Texas's 23rd Congressional District
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Texas's 23rd Congressional District

Texas's 23rd congressional district
Texas US Congressional District 23 (since 2013).tif
Texas's 23rd congressional district - since January 3, 2013.
  • 78.09[1]% urban
  • 21.91% rural
Population (2016)772,944[2]
Median income$50,338[2]
Cook PVIR+1[3]

Texas's 23rd congressional district stretches across the southwestern portion of Texas. It is a predominantly Hispanic district and its current Representative is Republican Will Hurd.

Election results from presidential races

Year Result
2004 George W. Bush 57 - 43%
2008 Barack Obama 51 - 48%
2012 Mitt Romney 50.7 - 48.1%
2016 Hillary Clinton 49.8 - 46.4%


The district runs along the majority of Texas's border with Mexico, just north of the Rio Grande. While it encompasses numerous county seats and a few towns of regional economic importance, the district is predominantly rural. It stretches from western San Antonio to just outside El Paso. Its large size is due to its low population density--one of the lowest in the country. It encompasses all of Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park. Major economic activities in the district include farming, ranching, oil and mineral extraction, recreation, manufacturing, and tourism.


As of the 2000 census, the district contained 651,620 people. Of these, 41% are non-Hispanic white, 55.1% Hispanic regardless of race, 2% non-Hispanic black, and 2.2% other.[4] The district's population is 74.6% urban.[5] Per capita Income for the district is $18,692. The district has a 6.5% unemployment rate. Of the employed, 71.8% is private, 19.4% government, and 8.4% self-employed.[6] Major industries include Retail trade, Education services, Health Care, and Manufacturing. 222,012 households are within the district, with an average of 2.8 persons per household.[7]

Election results

Elections from 1967 to 1992

This district was created in 1967, following passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In addition, it followed the case of Wesberry v. Sanders, resulting in Texas' previous congressional map being tossed out. Democrats held the district until 1993.

Elections from 1992 to 2002

Following the 1990 census, in 1992, the Texas Legislature created the new 28th District, mostly from the eastern portion of the 23rd. In the process, the legislature left a heavily Republican section of western San Antonio in the 23rd. Republican Henry Bonilla beat 4-term incumbent Albert Bustamante to take the seat in 1992.

Although the 23rd leaned slightly Democratic on paper, Bonilla had a very conservative voting record. Largely because of his popularity in San Antonio, he did not face a credible challenger until 2002, when the former Democratic Texas Secretary of State, Henry Cuellar, came within 2 points of unseating him.

2004 election

During the 2003 Texas redistricting, the Republican-controlled Texas Legislature shifted most of Laredo, which had been one of the bases of the 23rd from the beginning, into the 28th district. Several heavily Republican suburbs in the Texas Hill Country north of San Antonio were shifted into the 23rd district, all but ensuring Bonilla of a seventh term.

Texas's 23rd congressional district election, 2004
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Henry Bonilla 170,716 69.3 +17.7
Democratic Joe Sullivan 72,480 29.4 -17.8
Libertarian Nazirite Perez 3,307 1.3 +0.6
Majority 98,236 39.9
Turnout 246,503
Republican hold Swing +17.8

2006 election

On June 28, 2006, the U.S. Supreme Court, in League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry ruled that the 23rd District violated the Voting Rights Act of 1965. The case turned on the fact that the 23rd District was a protected majority-Hispanic district. If the 23rd were redrawn to put Hispanics in a minority, a new majority-Hispanic district had to be created. Although Hispanics made up 55 percent of the new 23rd's population, they comprised only 46 percent of the new 23rd's voting-age U.S. citizen population. Therefore, the Court said, the new 23rd was not a true majority-minority district. The Court found that the new Austin-to-McAllen 25th District was not compact enough to be an acceptable replacement. The Court ruled that the legislature had violated the rights of Hispanic voters.

As a result, on August 4, 2006, a three-judge panel announced replacement district boundaries for the 2006 election in the 23rd district. Due to the 23rd's size, nearly every district along the El Paso-San Antonio corridor had to be redrawn as well.

