Temporal Clause (Latin)
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Temporal Clause Latin

A temporal clause is an adverbial clause of time, that is to say, a clause which informs the reader about the time when the action of main verb of the sentence occurred. So in a sentence such as 'after I had said this, he went out', the first clause is a temporal clause. The name comes from the Latin word tempus, genitive temporis, 'time'.

Typically in Latin a temporal clause has a conjunction of time such as cum 'when' or postquam 'after' at or near the beginning of the clause and a verb at the end. The verb in a Latin temporal clause is usually in the indicative mood, although sometimes, especially when the conjunction is cum, it is in the subjunctive. But if the clause is part of indirect speech, the verb is nearly always in the subjunctive mood.[1]

The conjunctions used to introduce temporal clauses sometimes have other, non-temporal, meanings. For example, cum can mean 'when', 'since', or 'although'; dum can mean 'while', 'until', or 'provided that'; ubi can mean 'when' or 'where', and so on.

Another possibility commonly used in Latin for expressing time is a participial phrase. For example, the temporal clauses id postquam aud?vit (Nepos)[2] 'after he heard this' and quod cum aud?visset (Cicero)[3] 'when he heard this' both mean much the same thing as the participial phrase qu? aud?t? (Pliny)[4] (literally, 'with which heard').

Temporal clauses are very frequent in certain styles of Latin such as history, and it is not uncommon to find a sentence introduced by two or three temporal clauses, often mixed with participial phrases of time.

Classification of temporal clauses

A common way of classifying temporal clauses is according to whether the action or situation described in the temporal clause is antecedent, contemporaneous, or subsequent to that of the main verb:[5][6]

A. The action of the temporal clause verb is antecedent to that of the main verb:

  • The temporal clause describes an event completed before the main verb
e.g. 'after the signal was given, they began fighting'
  • The temporal clause describes a situation which began before the main verb and which may overlap with it
e.g. 'once the soldiers were in position, the generals came forward'

B. The action of the temporal clause verb is contemporaneous with the main verb:

  • Two events co-occur
e.g. 'when he fell, he was hurt'
  • Two situations are co-extensive
e.g. 'he was happy as long as he lived'
  • The main clause event occurs during the temporal clause situation
e.g. 'they arrived while he was sleeping'
  • The temporal clause event occurs during the main clause situation
e.g. 'when they arrived he was sleeping'
  • The main clause situation is interrupted by a temporal clause event
e.g. 'he was sleeping, when suddenly they arrived'
  • The temporal clause defines the start-point of a situation
e.g. 'he had lived there since he was born'
  • The temporal clause defines the end-point of a situation
e.g. 'he lived there until he died'

C. The action of the temporal clause is subsequent to that of the main verb:

  • The temporal clause event happened
e.g. 'he left before I arrived'
  • The temporal clause event did not happen
e.g. 'he left before I had a chance to speak'

A second way of classifying temporal clauses is whether the sentence refers to a definite time, as in the above examples, or is iterative, describing a generalisation or repeated action at an indefinite time:

e.g. 'whenever they win, they make a sacrifice'

A third classification is whether the main verb and hence the sentence as a whole is situated in past, present, or future time.

A fourth method of classification, followed in this article, is according to the different conjunctions used.

Choice of conjunction

Roman authors differ from one another in style, and this is shown among other things by their preference for different conjunctions. The table below[7] shows the number of temporal clauses for some of the most common conjunctions in three historians of the republican period, Julius Caesar, Cornelius Nepos, and Sallust, and two poets of the following generation, Virgil and Ovid. The conjunctions are cum 'when, while', postquam 'after', ubi 'when', ut 'as, as soon as, when', simulatque 'as soon as'. The figures for poste?quam and simulac are included with postquam and simulatque.

Author cum
postquam ubi ut simulatque
Caesar 10 147 22 55 5 6
Nepos 13 181 45 4 26 4
Sallust 22 24 90 119 0 0
Virgil 51 11 19 30 22 1
Ovid 35 13 30 25 36 13

The figures for cum here are for clauses of time only, omitting causal or concessive ones.[8]

The table shows that the narrative cum with the subjunctive is very common in Caesar and Nepos, but little used by the other three authors. Sallust used ubi more than any other of the conjunctions, but it was avoided by Nepos. Conversely, Nepos and the two poets make frequent use of ut, but it is never used by Sallust. Caesar made relatively little use of postquam compared with the other authors.

The following table[9] shows the relative use of postquam and poste?quam 'after' and antequam and priusquam 'before':

Author postquam poste?quam antequam priusquam
Cicero 57 187 203 90
Caesar 13 9 2 17
Nepos 35 9 0 32
Sallust 89 2 1 14
Livy 428 4 97 308

From this table it can be seen that Cicero had a clear preference for poste?quam, while the other authors preferred postquam. The conjunction antequam is more common than priusquam in Cicero, and was used to an extent by Livy, but is almost completely avoided by Caesar, Nepos, and Sallust.

The conjunctions quoad and d?nec, both meaning 'until' or 'as long as', also show variation. Quoad occurs 144 times in Cicero but only twice in Tacitus.[10] It is rare in poetry, occurring once in Horace and twice in Lucretius only. Conversely, d?nec is hardly found at all in writers of the republican period, but became popular under the empire; in Tacitus it occurs 140 times.[11][12][13]

Author quoad d?nec
Cicero 144 3
Caesar 7 0
Sallust 2 0
Nepos 11 0
Livy 1-10 4 54
Tacitus 2 140

Tense and mood

The tense and mood of the verb used in a temporal clause can affect the meaning. For example, cum v?nisset (pluperfect subjunctive) means 'after he came', but cum v?nerat (pluperfect indicative) means 'whenever he came'. Or again, dum venit (present indicative) means 'while he was coming', but dum ven?ret (imperfect subjunctive) means 'until he came'.

The tense and mood used in a temporal clause may also vary with the conjunction: postquam aud?vit ('after he heard') uses the perfect indicative, but cum aud?visset ('when he had heard') uses the pluperfect subjunctive, although the meaning is very similar or identical. In general postquam, ubi, ut, and simulatque tend to use the perfect or imperfect indicative in a past context, whereas with cum, the imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive are more common.

Over the three centuries between 200 BC and 100 AD, the use of the subjunctive in temporal clauses became more common. The conjunction cum mostly has the indicative in Plautus, but in Caesar the majority of cum clauses have the subjunctive. Iterative clauses ('whenever...') usually have the indicative in time of Caesar and Cicero, except in generalising 2nd person clauses, but from Livy onwards the subjunctive became usual.[14] A similar increased use of the subjunctive has been observed with clauses containing dum 'while / until' and priusquam 'before'.[15]

On the whole, temporal clauses use the indicative mood except (a) the common use of cum with the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive; (b) clauses of the type 'before X could happen' or 'until such time as X might happen' which anticipate some future event; (c) in addition, as with other subordinate clauses in Latin, most temporal clauses in indirect speech (?r?ti? obl?qua) have their verb in the subjunctive mood.

One difference from English grammar is that in most temporal clauses referring to a future time (e.g. 'when you receive this, write back'), the future or future perfect tense is used in Latin, where English uses the present. Thus the Latin equivalent is 'when you will have received this, write back'. In such sentences, if the main verb is an imperative, the future imperative (e.g. scr?bit? 'write (at that time)') is used. The same tenses are used with conditional sentences starting with s? 'if':

  • ubi nihil erit quod scr?b?s, id ipsum scr?bit? (Cicero)[16]
'when there is (lit. 'will be') nothing to write about, write that fact itself'
  • s? quid acciderit ... scr?bit? (Cicero)[17]
'if anything happens (lit. 'will have happened'), write'

Word order

A temporal clause can come before the main clause, after it, or in the middle. It is also possible, in the case of separated prius ... quam, for the main verb to be placed in the middle of the conjunction. In the majority of cases, however, temporal clauses precede the clauses which they modify.[18] This is because the main information which the speaker wishes to communicate, or 'focus' of the sentence, tends to be placed second. But if the main information is in the temporal clause (as with cum inversum clauses), they come after the main clause.

Quite frequently a topic word precedes the temporal clause conjunction.[19] The topic word sometimes comes from the temporal clause itself, for example e? and id in the following sentences:

e? cum veni?, praetor qui?sc?bat (Cicero)[20]
'when I got there, the governor was taking a siesta'
id ubi vident, mutant consilium (Caesar)[21]
'when they saw this, they changed their plan'

In other sentences the topic word comes from the main clause, such as Balbum in the example below:

Balbum, poste?quam t? es profectus, n?n v?d? (Cicero)[22]
'As for Balbus, I haven't seen him since you left'

Sometimes several topic words can precede the temporal clause, as in the following:

ib? eum Caesar cum v?disset, nihil asper?, nihil acerb? d?xit (Cicero)[23]
'when Caesar saw him there, he didn't say anything harsh or unkind'

The verb in the temporal clause usually comes at the end of the clause, although as the examples below show, there are occasional exceptions.

Different conjunctions

cum: introduction

The most commonly used conjunction in temporal clauses is cum; an older spelling was quom, showing its derivation from the relative pronoun qu?. The usual meaning is 'when', but it can also mean 'since/in view of the fact that' or 'although/despite the fact that' (concessive cum). These meanings can overlap to an extent.

