Turkey National Football Team
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Turkey National Football Team

Turkey
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s)Ay-Y?ld?zl?lar
(The Crescent-Stars)[1]
AssociationTürkiye Futbol Federasyonu (TFF)
ConfederationUEFA (Europe)
Head coachVacant
CaptainBurak Y?lmaz
Most capsRü?tü Reçber (120)
Top scorerHakan ?ükür (51)
Home stadiumVarious
FIFA codeTUR[2]
FIFA ranking
Current 41 Decrease 2 (16 September 2021)[3]
Highest5 (June 2004)
Lowest67 (October 1993)
First international
 Turkey 2-2 Romania 
(Istanbul, Turkey; 26 October 1923)[4]
Biggest win
 Turkey 7-0 Syria 
(Ankara, Turkey; 20 November 1949)
 Turkey 7-0 South Korea 
(Geneva, Switzerland; 20 June 1954)
 Turkey 7-0 San Marino 
(Istanbul, Turkey; 10 November 1996)
Biggest defeat
 Poland 8-0 Turkey 
(Chorzów, Poland; 24 April 1968)
 Turkey 0-8 England 
(Istanbul, Turkey; 14 November 1984)
 England 8-0 Turkey 
(London, England; 14 October 1987)
World Cup
Appearances2 (first in 1954)
Best resultThird place (2002)
European Championship
Appearances5 (first in 1996)
Best resultSemi-finals (2008)
Olympic Games
Appearances6 (first in 1924)
Best resultQuarter-finals (1948, 1952)
FIFA Confederations Cup
Appearances1 (first in 2003)
Best resultThird place (2003)

The Turkey national football team (Turkish: Türkiye Millî Futbol Tak?m?) represents Turkey in men's international football matches. The team is controlled by the Turkish Football Federation (Turkish: Türkiye Futbol Federasyonu), the governing body for football in Turkey, which was founded in 1923 and has been a member of FIFA since 1923 and UEFA since 1962.[6]

The team played their first official international game in 1923 and has represented the nation in major competitions since their debut appearance at the 1924 Summer Olympics. They have participated in Summer Olympics a total of six times (1924, 1928, 1936, 1948, 1952 and 1960), and reached the quarter-finals twice, in 1948 and 1952.

The team enjoyed their highest achievements in the 2000s, most notably finishing in third place at the 2002 FIFA World Cup and the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup, and reaching the semi-finals at UEFA Euro 2008. They qualified for FIFA World Cup three times (1950,[note 1] 1954 and 2002) and reached the semi-finals in 2002, winning bronze medals. The team qualified for UEFA European Championships five times. Making their debut at Euro 96, they reached the quarter-finals in Euro 2000 and semi-finals in Euro 2008. In recent years, Turkey qualified to the Euro 2016 and Euro 2020 championships.

Since its introduction in 1992, the FIFA World Rankings have ranked Turkey between 5th and 57th place. Following their success at the 2002 World Cup, Turkey managed to stay in the top 10 in rankings between 2002 and 2004, ranking at 5th in June 2004.[7] The team climbed once again up to 10th place in December 2008, following their success at Euro 2008.[8] Turkey achieved their highest victory margin with 7-0 wins over Syria in 1949, South Korea in 1954 and San Marino in 1996,[9] while their biggest losses were 8-0 defeats to Poland in 1968 and England in 1984 and 1987.[10]

As of 2020, the most capped player to play on the national team is Rü?tü Reçber with 120 senior international caps between 1994 and 2012, and the most scoring player is Hakan ?ükür with 51 goals scored between 1992 and 2007.[9] The longest-serving captain is Turgay ?eren with captaincy of 35 international encounters from 1950 to 1966.[11]

History

Early years

One of the early formations in 1922.

Turkey contested Romania for the first time in 1923, drawing 2-2.[12] Zeki R?za Sporel is considered as the first big star of Turkish football as he scored the first two goals against Romania. Turkey played their first ever official match at the 1924 Summer Olympics losing to Czechoslovakia, 5-2.

