Timeline of Glasgow History
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Timeline of Glasgow History
This article is intended to show a
timeline of the history of Glasgow, Scotland, up to the present day.
500-1099 543: The 12th century
Bishop Jocelyn will later claim Glasgow's monastic church was founded by Saint Kentigern, also known as Saint Mungo, in this year; he also claimed that Kentigern found at Glasgow a cemetery which Saint Ninian had hallowed  560: Jocelyn claims Mungo/Kentigern made his first bishop in this year
1500-1599 c1500: Population estimate is 2,500 - 3,000
Plague hits Glasgow; the city is eleventh among Scottish burghs for taxation revenue c1510: The
Bishop's Palace is extended  1516-1559: The city's craft
guilds are incorporated 1518: The
university becomes more active 1520: The
archdiocese now includes the former diocese of Argyll 1525: James Houston founds the Tron Church
1535-1556: Glasgow pays 1.5% - 3% of total Scottish burgh taxes
1544: Siege of
castle; estimated population is 3,000  1556: Estimated population c4,500. Brewing recorded at site that will later become
Wellpark Brewery 1560: The burgh of Glasgow is now represented in the
Parliament of Scotland 1570: Andrew Melville rejuvenates the university
1574: Plague hits the city again
c1576: The council mill is rebuilt
1579: The city's
cathedral is saved from demolition by craftsmen threatening to riot 1581: Glasgow pays 66% of upper Clyde customs tax
1589: Golf is played on
Glasgow Green 1593: Emergence of the
Presbytery of Glasgow in the new self-governing church 1594: Glasgow is now fifth in ranking of Scottish burghs, paying 4.5% of export customs
1600-1699 1600: Population estimates for the city vary between 5000 and 7500
1604: 361 craftsmen work in fourteen trades, including two
surgeons and 213 merchants 1605: The Trades House and Merchants House combine to form the first
town council 1610: The
General Assembly approves the restoration of diocesan episcopacy in Scotland 1611: Glasgow becomes a
royal burgh, with a population of about 7600 1615: The
Jesuit John Ogilvy is hanged for saying Mass  1621: Glasgow pays 3%-10% of Scottish
customs duties 1625: The first
quay is built at Broomielaw 1626: The
Tolbooth is constructed 1636: There are 120 students at the university
Covenanters at the General Assembly plan to abolish bishops 1639: Glasgow the 3rd richest
burgh in Scotland, one-fifth as rich as Edinburgh; Hutcheson's Hospital is founded 1641:
Hutchesons' Grammar School is founded for orphan boys; 50 buildings erected in Trongate 1645:
Montrose enters city, celebrates victories 1645-1646: Plague hits city
 1649: Glasgow displaces
Perth as Scotland's 4th trading centre; pays 6.5% of customs duties 1650:
Oliver Cromwell enters Glasgow while on a campaign against the Scottish Army  1652: Major fire makes about a thousand families homeless;
an early  fire engine from Edinburgh helps put out the blaze 1655: Glasgow trades in
coal, hoops, meal, oats, butter, herring, salt, paper, prunes, timber, and hides: goat, kid, and deerskins 1656: Glasgow is described as a "flourishing city", with "strong stone walls"
1659-1665: Bridgegate merchants' house is rebuilt
1660: A coal pit is reported in the Gorbals
1661: Several pits reported
post office opens 1663: Alexander Burnet is appointed
archbishop  1668: Land is purchased for a new
harbour - later Port Glasgow  1669: Burnet resigns the archbishopric, objects to
Act of Supremacy  1670: Glasgow displaces
Aberdeen and Dundee to become Scotland's second trade city 1673:
Colonel Walter Whiteford opens city's first coffee house 1675:
Magistrates take action against unauthorised prayer meetings 1677: Another major fire hits the city, destroying 130 shops and houses
 1678: First
stagecoaches run to Edinburgh 1680: The city's population is perhaps around 12,000, with 450 traders, 100 trading overseas
Quay is reconstructed following dredging of the River Clyde 1690 Glasgow is re-chartered as a royal burgh; the city has an early Bank of Scotland branch
1700-1799 1702: the
University of Glasgow has around 400 students 1706: Anti-unionists riot;
Glasgow is a major  smuggling port 1707:
Act of Union  1710: The city's population is estimated to be 13,000; over 200 shops are open; much of the city is liable to flooding