Grammarians usually divide the meanings into two classes: the purely temporal cum, which takes an indicative mood verb, and the circumstantial cum, which takes the subjunctive mood. The circumstantial is divided into historical, causal, and concessive uses.[24]

In the early Latin of Plautus, both types of cum were followed by the indicative mood; however, in the classical period, whenever the meaning is causal or concessive, cum is always followed by the subjunctive mood. When the meaning is purely of time, in a present or future context, the indicative is usual; in a past context, in the classical period, both subjunctive and indicative are used, but the subjunctive is much more common.[25]

cum: circumstantial

When cum has the subjunctive mood, it usually expresses a fact of secondary importance. In such clauses 'the mind of the writer seems always fixed on something farther on, which is of more importance to him'.[26]


One of the most common uses of cum, often found in historical writing, is with the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive, giving the circumstances in which an action took place. This is known as the 'historic' or 'narrative' use of cum.[27][28]

When the tense is imperfect, it usually describes a situation already happening when the main action took place. A common way of translating it is 'while':

cum sed?rem dom? tr?stis, accurrit Venerius (Cicero)[29]
'while I was sitting sadly at home, Venerius suddenly came running up'
cum iam adpropinqu?ret urb?, omnis s?s? multit?d? ad cogn?scendum eff?dit (Caesar)[30]
'while the ship was approaching the city, the whole population poured out to find out the news'
cum iter faceret forte s?lus, quercum v?dit proxim? viam (Gellius)[31]
'when by chance he was making a journey alone, he saw an oak-tree near the road'

With the pluperfect subjunctive, it usually means 'after X had happened':

cum excessisset Aegypt? Antiochus, l?g?t? ... Cyprum n?vigant (Livy)[32]
'after Antiochus had left Egypt, the ambassadors sailed to Cyprus'
hoc cum v?ce magn? d?xisset, s? ex n?v? pr?i?cit (Caesar)[33]
'after he had said this in a loud voice, he flung himself out of the ship'
haec cum Crassus d?xisset, silentium est c?nsec?tum (Cicero)[34]
'after Crassus had said these words, a silence followed'

cum + imperfect main verb

Normally the main verb in a sentence starting with a circumstantial cum-clause will be either historic present or perfect indicative as above. However, sometimes the main verb is in the imperfect tense, in which case it describes a situation rather than an event. In the following sentences, the main verb does not describe a pre-existing situation, but a situation which began after the action of the temporal clause:

e? cum v?nisset, magn? difficult?te adfici?b?tur, qu? rati?ne ad exercitum perven?re posset (Caesar)[35]
'after he arrived there, he was in great difficulty as to how he could reach the army'
Caesar, cum in Asiam v?nisset, reperi?bat T. Ampium c?n?tum esse pec?nias tollere Ephes? ex f?n? Di?nae (Caesar)[36]
'after Caesar arrived in Asia, he began hearing reports that Titus Ampius had been trying to steal money from the temple of Diana in Ephesus'

The following sentence, however, is ambiguous. Some translators interpret it to mean that the situation had already begun when Caesar arrived:

e? cum v?nisset, cohort?s qu?nque praemissae ? Domiti? ex oppid? pontem fl?minis interrump?bant, qu? erat ab oppid? m?lia passuum circiter tria (Caesar)[37]
'upon his arrival there, he found five cohorts, whom Domitius had detached from the garrison, employed in breaking down a bridge about three miles distant from the town'[38]

An alternative interpretation is that the cohorts began breaking up the bridge after Caesar arrived. In the following sentence, which has iam and the pluperfect, the situation is definitely already under way:

nam cum ill? v?nisset, iam Ag?sil?us mult?s loc?s expugn?t?s magn? erat praed? pot?tus (Nepos)[39]
'for by the time he got there, Agesilaus had already stormed many places and gained possession of a large amount of booty'

When both verbs are imperfect, the situations overlap in time:

cum s? in castra reciperent, advers?s hostibus occurr?bant (Caesar)[40]
'while they were retreating into the camp, they kept meeting the enemy who attacked them'


Frequently, the meaning 'when' shades into 'since' and gives the cause of the action of the main verb. In some sentences, either interpretation (causal or temporal) is possible, while in others 'seeing that' or 'since' or 'in view of the fact that' is better:

h?c paul?sper est pugn?tum, cum irrumpere nostr? c?n?rentur, ill? castra d?fenderent (Caesar)[41]
'at this point there was fighting for a short time, while/since our men were trying break into the camp, and the others were defending it'
L?cius Petrosidius aquilifer, cum magn? multitudine hostium premer?tur, aquilam intr? vallum pr?i?cit (Caesar)
'Lucius Petrosidius the eagle-bearer, when/since he was being pressed by a great multitude of enemies, hurled his eagle inside the camp wall'
Haedu?, cum s? suaque ab i?s d?fendere non possent, l?g?t?s ad Caesarem mittunt rog?tum auxilium (Caesar)
'the Haedui, since they were unable to defend themselves and their property from them, sent envoys to Caesar to ask for help'
cum esset inter b?na castra campus ..., Domitius castr?s Sc?pi?nis aciem suam subi?cit (Caesar)[42]
'since there was a plain between the two camps, Domitius arranged his battle line near Scipio's camp'

When cum is causal, it always takes the subjunctive even if it refers to present time:[43]

quae cum ita sint (Cicero)[44]
'in view of the fact that these things are so' / 'since this is so'


Another, less common, meaning is 'though' or 'despite the fact that'. The subjunctive is always used:[45]

nihil m? adi?vit, cum posset (Cicero)[46]
'he did nothing to help me, though (or: at a time when) he could have done'
h?c t?t? proeli?, cum ab h?r? septim? ad vesperum pugn?tum sit, ?versum hostem vid?re n?m? potuit (Caesar)
'in this whole battle, though the fight went on from the seventh hour to evening, no one could see the enemy turn their back'

The use of the subjunctive with the concessive meaning of cum is found even in very early Latin:[47]

edepol, Cup?d?, quom tam pusillus s?s, nimis multum val?s (Naevius)[48]
'by God, Cupid, although you're so small, you are too powerful!'


Another category of cum clause argued for by some grammarians is known as 'adversative', in which two situations are contrasted:[49]

at host?s, ubi pr?mum nostr?s equit?s c?nspex?runt, qu?rum erat V [qu?nque] m?lium numerus, cum ips? n?n amplius DCCC [octingent?s] equit?s hab?rent... (Caesar)[50]
'but the enemy, as soon as they caught sight of our cavalrymen, of whom the number was 5000, while they themselves had not more than 800 cavalrymen...'


Just as the relative pronoun qu? followed by the subjunctive can have a generic meaning ('the sort of person who...'), so cum can also be generic (i.e. 'at such a time as...'). In the following sentence the verb after cum is imperfect subjunctive:[51]

acc?pit enim agrum temporibus i?s cum iac?rent pretia praedi?rum (Cicero)[52]
'for he received the farm at one of those times when the prices of estates were low'

In the following, situated in future time, it is present subjunctive:

erit illud profect? tempus cum t? am?cissim? benevolentiam d?s?der?s (Cicero)[53]
'I'm sure there will come a time when you will desire the services of a great friend'

'Hear someone saying'

In Latin, 'I heard him saying' can be expressed as 'I heard him while he was saying' (or: 'I heard from him while he was saying'), using a cum clause with the subjunctive.[54] This turn of phrase is used several times by Cicero:

aud?vi ... M?trod?rum cum d? i?s ips?s r?bus disput?ret (Cicero)[55]
'I heard Metrodorus discussing these very matters'
saepe ex e? aud?v?, cum s? scr?bere neque consu?sse neque posse d?ceret (Cicero)[56]
'I have often heard him say that he was not accustomed or able to write them down'

It is also possible to use an infinitive to express this meaning:

Valerium Probum aud?v? haec d?cere (Gellius)[57]
'I once heard Valerius Probus say this'

Another way is to use a present participle:

H?r?dem Atticum ... Ath?n?s disserentem aud?v? Graec? ?r?ti?ne (Gellius)[58]
I once heard Herodes Atticus giving a lecture in Greek in Athens'

cum: temporal

Simultaneous events

Used with the indicative, the conjunction cum can mean 'at that time when'.[59][60] In the examples below, the events occur at exactly the same time, and the subjunctive could not be used:

cum tacent, cl?mant (Cicero)[61]
'when they are silent, (it is as if) they are shouting'
loc? ille m?tus est, cum est ex urbe d?pulsus (Cicero)[62]
'he was dislodged from his vantage point, (at that moment) when he was driven out of the city'

Clauses like the above are sometimes known as 'clauses of equivalent action', since the action of the temporal clause is equivalent to the action of the main clause.[63] The same grammar is used for other actions which occurred at an identical time:

cum occ?ditur Sex. R?scius, ib?dem fu?runt (Cicero)[64]
'when Sextus Roscius was murdered, they were also there'
nempe e? R?mulus regi?n?s d?r?xit tum cum urbem condidit (Cicero)[65]
'surely it is with this (rod) that Romulus marked out the regions of the sky at that time when he founded the city'

In the following, the verbs describe situations which occurred co-extensively and simultaneously. The main verb is perfect indicative, the temporal clause verb is imperfect indicative:

di?s tr?gint? aut pl?s e? in n?v? fu?, cum intere? semper mortem exspect?bam miser (Terence)[66]
'thirty days, or more than that, I was in the ship, while all the time I was miserably expecting death'

The following has perfect in the temporal clause, and the imperfect in the main clause:

Sulla cum Damasippum et alios ... iugulari iussit, quis non factum eius laudabat? (Sallust)[67]
'at that time when Sulla ordered Damasippus and others to be put to death, who was not praising his action?'

In the following, both clauses have the imperfect indicative tense:

fulgent?s gladi?s hostium vid?bant Deci?, cum in aciem e?rum inru?bant (Cicero)[68]
'the Decii could see the flashing swords of the enemy, at the same time as they were rushing upon their battleline'
tum, cum d?c?b?s, vid?bam (Cicero)[69]
'I could see it then, when you were speaking'

In other sentences, however, the cum clause seems more circumstantial:

Gall? autem n?rr?v?, cum proxim? R?mae fu?, quid aud?ssem (Cicero)[70]
'I told Gallus, last time I was in Rome, what I had heard'
maxim? sum laetiti? adfectus, cum aud?v? c?nsulem t? factum esse (Cicero)[71]
'I was overcome with greatest joy when I heard that you had been made consul'

The following examples, where the context is similar, have cum with the subjunctive:

quibus d? r?bus ... n?per, cum essem in T?scul?n?, disput?tum est (Cicero)
'concerning which we had a discussion recently when I was in my villa at Tusculum'[72]
is cum aud?sset d? su? (f?li?), fractus est (Cicero)[73]
'when he heard about his own son, he was heart-broken'

Main clause imperfect

In the following examples, the temporal clause describes an event, while the main clause describes a situation which already existed at the time. The temporal clause verb is perfect or historic present indicative, the main clause verb is imperfect indicative:

cum Caesar in Galliam v?nit, alter?us facti?nis pr?ncip?s erant Aedu?, alter?us S?quan? (Caesar)[74]
'(at that time) when Caesar came into Gaul, the leaders of one faction were the Aedui, of the other, the Sequani'
e? cum veni?, praetor qui?sc?bat (Cicero)[75]
'when I got there, the governor was taking a nap'

fuit tempus

The phrase fuit tempus can be followed by indicative or subjunctive; but the subjunctive is more common.[76] The following has imperfect indicative:

fuit quoddam tempus, cum in agr?s homin?s passim besti?rum mod? vag?bantur (Cicero)[77]
'there was once a time when people used to roam around randomly in the countryside like wild animals'

While the following has imperfect subjunctive:

fuit ante? tempus, cum Germ?n?s Gall? virt?te super?rent (Caesar)[78]
'there was formerly a time when it was the Gauls who were superior to the Germans in fighting spirit'

