Texas's 1st Congressional District
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Texas's 1st Congressional District
Texas's 1st congressional district
Texas US Congressional District 1 (since 2013).tif
Texas's 1st congressional district since January 3, 2013
Representative
Distribution
  • 56.8% urban[1]
  • 43.4% rural
Population (2016)717,735[2]
Median income$49,086[3]
Ethnicity
Cook PVIR+25[4]

Texas's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 Census, the 1st district contained 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areasLufkin-Nacogdoches, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.

The 1st district once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas.

For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana, but in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin, Tyler and Longview were added in its place.

The district was predominantly rural for much of its history, and thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress even as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans. The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a particularly severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. The 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican, especially with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was heavily defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction. Proving just how Republican the reconfigured 1st is, Gohmert has been reelected seven times with no less than 68 percent of the vote. The Democrats didn't even put up a candidate in 2008 and 2012.

The district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years -- the second-longest tenure of any Texan in Congress. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, and later chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years.

2012 redistricting

The 2012 redistricting process changed the district's northern section. All of Marion County, Cass County, and most of Upshur County were removed from the district. To compensate, the eastern half of Wood County was added.[5]

Recent election results from statewide races

Year Race Winner
2000 President Bush 68 - 26%
2004 President Bush 69 - 31%
2008 President McCain 69 - 30%
2012 President Romney 72 - 28%
2016 President Trump 72 - 25%
2018 Senate Cruz 72 - 28%[]
2018 Governor Abbott 74 - 25%[]

Recent election results

Election results from recent races:

U.S. Representative

2004 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 157,068 61.5 Increase17.9
Democratic Max Sandlin 96,281 37.7 Decrease18.7
Libertarian Dean Tucker 2,158 0.8
Majority 60,787 23.8
Turnout 255,507
Republican gain from Democratic Swing
2006 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 104,099 68 Increase6.5
Democratic Roger L. Owen 46,303 30.2 Decrease7.5
Libertarian Donald Perkison 2,668 1.7 Decrease0.9
Majority 57,796 37.8
Turnout 153,070 Decrease40.1
Republican hold Swing
2008 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 189,012 87.6 Increase19.6
Independent Roger L. Owen 26,814 12.4
Majority 162,198 75.2
Turnout 215,826 Increase41.0
Republican hold Swing
2010 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 129,398 89.7 Increase2.1
Libertarian Charles F. Parkes, III 14,811 10.3
Majority 114,587 79.6
Turnout 144,209 Decrease33.2
Republican hold Swing
2012 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 178,322 71.4 Decrease18.3
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 67,222 26.9
Libertarian Clark Patterson 4,114 1.6 Decrease8.7
Majority 111,100 44.5
Turnout 249,658 Increase73.1
Republican hold Swing
2014 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 115,084 77.5 Increase6.1
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 33,476 22.5 Decrease4.4
Majority 81,608 55
Turnout 148,560 Decrease40.5
Republican hold Swing
2016 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 192,434 73.9 Decrease3.6
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 62,847 24.1 Increase1.6
Libertarian Phil Gray 5,062 1.9
Majority 129,587 49,8
Turnout 260,343 Increase75.2
Republican hold Swing
2018 election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Louie Gohmert 168,165 72.26 Decrease1.6
Democratic Shirley J. McKellar 61,263 26.32 Increase2.2
Libertarian Jeff Callaway 3,292 0.5
Republican hold Swing

Demographics

  • Population: 651,619 (2000 Census)
  • Under 18: 26.2%
  • Over 65: 14.1%
  • Married 58.7%
  • Non-Hispanic White: 71%
  • Black: 18%
  • Hispanic: 9%
  • Asian: 1%
  • Foreign born: 5.3%
  • Language other than English: 9.8%
  • Median household income: $33,461
  • Owner occupied housing: 71.9%
  • Income above $200K: 1.4%