In the change, the new 23rd lost many of the heavily Republican areas given to it in 2003, as well as the rest of Laredo. It received a large portion of south San Antonio, which was heavily Democratic. Four other districts were affected: the 28th (represented by Democrat Henry Cuellar), 25th (Democrat Lloyd Doggett), 15th (Democrat Ruben Hinojosa) and 21st (Republican Lamar S. Smith). As a result, on November 7, 2006 (the day of the general election), these five districts held open primaries, called a "jungle primary." If no candidate were to receive as much as 50% of the vote, a runoff election in December would decide the seat.[8]

In the 23rd, the incumbent Bonilla had two significant opponents, both Democrats: the Vietnam War veteran Rick Bolanos and Ciro Rodriguez, the former Congressman of the 28th district. In the Spring, Bolanos won the now moot 23rd district Democratic primary. Rodriguez lost a primary challenge to Cuellar in the 28th district, which was also vacated. The redrawing placed Rodriguez' home, along with most of his old base, into the 23rd district. Other candidates in the special election were: Albert Uresti, the retired San Antonio Fire Department district chief and brother of the state Senator Carlos Uresti; Lukin Gilliland, a rancher and businessman from Alamo Heights; Adrian De Leon, the owner of a truck stop in Carrizo Springs; and August Beltran of San Antonio. Craig T. Stephens, an independent candidate, also filed to run.[9]

Rick Bolanos dropped out of the race on October 19, 2006 and endorsed fellow Democrat Lukin Gilliland.

On November 7, 2006, Henry Bonilla received significantly more votes than any of his challengers, but did not receive 50% of the votes cast. Though none of the Democratic candidates came close to Bonilla individually, as a whole the six Democratic candidates received slightly more votes than Bonilla, the only Republican candidate. However, neither party received more than 50% of the vote because of a third party candidate.

A runoff election was held on December 12, 2006 between Bonilla and Rodriguez, and Rodriguez won.[10]

Texas's 23rd congressional district runoff election, 2006
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Ciro Rodriguez 38,247 54.32% +25.1
Republican Henry Bonilla (incumbent) 32,165 45.68% -23.9
Majority 6,082 8.64%
Turnout 68,294
Democratic gain from Republican Swing 24.5

2010 election

The National Republican Congressional Committee targeted Texas' 23rd Congressional District to try to regain it, and strongly supported the Republican campaign financially.[11]Francisco "Quico" Canseco, a San Antonio businessman, became the Republican nominee for the district after defeating Will Hurd, Robert Lowry, Joseph Mack Gould, and Michael Kueber in the Republican primary.[12] Canseco won the General Election on November 2, 2010, defeating the incumbent, and took office on January 3, 2011.[13]

2010 23rd Congressional District of Texas Elections[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Republican Quico Canseco 74,671 49.38
Democratic Ciro Rodriguez 67,212 44.44
Turnout 141,883
Republican gain from Democratic Swing

2012 election

Democratic challenger Pete Gallego defeated Republican incumbent Quico Canseco in the race for Texas' 23rd district on November 6, 2012. Since 1991, Gallego had represented the 74th state house district, which is the nation's largest United States-Mexico border district.[15] At one time or another, Gallego had represented nearly all of the central portion of the congressional district.

Canseco conceded the race on November 9.[16]

Texas's 23rd congressional district election, 2012
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic Pete Gallego 96,477 50.33
Republican Francisco "Quico" Canseco 87,255 45.52
Libertarian Jeffrey C. Blunt 5,827 3.04
Green Ed Scharf 2,099 1.09
Total votes 191,658 100

2014 election

Republican challenger Will Hurd defeated Democratic incumbent Pete Gallego in the race for Texas' 23rd district on November 4, 2014, making this the third consecutive election in which partisan control of the seat switched.

Texas's 23rd congressional district election, 2014
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Will Hurd 57,459 49.8
Democratic Pete Gallego 55,037 47.7
Libertarian Ruben Corvalan 2,933 2.5
Total votes 115,429 100

2016 election

Republican incumbent Will Hurd defeated Democratic challenger Pete Gallego in the race for Texas' 23rd district on November 8, 2016.