Time how long

Another idiom using cum with the present indicative is the following, indicating how long a certain situation has persisted:[79][80]

mult? ann? sunt cum in aere me? est (Cicero)[81]
'he has owed me money for many years'
apud Graec?s quidem iam ann? prope quadringent? sunt cum hoc prob?tur (Cicero)[82]
'amongst the Greeks it is now nearly 500 years that this has been approved of'
iam diu est, cum quaerimus (Gellius)[83]
'we have been searching for it for a long time now'

The length of time can also be expressed using an ordinal number:

v?c?simus annus est cum m? petunt (Cicero)[84]
'it is the twentieth year now that they have been attacking me'

In such sentences the cum clause can also have the perfect tense, as in the following example:

n?ndum centum et decem ann? sunt cum d? pec?ni?s repetund?s l?ta l?x est (Cicero)[85]
'it is not yet a hundred and ten years since the law on extortion was passed'
minus qu?ndecim di?s sunt, quom pr? h?sce aedibus min?s quadr?gint? acc?pist? ? Callicle (Plautus)[86]
'it's less than 15 days since you received 40 minae from Callicles in front of this house'

The following example shows the same type of clause situated in past time, and uses the imperfect indicative and pluperfect indicative tenses:

permult? ann? iam erant cum inter patrici?s magistr?t?s trib?n?sque n?lla cert?mina fuerant (Livy)[87]
'for many years there had been no disputes between the patrician magistrates and the tribunes'

However, the length of time that a situation has gone on can also be expressed without using a cum clause:

is Lilybae? mult?s iam ann?s habitat (Cicero)[88]
'he has been living in Lilybaeum for many years now'
iam di? ign?r? quid ag?s; nihil enim scr?bis (Cicero)[89]
'for a long time now I've had no idea what you are doing, as you don't write anything'

Iterative clauses

Clauses which refer to no definite occasion, but to generalised or repeated actions ('whenever...'), usually use the indicative mood; although from Livy onwards the subjunctive mood could also be used.[90]

In present or indefinite time, if the two events are simultaneous, the present tense is used in both:

fer? cot?di?n?s proeli?s cum Germ?n?s contendunt, cum aut su?s f?nibus e?s prohibent aut ips? in e?rum f?nibus bellum gerunt (Caesar)[91]
'they fight almost daily battles with the Germans, whenever they are either keeping them out of their own territory, or themselves fighting in the Germans' territory'
h?, cum est ?sus... , omn?s in bell? versantur (Caesar)[92]
'these, whenever there is need, all take part in the war'
ea quae n?b?s, cum R?mae sumus, n?rr?re n?m? audeat (Cicero)
'the sort of things which no one dares to tell me when(ever) I'm in Rome'

However, if the temporal clause event precedes the main clause event, the perfect indicative tense is used in the temporal clause, and the imperfect in the main clause:[93]

cum super?v?runt, anim?lia capta immolant (Caesar)[94]
'whenever they win (lit. 'have won') a battle, they sacrifice the captured animals'
oppidum autem Britann? vocant, cum silv?s imped?tas vall? atque foss? muni?runt (Caesar)[95]
'the Britons call it a "town", whenever they have fortified some dense woodland with a rampart and ditch'

In a past context, if the events are contemporaneous, the imperfect indicative is used in both clauses:

eg?, cum ? nostr? Cat?ne laud?bar, reprehend? m? ? c?ter?s facile pati?bar (Cicero)[96]
'personally, whenever I used to be praised by our friend Cato, I didn't at all mind (lit. 'I was easily suffering') being criticised by other people'

But if one event is earlier than the other, the temporal clause has the pluperfect indicative, while the main clause is imperfect:

cum quaepiam cohors ex orbe excesserat atque impetum f?cerat, host?s vel?cissim? refugi?bant (Caesar)[97]
'whenever any cohort left the circle and made an attack, the enemy would retreat very quickly'
cum rosam v?derat, tum incipere v?r arbitr?b?tur (Cicero)[98]
'it was only when he saw (lit. 'had seen') a rose that he used to reckon that spring was beginning'

In authors from the time of Livy onwards, however, the subjunctive is sometimes used in iterative clauses:

cum in i?s d?c? d?bit?rem v?dissent, undique convol?bant (Livy)[99]
'whenever they saw (lit. 'had seen') a debtor being led to court, they used to flock together from all sides'

Future context

The same construction is also used in clauses referring to the future, whether or not they are iterative. In future sentences, where English uses a present tense in the temporal clause, the Latin idiom is to use the future tense in both clauses:

n?rr?b? cum aliquid hab?b? nov? (Cicero)
'I will let you know when (whenever) I have (lit. 'will have') some news'
t? velim cum pr?mum poteris tua c?nsilia ad m? scr?b?s (Cicero)[100]
'I would like you to write me your plans as soon as you are able (lit. 'will be able')'

But the future perfect indicative is used if the event in the temporal clause precedes the main event, as in the famous poem of Catullus describing the number of kisses he will ask for from his mistress Lesbia:

dein, cum m?lia multa f?cer?mus, conturb?bimus illa (Catullus)[101]
'then, after we have made (lit. 'will have made') many thousands, we will muddle up the accounts'
pl?ribus verb?s ad t? scr?bam, cum pl?s ?ti? n?ctus er? (Cicero)
'I'll write you a longer letter when I've got (lit. 'will have got') more free time'

Inverted cum clause (cum inversum)

In some sentences the circumstances are given in the main clause, while the main event is in the cum clause, which always comes second. This is known as 'cum inversum'[102] or an inverted cum clause:[103] Here cum is followed by a perfect or historic present indicative:

Hannibal iam sub?bat m?r?s, cum repent? in eum ?rumpunt R?m?n? (Livy)[104]
'Hannibal was already approaching the walls, when the Romans suddenly sallied out against him'
iamque hoc facere noct? appar?bant, cum m?tr?s familiae repent? in p?blicum pr?curr?runt (Caesar)[105]
'they were already preparing to do this at night, when some married women suddenly ran out into the streets'
vix ea f?tus erat, cum circumf?sa repent? scindit s? n?b?s (Virgil)[106]
'scarcely had he spoken these words when suddenly the cloud which had been poured around them parted'

cum pr?mum

The phrase cum pr?mum means 'as soon as' and it usually takes the indicative mood, just like ut or simulatque.[107] The following example has the perfect indicative:

cum pr?mum potuit, ad exercitum contendit (Caesar)[108]
'as soon as he was able, he hurried to join the army'

Sometimes, however, it takes a subjunctive verb, like the ordinary historic cum. The verb inciperet below is imperfect subjunctive:

cum pr?mum p?bul? c?pia esse inciperet, ad exercitum v?nit (Caesar)[109]
'as soon as there was beginning to be a sufficient supply of fodder, he came to the army'

The subjunctive is also used if the clause is part of indirect speech. In the following sentence both verbs are in the historic present tense, the first one subjunctive:

cum pr?mum possit, in Venet?s profic?sc? iubet (Caesar)[110]
'he ordered him to set out for the Veneti as soon as he could'

Another meaning, also with the indicative, is 'at that time when first':

minor est ista quam ego fu?, cum pr?mum virum passa sum? (Petronius)[111]
'is she younger than I was when I first slept with a man?'
? s? hab?r?mus ill?s le?n?s, qu?s ego h?c inv?n?, cum pr?mum ex Asi? v?n? (Petronius)[112]
'oh, if only we had those lions which I found here when I first came from Asia!'

'I remember when'

A temporal cum clause can be used after memin? 'I remember':[113]

f?ma tamen memin? cum fuit ista mea (Ovid)[114]
'but I remember when that fame was mine!'
memin? cum mih? d?sipere vid?b?re (Cicero)[115]
'I remember the time when you used to seem to me to be lacking in common sense'

Memin? can also be followed by an accusative and infinitive construction, combined with a temporal cum clause:

multa illum disert? d?xisse memin?, cum intr?ductus est ex carcere in sen?tum (Seneca the Elder)[116]
'I remember that he made a long eloquent speech on that occasion when he was led from the prison into the senate'

Alternatively, memin? can take an accusative and infinitive accompanied by a circumstantial cum clause with the subjunctive:

memin?, cum pater in Macedoni? c?nsul esset et ess?mus in castr?s, perturb?r? exercitum nostrum religi?ne et met? (Cicero)[117]
'I remember that on one occasion when my father was consul in Macedonia and we were in the camp, our army was disturbed by superstition and fear'
memin? m? intr?re scholam eius, cum recit?t?rus esset in Mil?nem (Seneca the Elder)[118]
'I remember going into his school at a time when he was just about to recite a speech against Milo'

The present infinitive (perturb?r?, intr?re) is used in these last two examples, since the reminiscence is a personal one.[119]

The indicative is used when the clause is more definite ('I remember that time when...'), while the subjunctive is less definite ('I remember a time when' or 'I remember one of the times when...').

cum ... tum

The combination cum ... tum sometimes introduces a temporal clause, but more often means 'both ... and' or 'not only ... but also' or 'just as ... so also':

multum cum in omnibus r?bus tum in r? m?lit?r? potest fort?na (Caesar)[120]
'Luck is an important factor in warfare, just as it is in all other matters'

postquam / poste?quam

With the perfect indicative

Another very common temporal conjunction is postquam (less commonly poste?quam or poste? quam, mainly in Cicero) 'after'. The most common use is when one event followed another, in which case postquam is usually followed by the perfect indicative:[121]

e? postquam Caesar perv?nit, obsid?s pop?scit (Caesar)[122]
'after Caesar arrived there, he demanded hostages'
postquam tu?s litter?s l?g?, Postumia tua m? conv?nit (Cicero)[123]
'after I'd read your letter, your Postumia came to see me'
id postquam resciit, excanduit (Cicero)[124]
'when he found this out, he was furious'

Time interval mentioned

The usual tense used with postquam is the perfect indicative, when the length of time is given the tense is usually pluperfect:[125]

(Hamilcar) n?n? ann? postquam in Hisp?niam v?nerat occ?sus est (Nepos)[126]
'Hamilcar was killed in the ninth year after he came to Spain.'
tr?c?sim? die, postquam ? Persepol? profectus erat, e?dem redit (Curtius)[127]
'on the thirtieth day after he had set out from Persepolis, he returned to the same place'

Sometimes post and quam are separated, and the time is put into the accusative case:

post diem tertium r?s gesta est quam d?xerat (Cicero)[128]
'the business was accomplished on the third day after he had spoken'

Rarely, quam alone stands for postquam:

sext?, quam profectus erat, m?nse R?mam rediit (Suetonius)[129]
'he returned to Rome in the sixth month after he had set off'
poster? di?, quam illa erant ?cta (Cicero)[130]
'on the day after these things were done'