1712: Glasgow owners own 4% of Scottish fleet, 46 vessels
Glasgow Courant newspaper first published  1718: Possible date for first Glasgow vessel to sail to America
Cotton printing has begun 1720: Glasgow's estimated population is 15,000
1721-1735: James Anderson builds "Andersontown" (modern-day
Anderston) village 1725: Glasgow occupied by
General Wade's army; protests and street violence against liquor tax 1726:
Daniel Defoe describes Glasgow as "The cleanest and best-built city in Britain"; 50 ships a year sail to America 1729: The
Glasgow Journal newspaper is published 1730: The Glasgow
Linen Society is formed 1735: The city's ship-owners own 67 ships
1736: The first history of Glasgow is published by John McUre
1737-1760: A new Town Hall is built west of the
Tolbooth 1738: The Anderston Weavers' Society is formed
1740: Approximately 685,000 m of
linen is made in Glasgow, some of which is sent to London. Hugh and Robert Tennent take over the Drygate Brewery 1740-1741: The Foulis brothers begin printing
Delft pottery is manufactured in the city 1743: The Foulis brothers become printers to the university
Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) enters the city with his army;  Tennents open a new brewery in Glasgow 1749: A
stage coach service opens between Edinburgh and Glasgow 1750: There are five sugar refineries in the city
1751: The John Smith bookshop is established
1753: Foulis Academy is established at the university to promote
art and design; turnpiking of main roads from Glasgow; the city's involvement in the tobacco trade is reflected in the naming of Virginia Street 1755: The estimated population of Glasgow is 23,500
 1757: 2.2 million metres of linen are produced in the city
1760: Glasgow enjoys a wave of prosperity; there are 13 professors at Glasgow University
Joseph Black discovers latent heat 1763:
David Dale opens a draper's shop in the city; regular coaches run from Glasgow to Greenock 1769:
Tennents brewers is now a large industry; James Watt patents his steam engine condenser 1771: The Scottish economy is boosted by trade through Glasgow
1775: Trade with America in tobacco,
sugar, and cotton - the city's prosperity is at its height 1776:
Adam Smith, a professor at Glasgow University, publishes Wealth of Nations  1779: Mobs protest against the
Catholic Relief Act 1780: The estimated population of Glasgow is 42,000;
the construction of the  Forth and Clyde Canal is completed 1781: Vessels of over 30 tons can now reach Broomielaw Quay
Forth and Clyde Canal enables grain from London to ease famine in Glasgow 1783: Glasgow
Chamber of Commerce is founded, it is the first in Britain  1785: A
hot air balloonist flies from Glasgow to Hawick in the Borders; the firm of Thomsons is formed as bankers 1794:
Glasgow Royal Infirmary opens  1796: The Royal Technical College (which will later become The
University of Strathclyde) is founded 1798: The Merchant Banking Company of Glasgow fails
1799: Demonstrations over bread prices; trade in tobacco and rum declines
1800-1899 1800: The
River Clyde is 14 ft (3.1m) deep, and supports 200 wharves and jetties; there is a large Gaelic community in the city  1800: The
Glasgow Police Act is passed by Parliament allowing the creation of the first modern preventative police force  1803:
Dorothy Wordsworth visits Glasgow  1807:
Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery opens off the high street, adjacent to the then campus of Glasgow University 1809: General Association of Operative Weavers is formed
1810-1814: Glasgow Asylum for Lunatics is built in Dobbies Loan
1813: Weavers fail in bid for fair wages
Glasgow Green is Europe's first public park 1815: The
is published twice-weekly Glasgow Herald 1818:
Gas street lights begin to be used in the city  1820: "
Radical War"  1825: the
University of Glasgow, still located in the High Street, has over 1200 students and about 30 professors; 10 coaches run to Edinburgh daily 1827: The Argyll Arcade opens
James Beaumont Neilson makes breakthrough in iron-smelting technology; a total abstinence society is formed 1832: The city benefits from increased representation under the
Great Reform Bill 1835-1874: The
Liberals represents Glasgow in Parliament 1836: The