Turkey against Romania in 1923.

1950 FIFA World Cup

Although Turkey qualified for the 1950 World Cup, beating Syria 7-0, they were forced to withdraw from the tournament due to financial problems.

1954 FIFA World Cup

Turkey then qualified for the 1954 World Cup after a play-off with Spain. The Turkish team first lost 4-1 to Spain, but a 1-0 win a few days later initiated a replay. On that occasion, they tied 2-2 after, booking their place after a coin toss. Turkey was put in a group along with Hungary and West Germany. The Turks, however, never played Hungary due to the tournament format, and a 4-1 defeat by the Germans was followed by Turkey carrying out a 7-0 win over South Korea. Turkey lost the play-off to West Germany 7-2. In 1956, however, Turkey did play Hungary in a friendly match in Istanbul, defeating what was one of the strongest teams of the era, 3-1.[13] Lefter Küçükandonyadis, arguably one of the best Turkish strikers of all-time, scored two goals during the tournament.

Near misses

Despite the introduction of a national league, and showings by Turkish clubs in European competition, the 1960s would be a barren time for the national team. Most players from the 1954 World Cup squad were retired, and the new generation of players failed to qualify for a major tournament. The 1970s saw Turkey holding back in the World Cup and UEFA European Championship qualifiers, but the team was a point too short to qualify for both UEFA Euro 1972 and Euro 1976. In the 1980s the Turkish team also suffered their worst defeats with 8-0 scorelines against Poland and twice against England. Yet the 1990 World Cup qualifiers would mark a turning point for Turkish football, with Turkey only missing out on qualification in the final match. Prominent players in this period included R?dvan Dilmen, O?uz Çetin, R?za Çal?mbay, Feyyaz Uçar, and European Golden Boot winner Tanju Çolak.

1990-1996

In 1990, German coach Sepp Piontek was put in charge of the national team. Under his guidance, a group of new players debuted for the national team. Many of these players (which included Bülent Korkmaz, Alpay Özalan, Sergen Yalç?n, Rü?tü Reçber, and Hakan ?ükür) would become the backbone of the national team for many years. Piontek's mission came to an end in 1993, where he was replaced by Fatih Terim, who in turn managed to qualify for Euro 1996. Turkey qualified for its first major tournament since 1954, marking another turning point for Turkish football after having failed to qualify for both Euro 1992 and the 1994 World Cup. The appointment of Piontek was a recommended move by another German coach, Jupp Derwall, who had coached Galatasaray for three seasons. Derwall is regarded as the revolutionizer of Turkish football, since his introduction of modern Western European training techniques and tactical ideas to the Turkish game also heavily influenced the national team.

Euro 1996

Turkey national football team on an Azerbaijan stamp for Euro 1996.

Turkey qualified for Euro 1996, defeating both Switzerland and Sweden 2-1 during qualification. Despite a solid performance during the qualifiers, Turkey lost all their matches without scoring a single goal. They did, however, go home with an award: the fair-play award, given to Alpay Özalan.

Euro 2000

Although Turkey failed to qualify for the 1998 World Cup, they qualified for Euro 2000 after winning a play-off against the Republic of Ireland. Turkey lost their first match 2-1 to Italy, they drew their second match against Sweden 0-0, and beat host nation Belgium 2-0, making it the first time in the history of the UEFA European Championship a host nation had been eliminated in the first round. This victory brought Turkey into the last eight of the tournament, where they were beaten 2-0 by Portugal, with Arif Erdem missing a critical penalty.

2002 FIFA World Cup

Turkey national football team on an Azerbaijan stamp for the 2002 FIFA World Cup.