Main verb imperfect

Sometimes the main clause following a postquam clause is in the imperfect tense. In this case it does not represent a pre-existing situation, but a situation which began or which kept happening after the event in the postquam clause:[131]

qu? postquam fuga incl?n?vit, ali? arma foed? iactant?s in aquam caec? ru?bant (Livy)[132]
'after the rout turned in this direction, some of them, shamelessly throwing off their armour, began rushing blindly into the water'
Gall? poste? quam propius success?runt, in scrob?s d?l?t? tr?nsfodi?bantur (Caesar)[133]
'after the Gauls approached nearer, they kept falling into the trenches and getting impaled'

Temporal clause imperfect

Sometimes postquam is followed by an imperfect tense. In this case the temporal clause describes not an event, but a situation which overlaps in time with the action of the main clause, as in the first example below:[134]

postquam ?nstr?ct? utrimque st?bant, cum pauc?s procerum in medium duc?s pr?c?dunt (Livy)[135]
'once the soldiers on both sides were standing drawn up for battle, the generals, with a few of the nobles, came forward into the middle'

Such clauses often imply a spectator ('after he saw that...', 'when it became clear that...');[136] they can also be considered 'quasi-causal' ('in view of the fact that...'):[137]

postquam n?lla sp?s erat potiund? castr?s, signum receptu? dedit (Livy)[138]
'in view of the fact that (or 'after it became clear that') there was no hope of capturing the camp, he gave the signal to retreat'
t?, postquam qu? tib? erant am?c? non poterant vincere, ut am?c? tib? essent qu? vinc?bant eff?cist? (Cicero)[139]
'after (you saw that) those who were your friends were unable to win, you made sure that those who were winning would be your friends'

A situation in the temporal clause can also be expressed using a pluperfect tense:

postquam parum v?s aperta pr?f?cerat, m?n?ti?n?s poster? di? circumdant (Livy)[140]
'when (it became clear that) open force had not been successful, the following day they surrounded the defences'

'Since the time when'

The conjunction postquam or poste? quam can also mean 'since'.[141] In this case the temporal clause describes how long the situation has been going on. When the main verb is negative, the perfect tense is used in the main clause:

Balbum, poste?quam t? es profectus, n?n v?d? (Cicero)[142]
'I haven't seen Balbus since you left'

If the action is continuous, where English would use the perfect continuous tense, Latin uses the present tense in the main clause:

trem? horre?que postquam aspex? hanc (Terence)[143]
'I've been trembling and shivering (lit. 'I am trembling and shivering') ever since I caught sight of this woman'

In this kind of sentence, postquam can be followed by a present tense. In one of Martial's poems, the goddess Venus describes her hold over her lover Mars:

postquam meus est, null? m? paelice laesit (Martial)[144]
'ever since he has been (lit. 'is') mine, he has never harmed me with a mistress'

It is even possible to have a present tense in both halves of the sentence, as in the following example from a letter to Atticus, in which Cicero complains about how few letters he's been getting since he left Rome:

n?rr? tib?, pl?n? rel?g?tus mih? videor poste? quam in Formi?n? sum (Cicero)[145]
'I tell you, I have been feeling (lit. 'I seem to myself') as if I'm completely in exile ever since I've been (lit. 'I am') at my villa in Formiae'

'Now that'

Another possible translation in these sentences is 'now that':

cred?bam esse facile; t?tum est aliud poste? quam sum ? t? d?i?nctior (Cicero)[146]
'I used to believe that it was easy, but it's a totally different matter now that I am further away from you'
summam dignit?tem pav?ment?ta porticus hab?bat, quod mih? nunc d?nique app?ruit, poste?quam et ipsa t?ta patet et columnae pol?tae sunt (Cicero)[147]
'the paved portico had the greatest elegance, as has now at last become clear to me, now that the portico itself is completely open and the columns have been polished'

The following example, in a past context, uses the pluperfect tense in the temporal clause:

alter consul, postquam moenibus iam R?m?n?s puls? hoste per?culum esse d?sierat, et ipse ab R?m? profectus (Livy)[148]
'now that the enemy had been driven off and there had ceased to be any danger to the walls of Rome, the other consul also left the city'

Future time

Postquam is not used of future time in most classical writers,[149] but is occasionally found in technical writers:[150]

post diem tertium quam l?cta erit facit? (Cato)[151]
'make (the oil) on the third day after (the olive) has been picked (lit. 'will have been picked')'


The original meaning of ubi or ub? is 'where' (it is related to ib? 'there'), and in questions it always means 'where?' (the word for 'when?' being quand); however, it can also introduce a temporal clause meaning 'when' or 'as soon as'. In poetry, the i is usually short, but occasionally the original pronunciation ub? with a long i is found:

voltus ub? tuus / adfulsit popul?, gr?tior it di?s (Horace)[152]
'whenever your face has shone on the people, the day goes more pleasantly'

Past event

As with postquam, when ubi refers to a past event, it is usually followed by the perfect indicative:

id ubi d?xit, porcum sax? silice percussit (Livy)[153]
'after he had said this, he struck the piglet with a flintstone'

As with postquam, the imperfect indicative may be used after ubi in sentences such as the following where the temporal clause describes a situation rather than an event:

ubi n?m? obvius ?bat, ad castra hostium tendunt (Livy)[154]
'when (it was clear that) no one was coming to meet them, they headed for the camp of the enemy'

The main verb following a non-iterative ubi clause in past time is almost always perfect or historic present. Very rarely, however, it can be an imperfect. In this case, as after postquam clauses, it describes a situation which is not pre-existing but which arises subsequent to the temporal clause event:

ubi nunti?tum Coriol?n? est adesse ing?ns mulierum agmen, mult? obstin?tior erat (Livy)
'when news was brought to Coriolanus that a huge crown of women were present, he was even more obstinate (than he had been on the previous two occasions)'

The main verb can also be a historic infinitive, representing a situation:

nam S?i?nus ubi videt mortem Dr?s? inultam interfect?ribus, ... vol?t?re s?cum qu?nam mod? Germ?nic? liber?s perverteret (Tacitus)[155]
'when Sejanus saw that Drusus's death had been unavenged on his murderers, he began to turn over in his mind how he could cause the downfall of Germanicus's children'

A subjunctive verb after ubi may indicate indirect speech, as in the following example, where the subjunctive datum sit indicates that the words 'when the signal is given' are part of the order, that is, they indicate when the shout was to be raised, not when the order was given:

ubi signum datum sit cl?m?rem omn?s tollere iubet (Livy)[156]
'he ordered them all to raise a shout when the signal was given'


As with other conjunctions, a perfect indicative tense after ubi may be iterative. Thus in the following example, ubi v?n? does not mean 'when I came' but 'whenever I come':

ubi v?n?, causam ut ibi man?rem repperit (Terence)[157]
'whenever I come (lit. 'have come'), she finds a reason for me to stay there'

In a past context, a pluperfect or imperfect indicative indicates an iterative situation:[158]

ubi fr?ment? opus erat, cohort?s praesidium agit?bant (Sallust)[159]
'whenever there was need for corn, the cohorts used to provide an escort'
ante iam doct? ab Iugurth? equit?s, ubi R?m?n?rum turma ?nsequi coeperat, n?n c?nfertim neque in ?num s?s? recipi?bant (Sallust)[160]
'having been trained in advance by Jugurtha, the cavalrymen, whenever a squadron of Romans began to chase them, did not retreat in close formation or into one place'

From the time of Livy onwards, however, the subjunctive is also used in iterative clauses. In the following example, the tense of d?xisset is pluperfect subjunctive:

id ubi d?xisset, hastam in f?n?s e?rum ?mitt?bat (Livy)[161]
'whenever he had said this, he used to throw a spear into their territory'

This use of the subjunctive in temporal clauses of repeated action is generally not found before Livy.[162] But Cicero uses the perfect subjunctive in the following sentence, probably because he is imagining a supposed case rather than a real one:[163]

ubi semel quis p?ier?verit, e? cr?d? poste? n?n oportet (Cicero)[164]
'once someone has perjured himself, he should never be believed again'

When the verb is a generalising 2nd person singular, the subjunctive is regularly used:[165]

bonus segnior fit, ubi negleg?s (Sallust)[166]
'a good man gets lazier, if you neglect him'


The other common meaning of ubi is 'where'. Often a word such as locus 'place' or e? 'to that place' in the main clause gives the context for this meaning:

e?dem loc? sepultus est, ubi v?tam posuerat (Nepos)[167]
'he was buried in the same place where he had laid down his life'
e?, ubi erat r?x, v?nit (Nepos)[168]
'he reached the place where the king was'


The longer form ubicumque 'wherever' is nearly always used not of time but of place in classical Latin.[169]

ubicumque v?cit R?m?nus, habitat (Seneca)[170]
'wherever the Romans have conquered, they inhabit'


'As soon as, when'

The conjunction ut 'as', 'as soon as' has various meanings; when it introduces a temporal clause it is followed by an indicative mood. It is often followed by a perfect indicative such as v?dit 'he saw' or v?nit 'he came':

Pomp?ius ut equit?tum suum pulsum v?dit, aci? excessit (Caesar)[171]
'as soon as Pompey saw that his cavalry had been routed, he left the battle-line'

'As, while'

It can also mean 'as' or 'while', when followed by the imperfect indicative:[172]

ut Hort?nsius domum red?c?b?tur ? camp?, fit obviam e? C. C?ri? (Cicero)[173]
'when Hortensius was being led back home from the election ground, he was met by Gaius Curio'

Main verb imperfect

An imperfect tense main verb following an ut clause with the perfect, just as with a cum clause with the perfect indicative, describes a pre-existing situation:

ut v?r? domum v?n?, iac?bat m?les meus in lect? (Petronius)[174]
'when I got home, my soldier was lying in bed'

Contrast the same tense used after a postquam or ubi clause, where the imperfect tense describes a subsequent situation (see above).