List of members representing the district

Representative Party Years Cong
ress
Electoral history[6] Counties represented[7]
District created December 29, 1845   1845-1851
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Fannin, Nacogdoches, Rusk, Harrison, Shelby, Houston, San Augustine, Liberty, Jasper, Jefferson, Fannin[8]
Vacant December 29, 1845 -
March 30, 1846
David S. Kaufman (Texas Congressman).jpg
David S. Kaufman
Democratic March 30, 1846 -
January 31, 1851
29th
30th
31st
Elected in 1846.
Re-elected November 2, 1846.
Re-elected late August 6, 1849.[6]
Died.
Vacant January 31, 1851 -
March 4, 1851
Richardson A. Scurry Democratic March 4, 1851 -
March 3, 1853
32nd Re-elected late August 4, 1851.[6] 1851-1861
Cooke, Fannin, Grayson, Fannin, Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Denton, Collin, Hunt, Hopkins, Titus, Cass, Dallas, Kaufman, Van Zandt, Wood, Upshur, Harrison, Henderson, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper, Newton, Liberty, Jefferson[9]
GeorgeWSmyth.jpg
George W. Smyth
Democratic March 4, 1853 -
March 3, 1855
33rd Elected late August 1, 1853.[6]
Retired.
Lemuel D. Evans (Texas judge and Congressman).jpg
Lemuel D. Evans
Know Nothing March 4, 1855 -
March 3, 1857
34th Re-elected late August 6, 1855.[6]
[data unknown/missing]
JHRegan.jpg
John H. Reagan
Democratic March 4, 1857 -
March 3, 1861
35th
36th
Elected late August 3, 1857.[6]
Re-elected late August 1, 1859.[6]
Left Congress for state's secession.
Vacant March 3, 1861 -
March 30, 1870
American Civil War / Reconstruction 1861-1870
[data unknown/missing][10]
George Washington Whitmore (Texas Congressman).jpg
George W. Whitmore
Republican March 30, 1870 -
March 3, 1871
41st Elected to finish vacant term.
Lost re-election.
1870-1873
Wood, Harrison, Van Zandt, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Henderson, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper, Newton, Liberty, Hardin, Orange, Chambers, Jefferson[11]
William S. Herndon (Texas Congressman).jpg
William S. Herndon
Democratic March 4, 1871 -
March 3, 1875
42nd
43rd
Elected late October 6, 1871.[6]
Re-elected in 1872.[6]
[data unknown/missing]
1873-1875
Smith, Rusk, Panola, Henderson, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper, Newton, Liberty, Hardin, Orange, Chambers, Jefferson[11]
JHRegan.jpg
John H. Reagan
Democratic March 4, 1875 -
March 3, 1883
44th
45th
46th
47th
Elected in 1874.
Re-elected in 1876.
Re-elected in 1878.
Re-elected in 1880.
Redistricted to the 2nd district.
1875-1883
Wood, Harrison, Van Zandt, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Henderson, Anderson, Cherokee, Nacogdoches, Shelby, Houston, Angelina, San Augustine, Sabine, Trinity, Polk, Tyler, Jasper[12][13]
CharlesStewartTX.jpg
Charles Stewart
Democratic March 4, 1883 -
March 3, 1893
48th
49th
50th
51st
52nd
Elected in 1882.
Re-elected in 1884.
Re-elected in 1886.
Re-elected in 1888.
Re-elected in 1890.
[data unknown/missing]
1883-1893
Angelina, Trinity, Madison, Brazos, Grimes, Waller, Montgomery, Harris, Polk, San Jacinto, Liberty, Chambers, Jefferson, Orange, Tyler, Jasper, Newton[14]
Joseph Chappell Hutcheson, Sr. (Texas Congressman).jpg
Joseph C. Hutcheson
Democratic March 4, 1893 -
March 3, 1897
53rd
54th
Elected in 1892.
Re-elected in 1894.
[data unknown/missing]
1893-1897
Freestone, Leon, Trinity, Madison, Walker, Grimes, Montgomery, Waller, Harris, Chambers[15]
Thomas H. Ball (Texas Congressman).jpg
Thomas H. Ball
Democratic March 4, 1897 -
March 3, 1903
55th
56th
57th
Elected in 1896.
Re-elected in 1898.
Re-elected in 1900.
[data unknown/missing]
1897-1903
Freestone, Leon, Trinity, Madison, Walker, Grimes, Montgomery, Waller, Harris, Chambers[16]
Sheppard morris.jpg
Morris Sheppard
Democratic March 4, 1903 -
March 3, 1913
58th
59th
60th
61st
62nd