For the 2002 World Cup, Turkey finished second in their qualifying group, despite starting well and being the favourites to top the group. They lost 2-1 to Sweden in the crucial match that would decide the top spot. The Turks were forced to play the play-offs against Austria. They defeated the Austrians 6-0 on aggregate and booked their place at the finals. The Turkish team started the 2002 World Cup with a 2-1 defeat against eventual winners Brazil.[14] Turkey qualified from the group stage with a 3-0 win against China PR after drawing 1-1 with Costa Rica.[15][16]

Turkey then faced home team Japan in the second round, winning 1-0.[17] The Turkish team continued their run, as they beat Senegal 1-0 on a golden goal to book their place in the semi-finals, where a 1-0 defeat against eventual tournament winners Brazil forced them to play the third place match, and a bronze medal was won after a 3-2 victory over co-hosts South Korea.[18][19][20] Hakan ?ükür scored Turkey's first goal in 10.8 seconds, even when the South Koreans kicked off first. It was the fastest goal in World Cup history.[21][22] Tens of thousands of flag-waving Turkish fans greeted the World Cup squad on their return to Istanbul, where they joined a massive street party at Taksim Square.[23] Rü?tü Reçber, Alpay Özalan and Hasan ?a? were all included in the All-Star Team, with Reçber also being voted as the best goalkeeper in the UEFA Team of the Year 2002, while ?enol Güne? was being voted as the best manager.

2003 FIFA Confederations Cup

In the summer of 2003, Turkey reached third place at the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup. In the group stages, Turkey defeated the United States 2-1 before losing to Cameroon 0-1. In their final group match, Turkey drew 2-2 against Brazil, eliminating them from the tournament. Turkey lost to eventual tournament winners France 3-2 in the semi-final match. Turkey then defeated Colombia 2-1 to win the bronze medal. Tuncay scored three goals and made an assist, which won him the Silver Shoe Award and the Silver Ball Award for the second best player of the tournament.

Euro 2004

The Turkish team failed to qualify for Euro 2004 on play-offs due to a loss to Latvia after finishing second in their group. This marked a turning point for the national team as new players were introduced to the national team to create a new generation.

2006 FIFA World Cup

The Turkish team once again narrowly missed out on the World Cup finals after failing to win a play-off, this time on away goals against Switzerland, again after finishing second in their group. There were scenes of violence after the game on and off the pitch where the Turkish team brawled with Swiss players down the tunnel.

Euro 2008

Turkey qualified for their first international tournament in six years by finishing second behind Greece in Euro 2008 qualifying Group C to reach the Euro 2008 final stages. They were placed alongside Switzerland, Portugal and the Czech Republic in Group A. In their first match, they played Portugal and were beaten 2-0, but wins over Switzerland (2-1) and the Czech Republic (3-2) - both secured by late goals - brought qualification for the knockout stages.[24][25][26] Again, Turkey knocked out a host nation - Switzerland - in the group stages for the second time.[27]

The quarter-final against Croatia was goalless after 90 minutes, and Croatia led 1-0 in the final minute of extra time, but another late Turkish goal by forward Semih ?entürk brought the game to penalties. The goal raised some controversy with Croatia fans and Croatia head coach Slaven Bili?, who claimed that the goal had been scored after extra time had elapsed. This complaint, however, was overruled, and the game went into penalties. Turkey defeated Croatia in penalties, 3-1.[28]

Turkey went into the semi-final against Germany with just 14 outfield players available as a result of injuries and suspensions, but scored first and were drawing 2-2. But they finished third by default after losing 3-2 with a last minute goal by Philipp Lahm.[29] Both Russia and Turkey were given bronze medals in the dressing rooms after the semi-finals.

Turkey against France on 5 June 2009.

2010 FIFA World Cup

Turkey were drawn in UEFA Group 5 together with Armenia, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Estonia and Spain. Turkey had a mixed qualifying campaign, finishing with 15 points and missing out on a play-off place to Bosnia and Herzegovina with 19 points. Spain topped the group to qualify, winning every game in the process. Coach Fatih Terim announced he would be resigning his post following their failure to qualify.[30]

Euro 2012

The Turkish team during the UEFA Euro 2012 qualification.