'As' (manner)

Another frequent, non-temporal, meaning of ut with the indicative is 'as':

ut ante d?m?nstr?vimus (Caesar)[175]
'as we showed earlier'

Ut is not used in sentences in future time.[176]


The word utcumque usually means 'in whatever way', but there are a few places where it is used in a temporal sense to mean 'whenever', as in this hymn to the Muses:

utcumque m?cum v?s eritis, lib?ns ?ns?nientem n?vita Bosporum tempt?b? (Horace)[177]
whenever you are with me, I will willingly attempt the raging Bosporus as a sailor'

simul atque / simul ac

Past context

The conjunction simul atque or simul ac, also written as one word, is used in the same way as postquam or ubi. When the sentence refers to a single occasion in the past, the tense in the temporal clause is perfect indicative, as in the following examples:[178]

hostes, simul atque s? ex fug? rec?p?runt, statim ad Caesarem l?g?t?s d? p?ce m?s?runt (Caesar)[179]
'as soon as the enemy recovered from their flight, they immediately sent ambassadors to Caesar to negotiate peace'
n?n dubit?vit, simulac c?nspexit hostem, c?nfl?gere (Nepos)[180]
'as soon as he caught sight of the enemy, he did not hesitate to join battle'
Verr?s, simul ac tetigit pr?vinciam, statim Mess?n? litter?s dedit (Cicero)[181]
'as soon as he touched the province, Verres sent a letter from Messana'

Sometimes simul alone is used, as in the following example:[182]

nostr?, simul in ?rid? c?nstit?runt, in host?s impetum f?c?runt (Caesar)[183]
'as soon as our men stood on dry land, they attacked the enemy'

Future context

The future perfect can be used in reference to future time. Here Cicero writes to his friend Atticus:

Varr?n?, simul ac t? v?der?, s? tib? vid?bitur, mittam (Cicero)[184]
'I shall send the book to Varro as soon as I have seen you, if you approve'
simul ac c?nstituer?, ad t? scr?bam (Cicero)[185]
'as soon as I have decided, I will write to you'


In the following example, which describes the character of Alcibiades, the pluperfect and imperfect tenses are used in the temporal clause in an iterative sentence in past time:

cum tempus p?sceret, lab?ri?sus, pati?ns...; ?dem, simulac s? rem?serat neque causa suberat qu?r? anim? lab?rem perferret, luxuri?sus, dissol?tus, lib?din?sus, intemper?ns reperi?b?tur (Nepos)[186]
'when the occasion demanded, he could be hardworking and put up with hardship...; but as soon as he had relaxed and there was no particular reason to make an effort, he was given over to extravagance, dissolute living, lust, and intemperance'



When dum means 'while this was happening', explaining the background circumstances of the action in the main clause, it tends to be followed by the present indicative, even in a past context:[187][188]

dum haec R?mae aguntur, c?nsul?s amb? in Liguribus ger?bant bellum (Livy)[189]
'while these things were being done (lit. are being done) in Rome, both consuls were waging war amongst the Ligurians'
haec dum aguntur, intere? Cleomen?s iam ad Pel?r? l?tus pervenerat (Cicero)[190]
'while this was going on, meanwhile Cleomenes had arrived at the shore of Pelorus'
dum rede?, Hort?nsius v?nerat (Cicero)[191]
'while I was on the way back, Hortensius had come'

In the following example, f?git 'she fled' is perfect tense, but fugit 'she is fleeing', with a short u, is present tense:

f?git in antrum, dumque fugit, terg? v?l?mina l?psa rel?quit (Ovid)[192]
'(Thisbe) fled into a cave, but while she was fleeing (lit. 'is fleeing'), her cloak slipped off her back and she left it behind'

However, other tenses are sometimes possible, such as the pluperfect in the following example:[193]

dum in ?nam partem ocul?s anim?sque hostium cert?men ?verterat, sc?l?s capitur m?rus (Livy)[194]
'while the contest had turned away the eyes and minds of the enemy in one direction, the wall was captured using ladders'

In the following the imperfect indicative is used:

quae d?v?na r?s dum c?nfici?b?tur, quaes?vit ? m? vellemne s?cum in castra profic?sc? (Nepos)[195]
'while the sacrifice was being carried out, he asked me whether I would like to set out with him for the camp'

A clause with dum can also be iterative:

dum leg?, assentior (Cicero)[196]
'whenever I am reading, I tend to agree (with what is written)'

Dum with the present indicative can also be used in a future context. Pliny the Younger pleads with a sick friend to write frequently:

er? enim s?c?rior dum leg?, statimque tim?b? cum l?ger? (Pliny)[197]
'for while I'm reading your letters I will feel relieved, but whenever I have finished reading them I will immediately be afraid again'

dum 'while' with the subjunctive

In republican Latin, the verb in a dum clause, just as with other temporal clauses, was changed into the subjunctive mood when in indirect speech (imperfect subjunctive in a past context, present subjunctive in a present or future context).

s? quisque c?nspic?, dum t?le facinus faceret, proper?bat (Sallust)[198]
'everyone was eager that he should be noticed while performing such an exploit'
eius pontis, dum ipse abesset, cust?d?s rel?quit pr?ncip?s (Nepos)[199]
'he left the princes in charge of that bridge, while he was away' (i.e. until he got back)

However, in Tacitus, there are some exceptions, when the present indicative is retained.[200]

In some authors also, such as Livy and later writers, as well as poets such as Virgil, dum can take the same construction as circumstantial cum, even when not in indirect speech, using the imperfect subjunctive:[201]

illa, dum t? fugeret, hydrum n?n v?dit in herb? (Virgil)[202]
'while she was fleeing from you, she failed to see a snake in the grass'

'As long as'

The imperfect indicative after dum usually means 'as long as X was happening', referring to two situations which happened at an identical time:[203][204]

fuit haec g?ns fortis dum Lyc?rg? l?g?s vig?bant (Cicero)[205]
'this nation was brave as long as Lycurgus's laws were in force'

In the above example, the perfect indicative tense fuit 'it was' implies that the period of Sparta's greatness is now over.[206]

In the following, both clauses have the imperfect indicative tense:

dum longius ab m?n?ti?ne aberant Gall?, pl?s multit?dine t?l?rum pr?fici?bant (Caesar)[207]
as long as the Gauls were at a distance from the fortifications, they were producing a greater effect with the superior number of their weapons'

Other tenses can be used, such as the future indicative in both halves of the following example:

Gracchus tam di? laud?bitur, dum memoria r?rum R?m?n?rum man?bit (Cicero)[208]
'Gracchus will continue to be praised for as long as the memory of Roman history remains'

The following has the present indicative:

dum anima est, sp?s esse d?citur (Cicero)[209]
'it is said that as long as there is life, there is hope'

In the following, both tenses are perfect indicative:

i?, dum par? cert?mine r?s ger? potuit, magnum hostium numerum pauc? sustinu?re (Caesar)[210]
'for as long as it was possible to fight on equal terms, a few men withstood a large number of enemy'


The conjunction dum can also mean 'until'. In the following, it is used with the present indicative:

d?l?ber? hoc dum ego rede? (Terence)
'think about this until I get back'

More frequently in this meaning it is followed by the subjunctive. In sentences of this kind there is often an idea of 'waiting for something to happen':[211][212]

lupus observ?vit dum dormit?rent can?s (Plautus)[213]
'the wolf kept watch until the dogs were dozing'
n? exspect?tis dum h?c domum redeam vi? (Plautus)[214]
'don't expect me to return home by this same road'
dum r?s c?nficer?tur, procul in praesidi? fuit (Nepos)[215]
'while the murder was being carried out (i.e. until the business could be completed), he was far away on guard duty'
Verg?nius dum coll?gam c?nsuleret mor?tus (est) (Livy)[216]
'Verginius waited until he had a chance to consult his colleague'
scr?bis in Itali? t? mor?t?rum dum tib? litterae meae veniant (Cicero)[217]
'you write that you are intending to stay in Italy until a letter for you arrives from me'

'Provided that'

Another meaning with the subjunctive is 'as long as' in the sense 'provided that' (dummod? may also be used in this meaning):[218]

?derint, dum metuant (Accius)[219]
'let them hate, provided that they fear'

The negative in such provisional clauses is n?:[220]

s? cui videor segnior fuisse, dum n? tib? videar, n?n lab?r? (Cicero)[221]
'if I seem to have been a bit lazy, I'm not worried, so long as I don't seem that way to you'


Other conjunctions which have similar meanings to dum are d?nec and qu?ad. D?nec is never used by Caesar, and almost never by Cicero, but it is very common in other writers such as Livy, Pliny the Elder, and Tacitus.[222]


The original meaning of d?nec is 'until'. In the following example, referring to a future situation, it is followed by a future perfect tense:

haud d?sinam d?nec perf?cer? hoc (Terence).[223]
'I will not stop until I have finished this'

Referring to the past, the perfect indicative may be used:

ille ferr? viam facere, d?nec ad portam perr?xit (Livy)[224]
'using the knife he forced his way, until he reached the gate'

As with dum, if there is some idea of waiting for something to happen, the subjunctive is used:[225]

Thr?ces nihil s? mov?runt, d?nec R?m?n? tr?ns?rent (Livy)[226]
'the Thracians did not move at all, until the Romans had crossed'
iubet Sp. Larcium ad portam Coll?nam st?re d?nec hostis praetereat (Livy)[227]
'he ordered Spurius Larcius to stand at the Colline Gate until the enemy passed by'
e?sque ib? sed?re atque opper?r? prope ad mer?diem, d?nec discipul? nocturnum omne v?num ?dormiant (Gellius)[228]
(he said) they sit there and wait nearly until midday, until their pupils have had a chance to sleep off all their wine of the night before'
d?nec cic?tr?x sit, v?nctum esse d?bet (Celsus)[229]
'until it scars over, it should be kept in a bandage'

'While, as long as'

From the Augustan period onwards[230] it can also mean 'while' or 'as long as':

d?nec gr?tus eram tib? ... Pers?rum vigu? r?ge be?tior (Horace)[231]
'as long as I was pleasing to you ... I flourished more blessed than the king of the Persians'
d?nec arm?t? c?nfert?que ab?bant, peditum labor in persequend? fuit (Livy)[232]
'as long as they were retreating still armed and packed together, it was the infantry's task to pursue them'

In the above examples, the imperfect tense is used in the temporal clause, since it describes to a situation, but the perfect tense is used in the main clause, as is usual in Latin when the length of time a situation lasted is given.[233]

d?nicum, d?nique

An early form of d?nec, but rarely used, was d?nicum (which is found in Cato, Plautus and once in Nepos). In the following example, referring to the future, d?nicum is followed by a future perfect:

eg? m? ?mitt?, d?nicum ille h?c redierit, n?n postul? (Plautus)[234]
'I don't request to be released until he gets back here'

Another rare form is d?nique, used four times in Lucretius and four times in Vitruvius but otherwise not found.[235] In this example it is followed by a pluperfect indicative:

horrifer?s acc?bant v?cibus Orcum, / d?nique e?s v?t? pr?v?rant vermina saeva (Lucretius)[236]
'with horrifying cries they would call for Death, until cruel agonies had deprived them of life'


'As long as'

The word quoad can have a non-temporal meaning ('to the extent that', 'as far as'), but it can also be used in a temporal sense, meaning 'as long as'.[237] When referring to the past it is regularly followed by the perfect indicative tense:

quoad potuit, fortissim? restitit (Caesar)[238]
'as long as he was able, he put up a very brave resistance'
quoad Pomp?ius in Itali? fuit, sp?r?re n?n d?stit? (Cicero)[239]
'as long as Pompey was in Italy, I didn't give up hope'