Forth and Clyde Canal has increased traffic in goods and passengers 1837: Violent
cotton-spinners strike; the leaders are sentenced to  transportation  1841:
Chartist demonstration is addressed by Fergus O'Connor 1842: Opening of the
Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway and Glasgow Queen Street railway station  1843:
Disruption of the Church of Scotland  1844: Glasgow
Stock Exchange opens  1846: Burgh boundaries are more than doubled to 5,063 acres (20.49 km
2)  1847: Swedish opera singer,
Jenny Lind, performs concerts in the city  1848: 100,000 people gather on Glasgow Green to support Chartists
Queen Victoria visits the city;  Buchanan Street railway station opens  1851: Glasgow is
Scotland's largest city, with a population of 329,096 over 18% of which were Irish-born Portland St suspension footbridge is built  1851-1854:
Victoria Bridge is built at Stockwell Street  1857-1859:
St Vincent Street Church is built by Alexander "Greek" Thomson  1859:
Loch Katrine water supply is opened by Queen Victoria  1862: Dr Henry Littlejohn becomes the city's first medical officer
 1865: Dr
Edward William Pritchard is the last person to be publicly hanged in the city, for poisoning his wife and mother-in-law  1866: The last outbreak of Cholera in the city occurs;
the City Improvement Trust clears slums and constructs new roads and buildings  1867:
Queen's Park F.C. is founded  1868-1870: The
University of Glasgow buildings at Gilmorehill are built to designs by George Gilbert Scott 1872:
Rangers F.C. is founded; Glasgow's first tram line is established, running from St. George's Cross to Eglinton Toll   1876:
Partick Thistle F.C. is founded  1877:
Mitchell Library opens  1883: The
Boys' Brigade is founded  1887:
Celtic F.C. is founded  1888:
International Exhibition (1888)  1895: First
cremation in Scotland's first crematorium, at the Western Necropolis  1896: Opening of the Glasgow Subway 
Glasgow International Exhibition  1902: 25
football fans die and 587 injured in the first Ibrox disaster; magistrates attempt to prohibit young women from serving in bars   1903:
Charles Rennie Mackintosh designs Miss Cranston's Willow Tearooms 1904: The Kings' and Pavilion Theatres open
Theatre Royal opens 1905-1907: The
Caledonian Railway extends the Central Hotel 1906-1911: New buildings for the
Mitchell Library are constructed  1909:
Charles Rennie Mackintosh's Glasgow School of Art opens  1910: Emigration leads to 20,000 housing vacancies in Glasgow
1911: International Exposition (
Scottish Exhibition of National History, Art and Industry) at Kelvingrove; Glasgow's population is 785,000 1914: Tramcars cover wide routes around Glasgow
1919: Large strike for a 40-hour week. Demonstration turned into riot, known as the
Battle of George Square. The Sheriff of Lanarkshire requests military assistance. Troops sent from elsewhere in Scotland, and from England. Glasgow soldiers are confined to barracks.  1921:
Sinn Féiners murder policeman 1923:
Grouping of virtually all British railway companies: the Caledonian and Glasgow and South Western Railways are merged into the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS); and the North British into the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) 1925: There are approximately 200 miles (320 km) of tramlines and 1100 trams in and around the city
1926: Violence during
General Strike 1929:
Hogmanay cinema fire causes stampede which kills 69 children in Glen Cinema; Glasgow has nearly 100 cinemas 1931: The
Glasgow population peaks at 1,088,000 thus becoming Britain's 2nd biggest city; the Dental Hospital in Sauchiehall Street is built  1934: Unemployed "Hunger marchers" shunned by
Ramsay MacDonald; RMS launched Queen Mary  1935: Glasgow's subway becomes electric
1936: Overcrowding exists in 29% of Glasgow's houses
1937: Citywide automatic telephone dialling becomes available
1938: Glasgow hosts
Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 at Bellahouston Park 1939: World War II: Glasgow naval base
HMS opens Spartiate 1940: Bomb hits
Merkland Street subway station, closes underground for four months 1941: Bombing raids on
Clydebank, 500 killed 1944: Glasgow
trams carry about 14 million passengers 1946: Glasgow naval base