Turkey were drawn in Group A in qualification for Euro 2012, together with Kazakhstan, Austria, Belgium, Germany and Azerbaijan. The Turkish team reached the play-offs after beating Azerbaijan 1-0 but got eliminated 3-0 on aggregate by Croatia. On 14 November 2012, Turkey celebrated their 500th match in a friendly game played against Denmark at the Türk Telekom Arena, Istanbul, which ended in a 1-1 draw. Before the match, footballers and coaches, who contributed to the national team's success in the past, were honoured. Turkish pop singer Hadise, who wore a national team jersey with the number 500, performed a small concert.[31][32]

2014 FIFA World Cup

Turkey were drawn in Group D in qualification for the 2014 World Cup, together with Andorra, Estonia, Hungary, the Netherlands and Romania, finishing fourth. Turkey began to lose critical points during qualification and Abdullah Avc? was sacked soon after. Fatih Terim was put in charge for the third time to lead the national team, but a 2-0 defeat against the Netherlands ended hopes of qualification.

Euro 2016

Turkey against Austria on 29 March 2016.

Turkey were drawn in Group A in the qualification campaign for the Euro 2016, together with Iceland, Latvia, Kazakhstan, the Netherlands and the Czech Republic. The Turkish team qualified for their first major tournament in eight years as the best third-placed team after beating Iceland 1-0, with Selçuk ?nan netting a free kick in the 89th minute. After over 18 months unbeaten, a loss to England as a pre-tournament friendly ended the team's winning streak, subsequently leading to back-to-back losses against Croatia and Spain in the tournament. Turkey won their last game against the Czech Republic, 2-0. They were minutes away from reaching the last 16, until a late winner for Ireland against Italy meant that the latter instead qualified as one of the best third-placed teams. Despite elimination, youngster Emre Mor's skillful display and assist during the game revealed a hopeful future for Turkish football.

2018 FIFA World Cup

Turkey were drawn in UEFA Group I for the 2018 World Cup qualifying campaign. together with Croatia, Finland, Iceland, Kosovo and Ukraine. During the qualifiers, head coach Fatih Terim stood down after an off-field incident,[33] and 72-year-old former Romania manager Mircea Lucescu took over. After eight games, Turkey stood a strong chance of qualifying for the tournament, but a 0-3 defeat against Iceland at home ended automatic qualification hopes. After a 2-2 draw against Finland the team finished fourth in Group I.

2018-19 UEFA Nations League

Turkey was drawn with Russia and Sweden in the 2018-19 UEFA Nations League B and Turkey had a poor performance which led the country to finish bottom. At the first game held at home against 2018 World Cup host and quarter-finalist Russia, Turkey lost 1-2 despite an equalizer by Serdar Aziz. Turkey then put up its best performance in the League, winning 3-2 against Sweden right in Swedish soil. However, Turkey could not capitalize on this opportunity and lost 0-2 to Russia in Sochi before suffering a humiliating 0-1 home loss to Sweden, thus initially sent Turkey to League C. However, UEFA rule changes meant Turkey was allowed to remain in League B.

Euro 2020

Turkey were drawn in group H in the qualifying stage along with the 2018 FIFA World Cup champions France, as well as Iceland, Albania, Moldova and Andorra. Veteran coach ?enol Güne? revolutionised the team, with many young talents, combining them with experienced players like Burak Y?lmaz and Emre Belözoglu. The team restructuring proved to be genius, as Turkey had one of the best campaigns in recent history.