Elected in 1902.
Re-elected in 1904.
Re-elected in 1906.
Re-elected in 1908.
Re-elected in 1910.
Redistricted from the 4th district.
1903-1913
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion[17][18]
HoraceWorthVaughan.jpg
Horace W. Vaughan
Democratic March 4, 1913 -
March 3, 1915
63rd Elected in 1912.
[data unknown/missing]
1913-1915
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion[18]
Eugene Black.jpeg
Eugene Black
Democratic March 4, 1915 -
March 3, 1929
64th
65th
66th
67th
68th
69th
70th
Elected in 1914.
Re-elected in 1916.
Re-elected in 1918.
Re-elected in 1920.
Re-elected in 1922.
Re-elected in 1924.
Re-elected in 1926.
[data unknown/missing]
1915-1933
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion[18][19]
John William Wright Patman.jpg
Wright Patman
Democratic March 4, 1929 -
March 7, 1976
71st
72nd
73rd
74th
75th
76th
77th
78th
79th
80th
81st
82nd
83rd
84th
85th
86th
87th
88th
89th
90th
91st
92nd
93rd
94th
Elected in 1928.
Re-elected in 1930.
Re-elected in 1932.
Re-elected in 1934.
Re-elected in 1936.
Re-elected in 1938.
Re-elected in 1940.
Re-elected in 1942.
Re-elected in 1944.
Re-elected in 1946.
Re-elected in 1948.
Re-elected in 1950.
Re-elected in 1952.
Re-elected in 1954.
Re-elected in 1956.
Re-elected in 1958.
Re-elected in 1960.
Re-elected in 1962.
Re-elected in 1964.
Re-elected in 1966.
Re-elected in 1968.
Re-elected in 1970.
Re-elected in 1972.
Re-elected in 1974.
Died.
1933-1959
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison[19][20]
1959-1967
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Franklin, Titus, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison[21]
1967-1969
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Shelby
1969-1973
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby[22]
1973-1975
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine[23]
1975-1977
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Fannin, Henderson, San Augustine, southeastern Hunt, eastern Rains[24]
Vacant March 7, 1976 -
June 19, 1976
Sam B. Hall, Jr.jpg
Sam B. Hall
Democratic June 19, 1976 -
May 27, 1985
94th
95th
96th
97th
98th
99th
Elected to finish Patman's term.
Re-elected in 1978.
Resigned to become U.S. District Judge.
1977-1983
[data unknown/missing][25]
1983-1993
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Cherokee, Upshur, Shelby, Henderson, San Augustine, northern Hunt[26]
Vacant May 27, 1985 -
August 3, 1985
Jim Chapman.jpg
Jim Chapman
Democratic August 3, 1985 -
January 3, 1997
99th
100th
101st
102nd
103rd
104th
Elected to finish Hall's term.
Re-elected in 1986.
Re-elected in 1988.
Re-elected in 1990.
Re-elected in 1992.
Re-elected in 1994.
Retired to run for U.S. Senator.
1993-1997
Lamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, eastern Hunt, southeastern Gregg, parts of Nacogdoches[27]
Max Sandlin.jpg
Max Sandlin
Democratic January 3, 1997 -
January 3, 2005
105th
106th
107th
108th
Elected in 1996.
Re-elected in 1998.
Re-elected in 2000.
Re-elected in 2002.
Lost re-election.
1997-2003
[data unknown/missing][28]
2003-2005
Texas's 1st congressional district 2003-2005.pngLamar, Red River, Bowie, Delta, Hopkins, Wood, Franklin, Titus, Camp, Morris, Cass, Marion, Harrison, Panola, Rusk, Upshur, Shelby, most of Hunt, northern Nacogdoches[29]
Louie Gohmert official congressional photo.jpg
Louie Gohmert
Republican January 3, 2005 -
present
109th
110th
111th
112th
113th
114th
115th
116th
Elected in 2004.
Re-elected in 2006.
Re-elected in 2008.
Re-elected in 2010.
Re-elected in 2012.
Re-elected in 2014.
Re-elected in 2016.
Re-elected in 2018.
2005-2013
TX01 109.gifUpshur, Marion, Harrison, Gregg, Smith, Rusk, Panola, Nacogdoches, Shelby, San Augustine, Sabine, Angelina, southeastern Cass[30]
2013-present
Texas US Congressional District 1 (since 2013).tif

