourism

Religion

Transport

Tangshan Railway Station

Air

Rail

Roads

Notable people

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ "Top 10 ports in China". www.china.org.cn. China Org. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ The guide to port entry (21 ed.). London: IHS Fairplay guides. 1 January 2017.
  3. ^ Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most-and Least-Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  4. ^ Ellsworth C.Carlson, The Kaiping Mines, 1877-1912 2d ed (Cambridge, Massachusetts: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1971.
  5. ^ "Commodities: Steel chrysanthemums: A China-driven rally in metals prices may be as fleeting as spring". The Economist. 12 March 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  6. ^ ?,"?".
  7. ^ Huenemann, Ralph Wm. Harvard East Asian Monographs, No. 109. The Dragon and the Iron Horse: the Economics of Railroads in China, 1876-1937, p. 254. Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1984. ISBN 0-674-21535-4. Accessed 12 October 2011.
  8. ^ "China: Héb?i (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  9. ^ "A Brief Introduction to Hebei United University". Archived from the original on 2014-09-10.

External links


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Tangshan
 



 



 
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