|Topa Inca Yupanqui|
|Sapa Inca (10th)|
Drawing by Guaman Poma in 1615
|Quechua||Tupaq Inka Yupanki|
|Spanish||Túpac Inca Yupanqui|
Topa Inca Yupanqui or Túpac Inca Yupanqui (Quechua: 'Tupaq Inka Yupanki'), translated as "noble Inca accountant," (c. 1441-c. 1493) was the tenth Sapa Inca (1471-93) of the Inca Empire, fifth of the Hanan dynasty. His father was Pachacuti, and his son was Huayna Capac.:93 Topa Inca belonged to the Qhapaq panaca (one of the clans of Inca nobles). His wife was his older sister, Mama Ocllo.:88
His father appointed him to head the Inca army in 1463.
He extended the realm northward along the Andes through modern Ecuador,:144 and developed a special fondness for the city of Quito, which he rebuilt with architects from Cuzco. During this time his father Pachacuti reorganized the kingdom of Cuzco into the Tahuantinsuyu, the "four provinces." Tupac Inca led extensive military conquests to extend the Inca empire across much of Southern America.:89–92
He became Sapa Inca in his turn upon his father's death in 1471, ruling until his own death in 1493. He conquered Chimor, which occupied the northern coast of what is now Peru, the largest remaining rival to the Incas.
He conquered the province of Antis and subdued the Collas. He imposed rules and taxes, creating two Governor Generals, Suyuyoc Apu, one in Xauxa and the other in Tiahuanacu. Tupac Inca Yupanqui created the fortress Saksaywaman on the high plateau above Cuzco, which included store houses for provisions and clothing.:98–105
Tupac Inca died about 1493 in Chincheros, leaving two legitimate sons, and 90 illegitimate sons and daughters. Chuqui Ocllo, one of the wives of Tupac Yupanqui, convinced him that his son Ccapac Huari would succeed him, however Tupac Inca changed his mind and decided on his son Titu Cusi Hualpa (who would later become emperor Huayna Capac). This provoked anger in Chuqui Ocllo and she poisoned Tupac Inca. They were both killed soon after Tupac Inca's death.:106–107
Topa Inca Yupanqui is also credited with leading a roughly 10-month-long voyage of exploration into the Pacific around 1480, reportedly visiting islands he called Nina Chumpi ("fire belt") and Hawa Chumpi ("outer belt", also spelled Avachumpi, Hahua chumpi). The voyage is mentioned in the History of the Incas by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa in 1572. Pedro Sarmiento described the expedition as follows:
Many historians are skeptical that the voyage ever took place. Supporters have usually identified the islands with the Galápagos Islands. It has also been suggested that one of the islands was Easter Island, where oral traditions have claimed that a group of long-eared hanau eepe came to the island from an unknown land.