Treaty of Stolbovo
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Treaty of Stolbovo
1617, May 1. Gustav Adolf's ratification of Russia-Sweden peace (RGADA).jpg

The Treaty of Stolbovo (Freden i Stolbova) was a peace treaty which ended the Ingrian War (Swedish: Ingermanländska kriget) which had been fought between Sweden and Russia between 1610 and 1617. [1][2]

History

After nearly two months of negotiations, representatives from Sweden and Russia met at the (now-derelict) village of Stolbovo, south of Lake Ladoga, on 9 March [O.S. 27 February] 1617. From the outset, Sweden had gone into the negotiations with very high ambitions, with hopes of fulfilling the old dream of making all of Russian trade pass through Swedish territory. As a consequence of that ambition, the Swedes originally demanded far-reaching territorial gains into western Russia, including the important northern port of Arkhangelsk.[3]

At that point, however, King James I of England sent a delegation to mediate, and so did the Netherlands, mostly to make sure Arkhangelsk did not fall into Swedish hands, which would have made the extensive trade between Western Europe and Russia far more difficult. Arkhangelsk did not change hands in the resulting treaty, partly because of the Dutch and the English efforts, but mostly because Russia finally managed to unite under Tsar Michael I of Russia. As word reached Russia that the Swedish war against Poland might soon be over, the Russians were quick to get negotiations going for real since they knew that they could not afford Sweden's renewal of the war effort on just one front. [4]

The Kingdom of England is officially credited with brokering this peace through its mediator, John Mericke (c.1559 - 1638/9), but the Dutch efforts were also of great importance. After the war, the leader of the Dutch delegation, Reinoud van Brederode (1567-1633), was granted the title baron and given the barony of Wesenberg (Rakvere) in Estonia by King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.[5][6]

Terms

In the resulting peace treaty, the Russian Tsar and Swedish King agreed to the following terms:

  • Sweden gained the province of Kexholm (Käkisalmi) (now Priozersk), south-west Karelia and the province of Ingria — including the fortress of Nöteborg, (now Shlisselburg, Russia)
  • Russia renounced all claims to Estonia and Livonia and would pay Sweden war indemnities of 20,000 rubles[7]
  • Novgorod and other Swedish territorial gains during the war would be returned to Russia
  • Sweden had the right to keep all spoils of war collected before 20 November 1616
  • The city of Gdov was to remain in Swedish hands until the peace had been confirmed and the borders fully established
  • Sweden recognized Michael Romanov as the rightful Tsar of Russia, putting an end to further Swedish claims in the Russian throne
  • Russia was allowed free trade at normal trade tariffs, making sure Sweden could not cripple Russia completely
  • Russia was allowed to establish merchant houses in Stockholm, Reval (Tallinn) and Viborg; Sweden was allowed to establish merchant houses in Novgorod, Pskov, and Moscow.

See also

References

  1. ^ Nina Ringbom. "Ingermanländska kriget". historiesajten.se. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ "Freden i Stolbova 1617". historiesajten. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ Ulf Sundberg 1997. "Freden i Stolbova 1617". smb.nu. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ Sundberg, Ulf (2002) Svenska freder och stillestånd 1249-1814 pg. 232-234
  5. ^ "Freden vid Stolbova 1617". historiebloggen. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ Sidney Lee. "Meyrick, John (d.1638)". Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 37. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce (1981). Romanovs - Autocrats of All the Russias. Anchor Books. p. 33. ISBN 0385279086.

Other sources

  • Sundberg, Ulf (2002) Svenska freder och stillestånd 1249-1814 (Stockholm: Hjalmarson & Högberg) ISBN 9789189080980

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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