Another meaning is 'until':

Mil? ... in sen?t? fuisset e? di? quoad sen?tus est d?missus (Cicero)[240]
'Milo had been in the senate on that day up until the time when the senate was dismissed'

When referring to the future, just as with cum clauses, the future or future perfect tense is used where English has a present tense:

n?n faciam f?nem rogand? quoad n?b?s n?nti?tum erit t? id f?cisse (Cicero)[241]
'I shan't stop asking until I hear (lit. 'it will have been reported to us') that you have done it'

In the following sentence, the pluperfect subjunctive is used, as if the sentence is reported speech ('I will stay until I have learned'), known as 'virtual ?r?ti? obl?qua':[242]

ipse intere?, quoad m?n?ta h?berna cogn?visset, in Galli? mor?r? c?nstituit (Caesar)[243]
'he himself decided to stay in Gaul until he had learnt that the winter-quarters had been fortified'


Another conjunction meaning 'while' or 'as long as' is quamdi? or quam di?. When referring to the past, it is frequently followed by a perfect indicative:

tenuit s? ?n? loc?, quamdi? hi?ms fuit (Nepos)[244]
'he stayed in one place, for as long as it was winter'

It can also refer to the present, with the present tense:

quamdi? intr? m?r?s fluit, n?men suum retinet (Curtius)[245]
'for as long as it flows inside the walls, (the river) retains its name'

In the following example, the tense is future:

disc?s, quam di? vol?s (Cicero)[246]
'you will learn for as long as you wish'

In the following, the imperfect indicative is used:

ita sen?scere oportet virum, qu? ... t?tum s? r p?blicae quam di? dec?bat obtulerit (Pliny)[247]
'this is how a man should grow old, who has devoted himself completely to the republic for as long as was fitting'

The original meaning is 'how long?' or 'how long...!', and this meaning is also found.

quoti?ns / quoti?nscumque

The adverb quoti?ns means 'how often' or 'as often as'; but it can also be used as a conjunction meaning 'whenever', as in the following example:

quoti?ns for?s ?re vol?, m? retin?s (Plautus)[248]
'whenever I want to go out, you hold me back'

Cicero often writes quoti?nscumque in this meaning. In the following example, the verb is in the perfect tense:

adhibu? d?ligentiam, quoti?nscumque sen?tus fuit, ut adessem (Cicero)
'I made sure I was present every time there was a meeting of the senate'

As with other conjunctions which mean 'whenever', Livy tends to use the subjunctive in iterative clauses:

cum abessem, quoti?nscumque patria in mentem ven?ret, haec omnia occurr?bant (Livy)
'while I was away, whenever I remembered my country, all these things used to occur to me'

quand? / quand?cumque

The word quand? is often interrogative ('when?') but sometimes, especially in early Latin, it can be a temporal conjunction. It is usually followed by an indicative verb:

versipellem s? facit quand? lubet (Plautus)[249]
'he changes his appearance whenever he feels like it'

In other sentences, the meaning shades into 'seeing that' or 'since':

quand? habe? mult?s cogn?t?s, quid opus sit mih? l?ber?s? (Plautus)[250]
'since/when I have lots of relatives, what need do I have of children?'

The iterative form quand?cumque is used by some authors, but it is rare:

(febris) quand?cumque n?n accessit, balneum t?tum est (Celsus)[251]
'whenever the fever hasn't appeared, it is safe to take a bath'

Quand?cumque can also be an adverb meaning 'one day (whenever that may be)', as if quand?cumque is short for quand?cumque erit:

s? tamen haec super? cernunt ... quand?cumque mih? poen?s dabis (Ovid)[252]
'but if the gods see these things, ... one day you will pay me the penalty'

priusquam / antequam

The conjunctions priusquam (or prius quam) and antequam (ante quam) both mean 'before'. After a negative verb in the main clause, they can be translated with 'until'. Both are very common, although some authors prefer one (for example, Caesar almost always uses priusquam). Very rarely ante? quam is found. Another similar conjunction is pr?di? quam 'on the day before'.

Separation of prius and quam

If the main clause comes first, the conjunction is often split up, with prius or ante being placed before the verb in the main clause. This is especially so if the priority is emphasised as in the following example:

s? prius in Galliam v?nisse quam populum R?m?num (Caesar)[253]
'(he said that) he had come to Gaul earlier than the Roman people (had done)'

The separation is also common in negative sentences:

non prius abeunt quam aliquid scr?pserint (Apuleius)[254]
'they don't go away until they have written something'

Past reference

When referring to the past, a temporal clause with priusquam or antequam usually has the subjunctive, especially from the time of the emperor Augustus onwards. However, some sentences use the perfect indicative, especially those which are negative, such as the following:[255]

neque prius fugere d?stit?runt, quam ad fl?men Rh?num perv?n?runt (Caesar)[256]
'and they did not stop fleeing until they reached the river Rhine'
nec ostend?runt bellum prius quam intul?runt (Livy)
'and they showed no sign of war until they actually invaded'[257]
rati?n?s ad aer?rium, antequam Dol?bella condemn?tus est, non audet referre (Cicero)[258]
'he did not dare to return the account books to the treasury until Dolabella had been condemned'

Sometimes the verb is indicative even in an affirmative sentence:

v?nist? ?r?tus omnibus; quod eg?, simul ac t? aspex?, prius quam loqu? coepist?, s?ns? atque pr?v?d? (Cicero)[259]
'you came angry with everyone; which I realised and foresaw as soon as I saw you, before you began to speak'

When the sentence mentions a time interval, the use of the indicative more likely:[260]

id ?ctum est praet?re m?, qu?nquenni? ante quam c?nsul factus sum (Cicero)[261]
'this happened when I was praetor, in the fifth year before I became consul'
H?r?cl, aliquant? ante quam est mortuus, omnia tr?diderat (Cicero)[262]
'shortly before he died, he had handed over everything to Heraclius'
pr?di? quam eg? Ath?n?s v?n? Mytil?n?s profectus erat (Cicero)[263]
'on the day before I reached Athens he had already departed for Mytilene'

However, there are also types of sentences where the subjunctive is required even in the republican period, for example where one action is done with the hope of preventing another:

(collem) celeriter, priusquam ab advers?ri?s senti?tur, comm?nit (Caesar)[264]
'he quickly put a fortification round the hill before it could be noticed by the enemy'

Similarly, the subjunctive is used if the meaning is 'before there was a chance for something to happen':

antequam verbum facerem, d? sell? surr?xit atque abiit (Cicero)[265]
'before I could say anything, he got up from his chair and departed'
mult? prius incendi? abs?mpti sunt, quam hostium adventum sent?rent (Livy)[266]
'many died in the fire before they noticed the arrival of the enemy'

The following has the pluperfect subjunctive:

deinde Ser?pi?n cum epistul? tu?; quam prius quam aperuissem, d?x? e? t? ad m? d? e? scr?psisse ante? (Cicero)[267]
'then came Serapion with your letter; even before I had opened it, I told him that you had written to me about him previously'

Another reason for the subjunctive is if there is an idea of insistence ('he refused to leave before conquering...'):[268]

neque prius inde discessit, quam t?tam ?nsulam bell? d?vinceret (Nepos)[269]
'and he did not depart from there until he had conquered the entire island'

The subjunctive became more common, and in authors from the time of Livy onwards it is used often without any particular justification.[270] For example, in the following sentences, the relation is purely temporal:

ducent?s ann?s ante quam urbem R?mam caperent, in Italiam Gall? tr?nscend?runt (Livy)[271]
'it was two hundred years before they captured the city of Rome that the Gauls crossed into Italy'
prius quam pr?vinci? d?c?deret, c?nsilium iniit nefandae atr?cit?tis (Suetonius)[272]
'before he left the province, he entered upon a plan of appalling atrocity'

Generalising present

A generalising sentence with priusquam or antequam in present time regularly has the present subjunctive, if affirmative:[273]

ante vid?mus fulg?rem quam sonum audi?mus (Seneca the Elder)[274]
'we see a flash before we hear the sound'

The following generalisation shows the present subjunctive after antequam contrasted with the present indicative after cum:

d?rum est, Sexte, neg?re, cum rog?ris,
quant? d?rius, antequam rog?ris!
'it's hard to say no when you are asked, Sextus,
but even harder before you are asked!'

Sometimes, however, the perfect indicative may be used in a generalisation, as in the following:[276][277]

membr?s ?timur priusquam didicimus cuius ea ?tilit?tis caus? habe?mus (Cicero)[278]
'we use our limbs before we learn (lit. 'we have learnt') for the sake of what purpose we have them'

When the main verb is negative, the perfect indicative is regular:

prius quam in os iniecta glaeba est, locus ille, ubi crem?tum est, nihil habet religi?nis (Cicero)[279]
'until earth is (has been) thrown onto a bone, the place where it was cremated is not holy'

Future reference

Referring to the future, a simple present indicative can be used in the temporal clause in sentences such as the following:[280]

antequam ad sententiam rede?, d? m? pauca d?cam (Cicero)[281]
'before I return to the subject, I will say a few words about myself'
numquid prius quam abe? m? rog?t?rus es? (Plautus)[282]
'before I go, is there anything you want to ask me?'

The future simple is not used in these clauses.[283] However, the future perfect is used if the main verb is negative:[284]

nihil contr? disput?b? priusquam d?xerit (Cicero)[285]
'I shall make no counter-arguments until he has spoken (lit. 'before he will have spoken')'
cert? c?nstituere nihil possum prius quam t? v?der? (Cicero)
'I can't decide anything for sure until I see you (lit. "I will have seen you')'

Indirect speech

In indirect or reported speech, the subjunctive is used in the temporal clause. However, in the following sentence the verb red?rent is understood from the context, and only an ablative absolute remains:

negant s? inde prius quam capt? urbe hostium redit?r?s esse (Livy)[286]
'they said that would not return from there until the enemies' city had been captured'

Commands and wishes

The subjunctive is usual if the main verb is an imperative:[287]

s? m? am?s, prius quam profic?sc?ris effice (Cicero)[288]
'if you love me, do it before you leave'
priusquam h?c circul? exc?d?s, ... redde resp?nsum (Livy)[289]
'before you step outside this circle, give your response'

But the following has the indicative:

d? s?vium etiam prius quam ab?s (Plautus)[290]
'give me a kiss before you go'

The subjunctive may also be used if the main verb is itself subjunctive, expressing a wish:[291]

hunc v?c?num prius conveniam quam domum redeam (Plautus)[292]
'I'd like to meet this neighbour before I go home'

However, the following wish has the present indicative in the temporal clause:

pater omnipot?ns adigat m? fulmine ad umbr?s / ante, pudor, quam t? viol? (Virgil)[293]
'may the Father Almighty drive me to the shadows with a thunderbolt / before I violate you, o Modesty!'

