Triestine Serbs
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Triestine Serbs
Serbs in Italy
Serbi in Italia
? ? ?
Srbi u Italiji
Trieste Serb-orthodox church of San-Spiridione3.jpg
Saint Spyridon Church, Trieste
Total population
46,958[1]
Regions with significant populations
Trieste, Rome, Arzignano
Religion
Serbian Orthodox Church
Related ethnic groups
South Slavs

Serbs in Italy (Italian: Serbi in Italia; Serbian: ? ? ?, romanizedSrbi u Italiji) or Italian Serbs (Serbian: ?, romanizedItalijanski Srbi), number 46,958 in Italy.[1]

History

According to Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, the 19th century writer Giovanni de Rubertis considered the Schiavoni (Slavs) or Dalmati (Dalmatians) of Molise in Italy to be Serbs that were brought there by Skanderbeg during his Italian expedition in 1460-1462 along with the Albanians.[2]

In 1497 Italian court poet Rogeri de Pacienza di Nardo wrote about a group of Serbian refugees who left the Despotate of ?ura? Brankovi? to settle in the village of Gioia del Colle near Bari, Italy. He describes how they sang and danced the kolo (dance) in honour of the Queen of Naples, Isabella del Balzo. The names of the singers that Pacienza wrote down are common Serbian names.[3]

In 1782 the first Serbian school opened in Trieste, and in the 19th century the Serbian Orthodox "Saint Spyridon church" in Trieste was built near the Ponte Rosso square.[4]

Demographics

Some 40,000 Serbs live in northern Italy. In Arzignano there are thousands of Serbs from all over former Yugoslavia.[5] In Trieste, 10,000-15,000 Serbs live in the city.[6]

  • 46,958 (2013 census), "Foreign citizens" from Serbia (excl. Kosovo) [7]

Triestine Serbs

Triestine Serbs (Serbian Cyrillic: ? /Transki Srbi; Italian: Serbi Triestini) are the ethnic Serbs of Trieste, present in the city since the 18th century.[8]

History

Serb merchants and ship-owners established a community in Trieste at the start of the 18th century, most primarily originating from Sarajevo, Trebinje, and the Bay of Kotor.[9] In 1751 Maria Theresa of the Austro-Hungarian Empire proclaimed religious freedom in the city, and the Serbs and Greeks of Trieste built the Saint Spyridon church that same year.[10] The most influential of the wealthy Serbian merchants of the time were the Kurtovi?, Gop?evi?, Vojnovi?, and Mileti? families, who owned most the structures and dock area of the "Porto Vecchio" (Old Port).[11] In 1766 Trieste's Serbs numbered 50, by 1780 they grew to 200.[12]

Serbian School

In 1782 the Serbian community of Trieste began expressing its desire for a Serbian-language day school, a place for their children to be passed down Serbian culture and language. Jovan Miletic, a wealthy Serb merchant in Trieste, donated 24,000 florins to build a Serbian Elementary School in 1787. On July 1, 1792, the local government approved its opening and the "Jovan Mileti?" private school began official operation, located in the city center, right beside the Saint Spyridon Church. A night school and reading room were opened in 1911.[8] In 1911 an asylum was added to the school, for Serbian political refugees, due to the constant warfare and bloodshed occurring between the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires on the Balkan Peninsula. The school represented a pillar of the Serbian community of Trieste, where the children of the wealthy Serbian merchants went to school and integrated into the city's community. In 1973 the school was shut down due to lack of student enrollment and became a Sunday school for Serbian language and culture. Velimir Djerasimovi?, the school's principal and teacher since 1927, retired in 1973. Djerasimovi? is the father of Italian film actors Ivan Rassimov and Rada Rassimov.

Saint Spyridon Church

In 1782 the Serbian Orthodox and Greek Orthodox communities of Trieste split due to major disagreements concerning church rituals and language-usage, at which point the Greek community built its own church, dedicated to Saint Nicholas in the neoclassical style, and the Serbs continued to use the original church of Saint Spyridon. In 1861 the Serb community demolished the original church, and rebuilt it in Serbo-Byzantine style[dubious ], in order to "stamp their identity architecturally in the midst of a baroque Austro-Italian city".[13][irrelevant citation] The church's construction was completed seven years later, in 1868. With the added capacity for 1600 worshippers, it was for a long time the second largest Serbian church in the world.[] The church is filled with liturgical masterpieces of the time, works in gold from the 17th and 18th centuries, antique Orthodox icons and handmade books, making it an important monument to Serbian history and culture.[10] The church was designed by Italian architect Carlo Maciachini, featuring four cupolas and one large main dome adorned in an off-blue color. In the 1800s the Serbian population in Trieste numbered around 200 people.[14]