HMS closes Spartiate 1949: Trolley buses introduced, condemned by pedestrians as the "whispering death"
1950: Eye infirmary demolished
Royal Scottish Academy of Music and Drama (RSAMD) is formed by merger 1952-1955: Union Bank of Scotland absorbed by
Bank of Scotland 1955: Duke Street
prison closed  1958:
William Burrell dies, bequeaths Burrell Collection; Lanarkshire County Council moves its headquarters from Ingram Street to Hamilton 1960: Glasgow electric
Blue Train system starts; Dame Jean Roberts is elected Glasgow's first female Lord Provost 1962: Last route of the
Glasgow Corporation Tramways closes 1964:
University of Strathclyde established;  Beeching closes low-level (Argyle) line 1966:
Buchanan Street railway station and St Enoch railway station close   1967: Celtic F.C. first British winners of
European Cup; RMS launched; trolley-buses withdrawn QE2 1969: Last daily steamers from Bridge Wharf
M8 motorway and Kingston Bridge open 1971: 66 Rangers F.C. fans die in the second
Ibrox disaster; Government refuse to save  Upper Clyde Shipbuilders 1972: Rangers F.C. win
1972 European Cup Winners' Cup Final. 1975:
British Army tackle rubbish caused by dustmans strike; Glasgow becomes the home of Strathclyde Region's headquarters; the city sees the start of Britain's first mass-circulation daily newspaper workers' cooperative when the opens in Albion Street in May, as well as the country's first newspaper work-in when it folds after six months. Scottish Daily News 1977:
Glasgow Subway closes for extensive modernisation (reopening in 1980)  1978: The Rev
Geoff Shaw, first Convener of Strathclyde Regional Council (and former leader of Glasgow Corporation), dies in office aged 52 1979-1980: Low level
Argyle Line re-opens 1982:
Roy Jenkins wins Hillhead by-election for the newly formed Social Democratic Party 1983:
Burrell Collection opens; launch of the  Glasgow's miles better campaign 1985:
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre opens; Glasgow population is 734,000 1988: The
Glasgow Garden Festival hosts this year's National Garden Festival and attracts 4.3 million visitors. 1989: High number of
poll tax arrears; St Enoch Centre opens 1990: Cultural city of Europe; McLellan Galleries re-opens;
Glasgow Royal Concert Hall completed; the returns to the QE2 river Clyde to mark the 150th anniversary of the beginning of the Cunard Steam Ship Company; the world's first Robot Olympics takes place in the city. 1991:
Glasgow Women's Library opens  1993:
Glasgow Caledonian University established; Opening of the new St Mungo's Museum, the UK's only Museum of Religion, next to the city's 13th century  cathedral. 1996: Glasgow Festival of Visual Arts; opening of the
Gallery of Modern Art in the former Stirling's Library; first Glasgow International Festival of Design 1996-1999: Festival of Architecture and Design
1997: Opening of new £38 million Clyde Auditorium at the
Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre.  1999: Glasgow is UK City of Architecture and Design; Buchanan Galleries open;  millennium celebrations;  The Rt Hon  Donald Dewar (MP and MSP for Glasgow Anniesland) become the first First Minister of Scotland 
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Further reading Published in the 18th century
John Tait's Directory for the City of Glasgow, Glasgow, 1783 . ( 1871 reprint) Jones's Directory; or, Useful Pocket Companion for the year 1787. Glasgow. . ( 1887 reprint) Published in the 19th century
, Glasgow: McFeat & Co., 1806 Glasgow Directory
"Glasgow Lists, 1817". Edinburgh Almanack. Edinburgh. hdl: 2027/wu.89038302311.
David Brewster, ed. (1830). "Glasgow". . Edinburgh: William Blackwood. Edinburgh Encyclopædia
"Glasgow", Scottish Tourist and Itinerary, Edinburgh: Stirling, Kenney, 1842
"Glasgow", Lizars' Scottish Tourist, Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars, 1850
Messrs, Oliver Boyd (1860). "Glasgow and its Environs". Oliver and Boyd's Scottish Tourist. Edinburgh.
"Glasgow". Cook's Scottish Tourist Practical Directory. Thos. Cook. 1866. hdl: 2027/mdp.39015081808761.
"Glasgow", Tourists' Handy Guide to Scotland, Edinburgh: W. Paterson, 1872, OCLC 22141784 , London: T. Nelson, 1887 Tourist's Guide to Glasgow
Published in the 20th century