Texas's 23rd congressional district election, 2016
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Will Hurd 110,577 48.3
Democratic Pete Gallego 107,526 47.0
Libertarian Ruben Corvalan 10,862 4.7
Total votes 228,965 100

2018 Election

For a third consecutive time, Republican incumbent Will Hurd won by a margin less than 1,000 votes to newcomer Gina Ortiz Jones in the race for Texas' 23rd district on November 8, 2018.

Texas's 23rd congressional district, 2018[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Will Hurd (incumbent) 103,285 49.2
Democratic Gina Ortiz Jones 102,359 48.7
Libertarian Ruben Corvalan 4,425 2.1
Total votes 210,069 100.0
Republican hold

Electoral history

List of members representing the district

Member Party Years District home Electoral history
District created January 3, 1967
Abraham Kazen.jpg
Abraham Kazen Jr.
Democratic January 3, 1967 -
January 3, 1985
Laredo [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost renomination.
Albert Bustamante.jpg
Albert Bustamante
Democratic January 3, 1985 -
January 3, 1993
San Antonio [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
Henry Bonilla.jpg
Henry Bonilla
Republican January 3, 1993 -
January 3, 2007
San Antonio [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
Ciro Rodriguez, official 110th Congress photo.JPG
Ciro Rodriguez
Democratic January 3, 2007 -
January 3, 2011
San Antonio [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
Quico Canseco, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Quico Canseco
Republican January 3, 2011 -
January 3, 2013
San Antonio [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
Pete Gallego official portrait.jpg
Pete Gallego
Democratic January 3, 2013 -
January 3, 2015
Alpine [Data unknown/missing.]
Lost re-election.
Will Hurd Texas.jpg
Will Hurd
Republican January 3, 2015 -
Helotes [Data unknown/missing.]

Living former Members of the House

As of March 2019, there are five living former members. The most recent to die was Abraham Kazen (served 1967-1985) on November 29, 1987.

Representative Term of office Date of birth (and age)
Albert Bustamante 1985-1993 (1935-04-08) April 8, 1935 (age 84)
Henry Bonilla 1993-2007 (1954-01-02) January 2, 1954 (age 65)
Ciro Rodriguez 2007-2011 (1946-12-09) December 9, 1946 (age 72)
Quico Canseco 2011-2013 (1949-07-30) July 30, 1949 (age 70)
Pete Gallego 2013-2015 (1961-12-02) December 2, 1961 (age 57)

Historical district boundaries

2007 - 2013
2005 - 2007

See also


  1. ^ Geography, US Census Bureau. "Congressional Districts Relationship Files (state-based)". www.census.gov.
  2. ^ a b Center for New Media & Promotion (CNMP), US Census Bureau. "My Congressional District". www.census.gov.
  3. ^ "Partisan Voting Index - Districts of the 115th Congress" (PDF). The Cook Political Report. April 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ tlc.state.tx.us
  5. ^ tlc.state.tx.us
  6. ^ tlc.state.tx.us
  7. ^ tlc.state.tx.us
  8. ^ "Texas Redistricting"[permanent dead link], Austin American-Statesman, 4 August 2006
  9. ^ Matthew Spieler (August 31, 2006). "Rodriguez Drops Bid in Texas 23, But Only Briefly". Archived from the original on October 27, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  10. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  11. ^ "NRCC Memo Reveals 24 Democratic Targets". Roll Call. March 6, 2008. Retrieved 2010.
  12. ^ Flores, Canseco win GOP nods Politico April 14, 2010. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
  13. ^ TX Secretary of State TX Secretary of State Election Returns November 2, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  14. ^ "2010 General Election, Election Night Returns, Unofficial Elections Results As Of: 11/3/2010 12:14:58 PM". Texas Secretary of State. November 3, 2010. Retrieved 2010.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ "Democrat Takes The Texas 23rd Congressional District". KPBS. November 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ Martin, Gary (November 9, 2012). "Canseco concedes to Gallego in District 23". San Antonio Express-News. Retrieved 2015.
  17. ^ Cite error: The named reference txsos was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

External links

Coordinates: 30°23?21?N 102°19?36?W / 30.38917°N 102.32667°W / 30.38917; -102.32667

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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