Under Fascist Rule

In 1918, at the end of World War I, Trieste became part of Italy and social life drastically changed for the Serbs and other minorities of Trieste. Due to the contentious national border with Slovenia, Italian society became increasingly hostile towards all Slavs in Trieste including the Serbs, and anti-Slavic racism began to flourish in Italy.[14] The anti-Slavic feelings in Trieste were present already before the War, embodied by the local Liberal-National Party, led by Giuseppe Cuzzi, whose aim was to make Trieste completely Catholic and Italian. The anti-Slavic propaganda focused on the idea that Slavic people were barbaric and could not integrate properly into a civilized society.[14] Tensions came to a hilt in World War Two, when the Germans, who had occupied Northern Italy in September 1943, built the only Nazi Extermination Camp in Italy, "Risiera di San Sabba", on the outskirts of Trieste. Three thousand Jews, Serbs and other Slavs were executed here in 1944 while thousands more were imprisoned awaiting transfer to other extermination camps.[15]

Monuments

The Palazzo Gopcevich

Besides the Saint Spyridon Church and the Jovan Mileti? Serbian School, the Serbs of Trieste contributed to several other important landmarks of the city. The Gop?evi? family built the "Palazzo Gopcevich" on the Canal Grande, near the Serbian Church, in 1850 in commemoration to the heroes who fought for the independence of Serbia from the Ottoman Empire (1814). Cristoforo Popovich owned many famous merchant ships in Trieste, some of the largest in the Adriatic: the "Tartana", "Il Feroce Dalmata", "La Forza" and the "Ripatriato", and was instrumental to the Russian-side in the Crimean War (1853-1856). Cristoforo Scuglievich (Skuljevic) built the Palazzo Scuglievich in the mid-1800s along the banks of the city, and donated the palace in his will to the Serbian community of Trieste; today it is owned by the Serb community.[11]

Serbian Writers

The Serbian community of Trieste had a deep and long-lasting relationship with Serbian writers from the 18th century to today. Iconic Serbian writers and linguists such as Vuk Karad?i?, Dositej Obradovi?, Petar II Petrovi?-Njego?, Zaharije Orfelin and Pavle Solari? were inspired by Trieste and its developed Serbian community.[9] They wrote many works on Trieste's influence on Serbian "pre-Romanticism" and cultural development during a time when the Serbs lacked statehood and cultural expression. Serbian linguist and creator of the standardized Serbian language, Vuk Karad?i?, kept in constant contact with Trieste's Serb community from his home in Vienna. In 1813 Vuk called upon the Triestan Serbs to subscribe to the Serbian-language newspaper, "Novine Serbske" promoting the newly standardized Serbian language, and more than sixty copies of the standard Serbian dictionary were bought in 1814.[9] The "father of contemporary Serbian literature" Lukijan Mu?icki[according to whom?], wrote an ode to Serbian merchants of Trieste in 1835, and revolutionary writer Dositej Obradovi? tutored the children of the wealthy Serb merchants.[9] Many Serbian poets and folklorists[who?] even worked in the Saint Spyridon Church for a time. An almost universal feeling of inspiration and admiration of Trieste's wealthy Serb community was shared by their Balkan-Serb contemporaries.[who?]

Modern Day

Today, Serbian-born Serbs represent the largest foreign-born community in Trieste, numbering around 10,000, although some figures state anywhere up to 18,000.[16] The overwhelming majority of Serbs in Trieste today descend from the immigration wave following the Yugoslav Wars of the 90s. Recently the Serbian Orthodox Society in Trieste led by Bogoljub Stoji?evi? has called on the local government to grant the Serb Community of Trieste cultural autonomy and reinstate the Jovan Mileti? Serbian school as a full-time school since it downgraded to a Sunday school due to inactivity in 1973.[17] Since 2009 the Serbian community of Trieste, namely the Serbian Association "Vuk Karadzic", has been organizing an annual Balkan-style trumpet festival on the outskirts of Trieste called "Guca na Krasu" (Guca in Karst), modeled after the famous Gu?a Trumpet Festival in Serbia. Since its beginnings, the festival has managed to gain recognition and popularity, succeeding in getting famous musicians like Goran Bregovi? and Boban Markovi?, as well as many popular Italian acts.[18] The oldest active Serbian organization in Trieste is the soccer club "Serbia Sport",[dubious ] started in 1992, and since then has won a multitude of championships in the local Trieste soccer league, making it today one of the top soccer teams in the Province of Trieste. Together with the Serbian Association "Vuk Karadzic", Serbia Sport organizes an annual Serbian-Diaspora Soccer Tournament in Trieste on the Serbian holiday Spasovdan, which occurs 40 days after Easter.[19]