Turkey managed to achieve a 2-0 victory against the group favourites France in Konya and later a 1-1 draw at Stade de France. Turkey struggled against the group underdogs Andorra in their first match against them, winning by a 89th-minute goal at the Vodafone Arena in Istanbul. Turkey's only defeat in the group came against Iceland in Reykjavik, losing 2-1. The defeat came after ill-treatment of the Turkish group at the Iceland customs, keeping them at the airport for 3 hours. This was followed by an Icelandic supporter holding a toilet brush to team captain Emre Belozoglu as a pretend microphone during an interview. The events were heavily criticised by the Turkish and European media. In an interview Turkish Coach ?enol Güne?, said that had come here 40 years ago, nothing had changed about the stadium and the country, except that some Icelandic people had lost the hospitality they had 40 years ago. Turkey entered matchday 9 against Iceland as group leaders with 19 points. Turkey and Iceland were drawn 0-0 at Turk Telekom Arena in Istanbul. Though unable to defeat Iceland and losing the first place to France, a draw was enough to secure Turkey a spot in Euro 2020 finals, ahead of their away match against Andorra.[34]

Turkey had the honor of opening the Euro 2020 Finals but it soon turned to be a night to forget for the Turkish. Turkey kicked off the European Championship with a 3-0 loss against Italy in Group A at the Olympic Stadium with Ciro Immobile and Lorenzo Insigne on target. Roberto Mancini's side had been frustrated by Turkey's defensive approach in the first half but broke through in the 53rd minute when a hard-hit cross from Domenico Berardi flew in off Turkey defender Merih Demiral for an own goal. They went to lose the next two games from both Switzerland and Wales, losing all three games in a row alongside debutants North Macedonia.

2020-21 UEFA Nations League

After qualifying for Euro 2020, Turkey entered with momentum, even though they had to face old foe Russia, alongside Hungary and Serbia in the 2020-21 UEFA Nations League B.

However, despite all these improvements, Turkey performed poorly in their two opening games in September 2020. The first game against Hungary at home saw Turkey suffer a 0-1 loss by a free kick from Dominik Szoboszlai. Going to Belgrade against Serbia, after repeated Serbian pressure, Turkey had a one-man advantage following Aleksandar Kolarov's red card, however the Turks failed to capitalise and were held goalless. This damaged their chances of qualifying for League A, as their next opponents in October will be Russia (who had had a strong start) and Hungary. The early poor performance could also represent a detrimental effect for Turkey, as this season's Nations League was used for the 2022 FIFA World Cup qualification process.

Turkey continued to find its first win in the Nations League. Against Russia in Moscow, a team which Turkey has failed to win in Russian soil since its last win at 1966 and still finding its first win over the Russians since 1975 in general, Turkey once again failed to register a win, though they got an encouraging 1-1 draw thanked for Kenan Karaman's equaliser. Yet, the Turkish side disappointed with only a 2-2 draw over Serbia at home soil.

November 2020 proved to be very important as Turkey must gain important wins in order to stay or even either getting possible promotion. Their first game in this month's Nations League was against Russia, but Denis Cheryshev scored an early lead making the Turkish side looked hapless. Yet, a red card to Andrey Semyonov proved to be a game changer, and with a one-man advantage, the Turks turned the deficit to finally break down its winless run against Russia with a 3-2 home win. The Turks then traveled to Hungary with hope that a win against the Hungarians could mean possible promotion, at least if Russia lost to Serbia. However, while Russia suffered a humiliating 0-5 defeat away in Belgrade, Turkey failed to gain the advantage and instead got netted twice by the Hungarians, despite late pressure to find an equalizer in the second half. That meant Turkey and Serbia were level on points, but with two goals away scored by the Serbian side in contrast to Turkey's failure to do the same in Belgrade, Turkey was unable to escape from relegation for the second times (the first season saw Turkey stayed due to Nations League overhauls) as the team was relegated to 2022-23 UEFA Nations League C. Such outcome also meant Turkey will have to fight in order to get a direct 2022 FIFA World Cup ticket as play-off qualification appeared to be slim with their relegation, in which the 2022 World Cup qualifiers will occur in 2021.

Kits and color changeovers

Rather than displaying the logo of the Turkish football federation, football jersey of the Turkish national team traditionally featured Turkish flag over the left breast until 2010. Starting from 2010 onward, the crescent moon and the star got a new visual identity. Their home kit is traditionally all-white with a red trim whilst their away kit is all-red with a white trim. The colors of the kits were being swapped two times, first in 2008-09 and second in 2016-19 respectively. From 2020 onward, it reverted to usual colors.