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/cd_state.html
  2. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=48&cd=01
  3. ^ https://www.census.gov/mycd/?st=48&cd=01
  4. ^ "Partisan Voting Index - Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ http://gis1.tlc.state.tx.us/
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Until 1872, Texas (like some other states) held its congressional elections after the March 4 beginning of the term but before the December date on which Congress began its formal business. Such elections are denoted here as "late."
  7. ^ "Historical Maps (1846-2012)". Texas Redistricting. Texas Legislative Council.
  8. ^ Acts 1846, 1st Leg., R.S., eff. Feb. 28, 1846.
  9. ^ Acts 1850, 3rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 134, app. Feb. 11, 1850.
  10. ^ Acts 1861, 8th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 46, eff. Apr. 6, 1861;
    Acts 1861, 8th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 53, eff. Apr. 8, 1861;
    Acts 1866, 11th Leg., R.S., Ch. 10, eff. Sep. 8, 1866;
    Acts 1866, 11th Leg., R.S., Ch. 31, eff. Oct. 8, 1866.
  11. ^ a b Constitution of the State of Texas (1869)
  12. ^ Acts 1874, 14th Leg., R.S., Ch. 161, eff. May 2, 1874.
  13. ^ Acts 1879, 16th Leg., R.S., Ch. 102, eff. Apr. 18, 1879.
  14. ^ Acts 1882, 17th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 30, eff. Aug. 3, 1882.
  15. ^ Acts 1892, 22nd Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 19, eff. Jul. 11, 1892.
  16. ^ United States v. Texas, 162 U.S. 1 (1896)
  17. ^ Acts 1901, 27th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 5, eff. Dec. 3, 1901
  18. ^ a b c Acts 1909, 31st Leg., R.S., Ch. 86, eff. Jun. 11, 1909.
  19. ^ a b Acts 1917, 35th Leg., R.S., Ch. 119, eff. Jun. 19, 1917.
  20. ^ Acts 1933, 43rd Leg., R.S., Ch. 135, eff. Aug. 30, 1933.
  21. ^ Acts 1957, 55th Leg., R.S., Ch. 286, eff. Aug. 21, 1957;
    Bush v. Martin, 224 F. Supp. 499 (S.D. Tex. 1963);
    aff'd per curiam, Martin v. Bush, 376 U.S. 222 (1964);
    Acts 1965, 59th Leg., R.S., Ch. 349, eff. Aug. 30, 1965.
  22. ^ Acts 1967, 60th Leg., R.S., Ch. 342, eff. Aug. 28, 1967;
    Bush v. Martin, 251 F. Supp. 484 (S.D. Tex. 1966).
  23. ^ Acts 1971, 62nd Leg. 1st C.S., Ch. 12, eff. Sep. 3, 1971.
  24. ^ White v. Weiser, --- F. Supp. --- (N.D. Tex. 1973) PLAN B
  25. ^ Acts 1975, 64th Leg., R.S., Ch. 538, eff. Sep. 1, 1975.
  26. ^ Acts 1981, 67th Leg., 1st C.S., Ch. 2, eff. Nov. 10, 1981;
    Seamon v. Upham, 536 F. Supp. 931, 958 (E.D. Tex. 1982);
    Acts 1983, 68th Leg., R.S., Ch. 531, eff. Jun. 19, 1983.
  27. ^ Acts 1991, 72nd Leg., 2nd C.S., Ch. 7, eff. Nov. 24, 1991;
    Vera v. Richards, 861 F. Supp. 1304 (S.D. Tex. 1994);
    Bush v. Vera, 517 U.S. 952 (1996);
    Vera v. Bush, 933 F. Supp. 1341 (S.D. Tex. 1996) PLANC657
  28. ^ Vera v. Bush, 933 F. Supp. 1341 (S.D. Tex. 1996);
    Vera v. Bush, 980 F. Supp. 254 (S.D. Tex. 1997) PLANC746
  29. ^ Balderas v. State of Texas, --- F. Supp. --- (E.D. Tex. 2001) PLAN01151C
  30. ^ Acts 2003, 78th Leg., 3rd C.S., Ch. 2, eff. Jan. 11, 2004 PLAN01374C;
    Lulac v. Perry, 457 F. Supp. 2d 716 (E.D. Tex. 2006) PLAN01440C.

Coordinates: 31°57?06?N 94°33?07?W / 31.95167°N 94.55194°W / 31.95167; -94.55194


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