Organizations

There are several community organizations of Serbs in Italy. The Association of Serbs of Italy was established in April 2015 by the combined organizations meeting in Trieste.[20]

Notable people

Nobility
Artists
  • Marcello Dudovich was born in 1878 and died in 1962. He was one of the most acclaimed commercial artists of art, prints, and posters during his time.
  • Milan Zlokovi?, an architect born in Trieste
Writers
Printers
Business people
Singers
  • Sara Jovanovi? (born 1993), Serbian singer born in Rome that represented Serbia at Eurovision Song Contest 2008
Doctors
Teachers
Scientists
TV and cinema
Sportspeople
  • Giovanni Raicevich was a famous Italian wrestler in the early 20th century.
  • Milo? Malivojevi? (born 1993), active footballer born in Scandiano, Reggio Emilia
  • Marino Nicolich (born 1910), late footballer born in Monfalcone, whose name was italianized in "Marino Nicoli" by the Italian Fascist government.
  • Dragan Travica (born 1986), volleyball player born in Croatia, son of the Serbian coach Ljubomir Travica; plays for the Italian national team
  • Ljubomir Travica (born 1954), volleyball coach and retired player; has residence in Italy since he played for Modena in 1983. He is the father of Dragan Travica
  • Marko Stanojevic (born 1979), rugby union player born in Birmingham to a Serbian father and an Italian mother. He played for the Italian national team.

See also

External links

  • "Svetionik (Srbi u Italiji)". (Community page) (in Serbian and Italian)
  • European Development centre (Serbian Diaspora in Italy)
  • Mihajlovi?, Miodrag (March 1998), ? ? -- ? ? ? [Serbian settlements in Southern Italy -- Schiavoni and their spring fairies], Srpsko Nasle?e, Istorijske sveske (in Serbian), 3, Belgrade: Preduze?e za novinsko izdava?ku delatnost glas, OCLC 40132319, archived from the original on 10 September 2012

References

  1. ^ a b "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT" (PDF). Demo.istat.it. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Kova?i?, Risto (1885). "Srpske Naseobine u Ju?noj Italiji". Glasnik Srpskoga u?enog dru?tva, Volume 62. Serbian Learned Society. pp. 273-340 [281]. Retrieved 2011. , ? ?. , ? ? -- ? ? Schiavoni Dalmati -- ? ? ? () ?.
  3. ^ Mundal, Else; Wellendorf, Jonas, eds. (2008). Oral Art Forms and Their Passage Into Writing. Museum Tusculanum Press. p. 98. ISBN 9788763505048.
  4. ^ Sve Vesti, Udruzenje Srba "Vuk Karadzic" najstarija u Italiji
  5. ^ RTS.rs, Srbi u severnoj Italiji
  6. ^ "Rete Civica Trieste". Retrieved 2012.
  7. ^ "Cittadini Stranieri". December 31, 2013. Cittadini Stranieri. Popolazione residente per sesso e cittadinanza al 31 dicembre 2013 Italia - Europa
  8. ^ a b Medakovic, Dejan (1987). Serbs in the history of Trieste.
  9. ^ a b c d Gorup, Radmila (Spring 2006). "Marija Mitrovi?. Sul mare brillavano vasti silenzi: Imagini di Trieste nella letteratura Serba". Serbian Studies. 20: 203.
  10. ^ a b "People of Saint Spiridione: the cultural and religious legacy of the Serbians of Trieste". Retrieved .
  11. ^ a b Medakovi?, Dejan (1987). Serbs in the history of Trieste.
  12. ^ Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (June 1961). "History of the Serbian Orthodox Church community of Trieste". The Slavonic and East European Review. 39: 541-544.
  13. ^ Alexander Billinis. "The Greeks of Trieste | Neo Magazine". Retrieved .
  14. ^ a b c Catalan, Tullia (October 2011). "The Ambivalence of a Port City: The Jews of Trieste from the 19th to the 20th century". Quest. Issues in Contemporary Jewish History.
  15. ^ Poprzeczny, Joseph (2004). Odilo Globocnik Hitler's Man in the East.
  16. ^ http://www.demo.istat.it/str2010/index03_e.html
  17. ^ "Serbs want their own school (In Serbian)". novosti.rs. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Kunej, Drago (2013). Trapped in Folklore: Studies in Music and Dance Tradition and Their Contemporary Transformations. LIT Verlag.
  19. ^ Vasic, Slobodan. "Guca in Krast - Serbs, Slovenians and Italians in a Trance". Retrieved .
  20. ^ "Formiran Savez Srba Italije". Dijaspora. Uprava za saradnju sa dijasporom i Srbima u regionu. 27 April 2015.

External links


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