Torontal County
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Toront%C3%A1l County
Torontál County
Comitatus Torontaliensis  (Latin)
Torontál vármegye  (Hungarian)
Komitat Torontal  (German)
  (Serbian)
Comitatul Torontal  (Romanian)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary
(14th century-1526)
County of the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
(1526-1551)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary
(1551-1552)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary
(1779-1849, 1860-1923)
Coat of arms of Torontál
Coat of arms
Torontal.png
CapitalAracsa; Nagy-Becskerek (1779-1807, 1820-1920); Nagyszentmikós (1807-1820); Kiszombor (1920-1923)
Area
 o Coordinates45°23?N 20°24?E / 45.383°N 20.400°E / 45.383; 20.400Coordinates: 45°23?N 20°24?E / 45.383°N 20.400°E / 45.383; 20.400
 
o 1910
10,016 km2 (3,867 sq mi)
Population 
o 1910
615151
History 
o Established
14th century
o Ottoman conquest
1552
o County recreated
23 April 1779
o Disestablished
18 November 1849
o County recreated
27 December 1860
o Treaty of Trianon
4 June 1920
o Merged into Csanád-Arad-Torontál County
1923
Today part of Serbia
(7,261 km2)

 Romania
(2,497 km2)

 Hungary
(258 km2)
Vranjevo, Zrenjanin; Sânnicolau Mare is the current name of the capital.
Toronthal County in 1370

Torontál (Hungarian: Torontál, German: Torontal, Serbian: , Romanian: Torontal) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now divided between Serbia and Romania, except a small area which is part of Hungary. The capital of the county was Nagybecskerek (Serbian: , German: Großbetschkerek, Romanian: Becicherecu Mare), the current Zrenjanin.

Geography

Torontál county was located in the Banat region. It shared borders with the Kingdom of Serbia and the Hungarian counties Syrmia, Bács-Bodrog, Csongrád, Csanád, Arad and Temes (the first county was part of Croatia-Slavonia). The river Danube formed its southern border, the river Tisza its western border, and the river Maros (Mure?) its northern border. Its area was 10,042 km² around 1910.

History

Torontál county was formed before the 15th century. Initial capital was Aracsa (Vranjevo) and existed until this area was taken by the Ottoman Empire in 1552. During Ottoman administration, this territory was included into the Ottoman Province of Teme?var. After the Banat was captured by the Habsburg Monarchy in 1718, the area was included into the Banat of Temeswar. This province was abolished in 1778 and it was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, county was restored in 1779. Its center was moved temporarily to Nagyszentmiklós (present-day Sânnicolau Mare) between 1807 and 1820 due to a great fire in Nagybecskerek (present-day Zrenjanin).

Bács-Bodrog, Syrmia, Torontál, Temes and Krassó-Szörény counties after 1881, the five counties, which were formed in the territory of former Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar

In 1848/1849 the area of the county was claimed by the self-proclaimed Serbian Voivodship, while between 1849 and 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Austrian crownland. After 1853, the county did not exist since the voivodeship was divided into districts. Ater the voivodeship was abolished in 1860, wthe area was again incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary and the county was recreated in January 1861.

In 1918, the county became part of the newly formed Banat Republic, and then part of Banat, Ba?ka and Baranja region of the Kingdom of Serbia, which subsequently became part of the newly formed Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed to Yugoslavia). By the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, the area of the county was divided between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Romania, and Hungary. Most of the county was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later became Yugoslavia). The north-eastern part of the county was assigned to Romania, and the northernmost part of the county (a small area south of Szeged, Kiszombor and 8 surrounding villages) was assigned to Hungary and became part of the newly formed county Csanád-Arad-Torontál in 1923.

Csanád, Arad and Torontál counties after the Treaty of Trianon. In 1923, the three counties were merged to form Csanád-Arad-Torontál County.

The Yugoslav part of the pre-1920 Torontál county (the western Banat region) is now part of Serbia (mostly in the autonomous region of Vojvodina, except the small part near Belgrade, which is part of Belgrade Region). The Romanian part is now part of Timi? county (called Timi?-Torontal between 1919 and 1950). The Hungarian part is now part of Csongrád County.

Demographics

1900

In 1900, the county had a population of 609,362 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:[1]

Total:

According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities:[2]

Total:

1910

Ethnic map of the county with data of the 1910 census (see the key in the description).

In 1910, the county had a population of 615,151 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:[3]

Total:

According to the census of 1910, the county was composed of the following religious communities:[4]

Total:

Subdivisions

Detailed map of the county

In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Torontál county were:

Districts (járás)
District District Seat
Alibunári járás Alibunár (Serbian: ), today in Serbia
Antalfalvai járás Antalfalva (Serbian: ), today in Serbia
Bánlaki járás Bánlak (Romanian: Banloc), today in Romania
Csenei járás Csene (Romanian: Cenei), today in Romania
Módosi járás Módos (Serbian: ), today Ja?a Tomi? in Serbia
Nagybecskereki járás Nagy-Becskerek (Serbian: ), today Zrenjanin in Serbia
Nagykikindai járás Nagy-Kikinda (Serbian: ?), today Kikinda in Serbia
Nagyszentmiklósi járás Nagyszentmiklós (Romanian: Sânnicolau Mare), today in Romania
Pancsovai járás Pancsova (Serbian: ?), today in Serbia
Párdányi járás Párdány (Serbian: ), today Me?a in Serbia
Perjámosi járás Perjámos (Romanian: Periam), today in Romania
Törökbecsei járás Törökbecse (Serbian: ), today Novi Be?ej in Serbia
Törökkanizsai járás Törökkanizsa (Serbian: ), today Novi Kne?evac in Serbia
Zsombolyai járás Zsombolya (Romanian: Jimbolia), today in Romania
Urban counties (törvényhatósági jogú város)
Pancsova (Serbian: ?), today in Serbia
Urban districts (rendezett tanácsú város)
Nagybecskerek (Serbian: ), today in Serbia
Nagykikinda (Serbian: ?), today in Serbia

See also

References

  1. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved .
  3. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved .

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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