Temporal clause equivalents

As well as temporal clauses, Latin has other ways of expressing the time of the main action in a sentence, and which can substitute for a temporal clause.

Participle phrases

A participle phrase, or a simple participle, is often used as the equivalent of a temporal clause in Latin. Not every type of temporal clause can be replaced by a participle. The type which can be replaced are the circumstantial clauses with cum,[294] or sometimes a future indefinite cum clause.

Present participle

The present participle is the equivalent of cum with the imperfect subjunctive:

Plat? scr?b?ns est mortuus (Cicero)[295]
'Plato died while he was writing'

The participle can be in any case, depending on whichever noun it agrees with. In the following sentence, it is in the genitive case:

haec d?centis latus hast? tr?nsf?xit (Curtius)[296]
'while (Clitus) was saying this, (the king) stabbed him in the side with the spear'

Literally 'he pierced with a spear the side of him (as he was) saying these things'.

Perfect participle

The perfect participle is the equivalent of cum with the pluperfect subjunctive:

Orchomeni?s missus subsidi?, occ?sus est ? Th?b?n?s (Nepos)[297]
'after being sent to help the people of Orchomenus, he was killed by the Thebans'

Ablative absolute

When the phrase is in the ablative case, as in the example below, it is known as an ablative absolute. Such phrases most commonly use the perfect participle, but the present participle can also be used:

cognit? Caesaris advent? Ariovistus l?g?t?s ad eum mittit
'when he learnt of Caesar's arrival (lit. 'with Caesar's arrival learnt of'), Ariovistus sent envoys to him'
fs n?bilium t? quoque fontium m? d?cente cav?s inpositam ?licem sax?s (Horace)[298]
'you too will become one of the noble springs, when I speak of the ilex-tree placed over your hollow rocks'

In view of the lack of a present participle in Latin, sometimes an ablative phrase alone, without a verb, can stand for a temporal clause:

puerul? m? (Nepos)[299]
'when I was a small boy'

After a preposition

A participle phrase can sometimes follow a preposition of time:[300]

facit? ante s?lem occ?sum ut veni?s (Plautus)[301]
'make sure you come before the sun has set'
haec post ex?ct?s r?g?s dom? m?litiaeque gesta pr?m? ann? (Livy)[302]
'these are the things that were done at home and on campaign in the first year after the kings were expelled'

Verbal nouns

Some verbal nouns, such as adventus 'arrival' and reditus 'return', can be used in phrases of time:

eius advent? Biturig?s ad Aedu?s l?g?t?s mittunt subsidium rog?tum (Caesar)[303]
'on his arrival, the Bituriges sent envoys to the Aedui to ask for help'
?fr?nius paene omne fr?mentum ante Caesaris adventum Ilerdam convexerat (Caesar)[304]
'Afranius had gathered nearly all the corn in Ilerda before Caesar's arrival'

Relative clause

The ablative relative pronoun qu? 'on which' can be used to mean 'the day on which' or 'the time at which', and thus introduce a quasi-temporal clause, as in the following examples from the historian Curtius. The pluperfect subjunctive is used, as the clauses are included in a sentence of indirect speech:

at ille cl?mitare coepit e?dem temporis m?ment? qu? aud?sset ad Phil?t?n d?cucurrisse (Curtius)[305]
'but he began shouting that the very moment he'd heard he had run to report the matter to Philotas'
r?rsusque ?nstitit quaerere, quotus di?s esset ex qu? N?comachus ad eum d?tulisset indicium. (Curtius)[306]
'and again he kept on asking how many days it had been (lit. 'the how-many-eth day it was') since Nicomachus had brought the accusation to him'

The feminine qu? is similarly used to refer to a night:

ill? nocte, qu? n?pti?s f?c?runt (Petronius)[307]
'on that night, on which they got married'
nocte, qu? profic?sc?b?tur legi? (Tacitus)[308]
'on the night when the legion was setting off'

Multiple temporal clauses

Temporal clauses and participial phrases standing for temporal clauses are especially common in historical writing. Nutting[309] cites the following typical example from Julius Caesar, where a temporal clause with cum alternates with two participle phrases:

post tergum cl?m?re aud?t?,
cum su?s interfic? vid?rent,
arm?s abiect?s ....
s? ex castr?s ?i?c?runt.
'The Germans,
hearing the shouting behind them,
when they saw their comrades being killed,
casting down their weapons ...
threw themselves out of the camp.'

In Nepos comes this sentence with a temporal clause, an ablative absolute, and a main verb:[311]

ut barbar? incendium eff?gisse v?d?runt,
t?l?s ?minus miss?s,
when the barbarians saw that he had escaped the fire,
by throwing missiles at him from long range,
they killed'

Livy also writes sentences containing a mixture of participial and temporal clauses. The following sentence has several participial clauses (underlined), a cum clause, and a postquam clause, which are then followed by the main verb:

exceptus benign? ab ign?ris c?nsili?,
cum post c?nam in hospit?le cubiculum d?ductus esset,
am?re ard?ns,
postquam satis t?ta circ? s?p?t?que omn?s vid?bantur,
strict? gladi?,
ad dormientem L?cr?tiam v?nit
having been welcomed politely by those who were ignorant of his plan,
when after dinner he had been led into the guest bedroom,
burning with love,
after everything seemed safe round about and everyone seemed to be asleep,
having drawn his sword,
he came to the sleeping Lucretia'

In the following sentence by Cicero, two different temporal clauses, with ut and cum, follow each other:

ut v?n? in Arp?n?s,
cum ad m? fr?ter v?nisset,
in pr?m?s n?b?s serm? (isque multus) d? t? fuit.
'as soon as I reached my villa at Arpinum,
after my brother had joined me,
at first our conversation (and it was a long one) was about you'

Allen and Greenough cite this sentence from Livy, which consists of two temporal clauses, and no fewer than six perfect participles:[315]

exiguam spem in arm?s
  ali? undique absc?s?
    cum tempt?ssent,
praeter c?tera adversa
loc? quoque in?qu? ad pugnam congress?,
  in?qui?re ad fugam,
cum ab omn? parte caederentur,
ad prec?s ? cert?mine vers?,
d?dit? imper?t?re
tr?dit?sque arm?s
sub iugum miss?,
cum singul?s vest?ment?s
ign?miniae cl?disque pl?n?
'The Volsci,
the small hope they had in arms
  every other hope having been cut off,
    after they had made trial of (it),
apart from other difficulties
having also joined battle at a place unsuitable for fighting
  and even more unsuitable for fleeing,
when they were being slaughtered on all sides,
after turning from fighting to prayers,
with their commander surrendered
and their weapons handed over,
having been sent under the yoke,[317]
with a single garment each,
full of ignominy and disaster,
they were allowed to depart.'

These long sentences, in which a number of subordinate clauses and participle phrases are followed by a main verb, are known as 'periods'.[318]



