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Much of the lineage provided before Ma'ad relies on biblical genealogy, so questions persist concerning the accuracy of this segment of Arab genealogy.
The general consensus among 14th-century Arabic genealogists[who?] is that Arabs are of three kinds:
Al-Arab al-Ba'ida (Arabic: ?), "The Extinct Arabs", were an ancient group of tribes of prehistory that included the 'Aad, the Thamud, the Tasm, the Jadis, the Imlaq (who included branches of Banu al-Samayda), and others. The Jadis and the Tasm are said to have been exterminated by genocide. The Qur'an records that disappearance of the 'Aad and Thamud came of their decadence. Recent archaeological excavations have uncovered inscriptions which reference 'Iram, once a major city of the 'Aad.
Some modern historians question the traditional distinction between Adnanites and Qahtanites, suggesting later tribal faction fighting during the Umayyad period may have given rise to the narrative.
List of tribes
Approximate locations of some of the important tribes and empire of the Arabian Peninsula at the dawn of Islam (roughy 600 CE / 50 BH)
Below is a partial list of the Arabian tribes of Arabia:
^Parolin, Gianluca P. (2009). Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-State. p. 30. ISBN978-9089640451. "The 'arabicised or arabicising Arabs', on the contrary, are believed to be the descendants of Ishmael through Adnan, but in this case, the genealogy does not match the Biblical line exactly. The label 'arabicised' is due to the belief that Ishmael spoke Hebrew until he got to Mecca, where he married a Yemeni woman and learned Arabic. Both genealogical lines go back to Sem, son of Noah, but only Adnanites can claim Abraham as their ascendant, and the lineage of Mohammed, the Seal of Prophets (khatim al-anbiya'), can therefore be traced back to Abraham. Contemporary historiography unveiled the lack of inner coherence of this genealogical system and demonstrated that it finds insufficient matching evidence; the distinction between Qahtanites and Adnanites is even believed to be a product of the Umayyad Age, when the war of factions (al-niza al-hizbi) was raging in the young Islamic empire."