  1. ^ Bennett (1908), p. 206.
  2. ^ Nepos, Ep. 9.4.
  3. ^ Cicero, Off. 3.112.
  4. ^ Plin. Ep. 7.6.11.
  5. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 359.
  6. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 172-187.
  7. ^ Schlicher (1909), p. 266.
  8. ^ Nutting (1916), p. 156.
  9. ^ Steele (1910), p. 266.
  10. ^ Perseus PhiloLogic quoad.
  11. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 367.
  12. ^ Perseus PhiloLogic donec.
  13. ^ Steele (1910), pp. 268-9.
  14. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 175.
  15. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 180, 181, 186.
  16. ^ Cicero, Att. 4.8A.4.
  17. ^ Cicero, Att. 10.1.3.
  18. ^ Greene (1907), p. 646.
  19. ^ Spevak, Olga (2010). Constituent Order in Classical Latin Prose, p. 14.
  20. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.4.32.
  21. ^ Caesar, Civ. 2.11.2.
  22. ^ Cicero, Fam. 6.19.2.
  23. ^ Cicero, Fam. 13.29.4.
  24. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 370-1.
  25. ^ Nutting (1916), p. 157.
  26. ^ Schlicher (1909), p. 275.
  27. ^ Nutting (1920), p. 26.
  28. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 187ff.
  29. ^ Cicero, Ver. 2.4.32.
  30. ^ Caesar, Civ. 2.7.3.
  31. ^ Gellius, 15.16.2.
  32. ^ Livy, 45.12.
  33. ^ Caesar, Gal. 4.25.4.
  34. ^ Cicero, de Orat. 1.160.
  35. ^ Caesar, Gal. 7.6.2.
  36. ^ Caesar, Civ. 3.105.1.
  37. ^ Caesar, Civ. 1.16.
  38. ^ Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869).
  39. ^ Nepos, Ag. 3.5.
  40. ^ Caesar, Gal. 2.23.1.
  41. ^ Caesar, Civ. 3.67.5.
  42. ^ Caesar, Civ. 3.37.2.
  43. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 374-5.
  44. ^ Cicero, Dom. 142.
  45. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 375.
  46. ^ Cicero, Att. 9.13.8
  47. ^ Petersen (1931), p. 396.
  48. ^ Naevius, Com. 55.
  49. ^ Nutting (1933), p. 32.
  50. ^ Caesar, Gal. 4.12.1.
  51. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 191.
  52. ^ Cicero, Rosc. Am. 33.
  53. ^ Cicero Mil. 69.
  54. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 372.
  55. ^ Cicero, d? Orat. 2.365.
  56. ^ Cicero, Brutus 56.205.
  57. ^ Gellius, 3.1.5.
  58. ^ Gellius, 19.12.1.
  59. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), pp. 370-373.
  60. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 352.
  61. ^ Cicero, Cat. 1.21
  62. ^ Cicero, Cat. 2.1.
  63. ^ Schlicher (1909), p. 271.
  64. ^ Cicero, S. Rosc. 120.
  65. ^ Cicero, Div. 1.30.
  66. ^ Terence, Hecyra 420.
  67. ^ Sallust, Cat. 51.
  68. ^ Cicero, Tusc. 2.59.
  69. ^ Cicero, de Orat. 1.234.
  70. ^ Cicero, Att. 13.49.2.
  71. ^ Cicero, Fam. 15.7.1.
  72. ^ Cicero, Div. 1.8.
  73. ^ Cicero, Tusc. 3.71.
  74. ^ Caesar, Gal. 6.12.1.
  75. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.4.32.
  76. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 372.
  77. ^ Cicero, de Invent., 1.2.
  78. ^ Caesar, Gal. 6.24.1.
  79. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 372.
  80. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 194.
  81. ^ Cicero, Fam. 15.14.1.
  82. ^ Cicero, Orat. 51.1.71.
  83. ^ Gellius 1.25.12.
  84. ^ Cicero, Phil. 12.24.
  85. ^ Cicero, Off. 2.75.
  86. ^ Plautus, Trin. 401.
  87. ^ Livy, 9.33.3.
  88. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.4.38.
  89. ^ Cicero, Fam. 7.9.1.
  90. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 190.
  91. ^ Caesar, Gal. 1.1.4.
  92. ^ Caesar, Gal. 6.15.1.
  93. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 363.
  94. ^ Caesar, Gal., 6.17.3.
  95. ^ Caesar, Gal. 5.21.3.
  96. ^ Cicero, Orator 40.
  97. ^ Caesar, 'Gal. 5.35.1.
  98. ^ Cicero, Verr. 5.27.
  99. ^ Livy, 2.27.8, quoted in Woodcock (1959), p. 190.
  100. ^ Cicero, Att. 5.10.5.
  101. ^ Catullus, 5.10.
  102. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 581.
  103. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 193.
  104. ^ Livy, 29.7.8.
  105. ^ Caesar, Gal. 7.26.3.
  106. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 1.586.
  107. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 360.
  108. ^ Caesar, Gal. 3.9.2.
  109. ^ Caesar, Gal. 2.2.2.
  110. ^ Caesar, Gal. 3.11.5.
  111. ^ Petronius, Sat. 25.
  112. ^ Petronius, Sat. 44.
  113. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 372.
  114. ^ Ovid, Am. 1.14.50.
  115. ^ Cicero, Fam. 7.28.1.
  116. ^ Seneca the Elder, Controv. 8.4.20.
  117. ^ Cicero, Re Pub. 1.23.
  118. ^ Seneca the Elder, Controversiae 3.7.16.
  119. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. memin?.
  120. ^ Caesar, Gal. 6.30.2.
  121. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 360.
  122. ^ Caesar, B.G. 1.27.3.
  123. ^ Cicero, Fam. 4.2.1.
  124. ^ Cicero, Fam. 8.12.2.
  125. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 361.
  126. ^ Nepos, 22.4.2.
  127. ^ Curtius, 5.6.19.
  128. ^ Cicero, pro Mil. 16.44.
  129. ^ Suetonius, Claud. 17.2.
  130. ^ Cicero, de Orat. 2.12.
  131. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 174.
  132. ^ Livy, 1.27.11.
  133. ^ Caesar, Gall. 7.82.1.
  134. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 360.
  135. ^ Livy, 1.23.6.
  136. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 360.
  137. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 176.
  138. ^ Livy, 21.59.
  139. ^ Cicero, Quinct. 22.70.
  140. ^ Livy 3.26.4.
  141. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 176.
  142. ^ Cicero, Fam. 6.19.2.
  143. ^ Terence, Eun. 84.
  144. ^ Martial 6.21.7.
  145. ^ Cicero, Att. 2.11.1.
  146. ^ Cicero, Att. 13.11.1.
  147. ^ Cicero, Q. Fr. 3.1.1.
  148. ^ Livy, 3.23.6.
  149. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 362.
  150. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 176.
  151. ^ Cato, R. R. 65.
  152. ^ Horace, Odes 4.5.
  153. ^ Livy, 1.24.9.
  154. ^ Livy, 9.45.14.
  155. ^ Tacitus, Ann. 4.12.
  156. ^ Livy, 3.28.2.
  157. ^ Terence, Eu. 510.
  158. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 362.
  159. ^ Sallust, Iug. 55.4.
  160. ^ Sallust, Jug. 50.
  161. ^ Livy, 1.32.14.
  162. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 175, 190.
  163. ^ Smith & Hall, s.v. 'when'.
  164. ^ Cicero, Rab. Post. 13.36.
  165. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 175
  166. ^ Sallust, Jug. 31.28.
  167. ^ Nepos, Paus. 5.5.
  168. ^ Nepos, Dat. 3.1.
  169. ^ Lewis & Short, s.v. ubicumque.
  170. ^ Seneca, Cons. Helv. 11.7.7.
  171. ^ Caesar, B.C. 3.94.5.
  172. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 176.
  173. ^ Cicero, Verr. 1.1.18.
  174. ^ Petronius, Sat. 62.
  175. ^ Caesar, Gal. 2.21.1.
  176. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 362.
  177. ^ Horace, Odes 3.4.
  178. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 360.
  179. ^ Caesar, Gal. 4.27.1.
  180. ^ Nepos, Pel. 5.3.
  181. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.1.27.
  182. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 174.
  183. ^ Caesar, Gal. 4.26.5.
  184. ^ Cicero, Fam. 13.22.2.
  185. ^ Cicero, Att. 12.40.5.
  186. ^ Nepos, Alc. 1.4.
  187. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 366.
  188. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 179.
  189. ^ Livy, 39.1.1
  190. ^ Cicero, Verr. 5.91.
  191. ^ Cicero, Att. 10.16.5.
  192. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, 4.100-101.
  193. ^ Lewis & Short, s.v. dum.
  194. ^ Livy, 32.24.
  195. ^ Nepos, Hann. 2.4.
  196. ^ Cicero, Tusc. 1.24.
  197. ^ Pliny, Ep. 6.4.5.
  198. ^ Sallust, Cat. 7.6.
  199. ^ Nepos, Milt. 3.1
  200. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 180-181.
  201. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 180.
  202. ^ Virgil, Geor. 4.457-8.
  203. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 365.
  204. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 178.
  205. ^ Cicero, Tusc. 1.101
  206. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 178.
  207. ^ Caesar, Gal. 7.82.
  208. ^ Cicero, Off. 2.43.
  209. ^ Cicero, Att. 9.10.3.
  210. ^ Caesar, Gal. 7.82.
  211. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 367.
  212. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 182.
  213. ^ Plautus, Trin. 180.
  214. ^ Plautus, Pseudolus 1234.
  215. ^ Nepos, Timol. 1.4.
  216. ^ Livy 4.21.10
  217. ^ Cicero, Fam. 11.24.2.
  218. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 368.
  219. ^ Accius, quoted in Cicero, Off. 1.28.97
  220. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 179.
  221. ^ Cicero, Att. 8.11B.
  222. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 177.
  223. ^ Terence, Ph. 2, 3, 73.
  224. ^ Livy, 3.48.6.
  225. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 182-183.
  226. ^ Livy, 38.40.9.
  227. ^ Livy, 2.11.7.
  228. ^ Gellius, 7.10.5.
  229. ^ Celsus, Med. 7.25.1b.
  230. ^ Lewis & Short, Latin Dictionary, s.v. donec.
  231. ^ Horace, Odes 3.9.
  232. ^ Livy, 6.13.4.
  233. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 158.
  234. ^ Plautus, Capt. 335.
  235. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 367.
  236. ^ Lucretius, 5.996-7.
  237. ^ Lewis & Short, s.v. quoad.
  238. ^ Caesar, Gal. 4.12.5.
  239. ^ Cicero, Att., 9.10.3.
  240. ^ Cicero, Mil. 28.
  241. ^ Cicero, Att. 16.16E.2.
  242. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 183.
  243. ^ Caesar, Gal. 5.24.8.
  244. ^ Nepos, Eum. 5.7.
  245. ^ Curtius, 3.1.5.
  246. ^ Cicero, Off. 1.2.
  247. ^ Pliny, Ep. 4.23.2.
  248. ^ Plautus, Men. 114.
  249. ^ Plautus, Am. 120.
  250. ^ Plautus, Mil. 3.1.110.
  251. ^ Celsus, 2.17.3.
  252. ^ Ovid, Met. 6.544.
  253. ^ Caesar, Gal. 1.44.7.
  254. ^ Apuleius, Apol. 75.
  255. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 369.
  256. ^ Caesar, Gal. 1.53.
  257. ^ Livy, 1.11.5.
  258. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.1.98.
  259. ^ Cicero, Vat. 4.
  260. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 204.
  261. ^ Cicero, Lael. 96.
  262. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.18.46.
  263. ^ Cicero, Att. 5.11.6.
  264. ^ Caesar, Civ. 1.54.4.
  265. ^ Cicero, Verr. 2.4.147.
  266. ^ Livy, 35.27.7.
  267. ^ Cicero, Att. 10.17.1.
  268. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 205.
  269. ^ Nepos, Cha. 2.2.
  270. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 204.
  271. ^ Livy, 5.33.5.
  272. ^ Suetonius, Cal. 48.1.
  273. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 205.
  274. ^ Seneca, N. Q. 2.12.6.
  275. ^ Martial 2.44.11-12.
  276. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 184.
  277. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 203.
  278. ^ Cicero, Fin. 3.66.
  279. ^ Cicero, de leg. 2.57.
  280. ^ Gildersleeve & Lodge (1895), p. 368.
  281. ^ Cicero, Cat. 4.10.20.
  282. ^ Plautus, Trin. 198.
  283. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 203.
  284. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 185.
  285. ^ Cicero, Flacc. 51.
  286. ^ Livy, 5.7.7.
  287. ^ Hullihen (1911b), p. 205.
  288. ^ Cicero, Att. 5.4.3.
  289. ^ Livy. 45.12.5.
  290. ^ Plautus, As. 940.
  291. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 184.
  292. ^ Plautus, Merc. 559.
  293. ^ Virgil, Aen. 4.25-7.
  294. ^ Woodcock (1959), pp. 72, 192.
  295. ^ Cicero, de Sen. 5.
  296. ^ Curtius, 8.1.52.
  297. ^ Nepos, Lys. 3.4.
  298. ^ Horace, Odes 3.13.
  299. ^ Nepos, Hann. 2.3.
  300. ^ Woodcock (1959), p. 76.
  301. ^ Plautus, Men. 435.
  302. ^ Livy, 2.8.9.
  303. ^ Caesar, Gal. 7.5.1.
  304. ^ Caesar, Civ. 1.48.5.
  305. ^ Curtius, 6.7.28.
  306. ^ Curtius, 6.7.26.
  307. ^ Petronius, Sat. 112.
  308. ^ Tacitus, Hist. 2.66.
  309. ^ Nutting (1920).
  310. ^ Caesar, B.G. 4.15.1.
  311. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 400.
  312. ^ Nepos, Alc. 10.6.
  313. ^ Livy 1.58.2.
  314. ^ Cicero, Att. 5.1.3.
  315. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 400.
  316. ^ Livy, 4.10.4.
  317. ^ For this practice see: Fowler, W. Warde (1913). "Passing under the Yoke". The Classical Review, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 48-51.
  318. ^ Greenough (1903), p. 400.

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