Kit suppliers

Kit provider Period
Germany Adidas 1982-2003
United States Nike 2003-present

Rivalries

Turkey has developed several notable rivalries, the most well-known being with Croatia[35] and Greece.

Turkey and Croatia have played each other 9 times,[36] with their first encounter at Euro 1996; where both countries made their debuts in the opening match, which Croatia won 1-0.[37] A well-remembered match between them was at Euro 2008, which Turkey won on penalties after a 1-1 deadlock even after extra-time. With the win, Turkey reached the semi-finals in only their third appearance overall at the Euro finals.[38] The two teams faced each other in the 2012 Euro qualifying play-offs, with Croatia winning 3-0 in the first-leg in Istanbul, and advancing to the tournament finals following a 0-0 draw in the second-leg.[39][40] The two teams faced each other once again in a European competition at Euro 2016, playing in the opening match of Group D; with Croatia winning 1-0 through a sensational Luka Modri? volley.[41][42] Only three months after the match at the Euros, the two teams played in their opening match in Group I of 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying, which finished 1-1.[43] Exactly one year after this, Turkey won the reverse fixture 1-0 at home, which played a key part in both countries' qualifying campaign, although Turkey would not qualify for World Cup while Croatia would go on to qualify and finish second in that edition.[44][45]

Turkey also has a historical rivalry with Greece; having played them a total of 14 times, winning eight, drawing three and losing three games.[46] Both countries have been described as "punching above their weight"; with Greece winning Euro 2004 despite being classified as underdogs prior to the competition, and Turkey followed-up their World Cup bronze medal in 2002 by advancing to the semi-finals of Euro 2008, where they were knocked out by Germany. Due to tension between the two countries and the dispute over Cyprus, coupled with several incidents occurring during matches between Turkish and Greek clubs, it has been described as one of the biggest international football rivalries.[47]

Results and fixtures

2020

7 October Friendly Germany  3-3  Turkey Cologne, Germany
21:45 TRT (UTC+02:00)
Stadium: RheinEnergieStadion
Referee: Benoît Bastien (France)
11 October UEFA Nations League Russia  1-1  Turkey Moscow, Russia
21:45 TRT (UTC+03:00)
Report
Stadium: VTB Arena
Referee: Matej Jug (Slovenia)
11 November Friendly Turkey  3-3  Croatia Istanbul, Turkey
18:45
Report
Stadium: Vodafone Park
Attendance: 0
Referee: Slavko Vin?i? (Slovenia)
15 November UEFA Nations League Turkey  3-2  Russia Istanbul, Turkey
19:00 TRT (UTC+02:00)
Report
Stadium: ?ükrü Saraco?lu Stadium
Referee: Szymon Marciniak (Poland)
18 November UEFA Nations League Hungary  2-0  Turkey Budapest, Hungary
21:45 TRT (UTC+01:00)
Report Stadium: Puskás Aréna
Referee: Ivan Kru?liak (Slovakia)

2021

24 March 2021 WCQ2022 UEFA Group G Turkey  4-2  Netherlands Istanbul, Turkey
20:00 TRT (UTC+3)
Report
Stadium: Atatürk Olympic Stadium
Referee: Michael Oliver (England)
27 May 2021 Friendly Turkey  2-1  Azerbaijan Alanya, Turkey
20:00 TRT (UTC+3)
Report
Stadium: Bahçe?ehir Okullar? Stadium
Referee: Genc Nuza (Kosovo)
31 May 2021 Friendly Turkey  0-0  Guinea Antalya, Turkey
20:00 TRT (UTC+3) Report Stadium: Antalya Stadium
Referee: Aliyar Aghayev (Azerbaijan)
3 June 2021 Friendly Turkey  2-0  Moldova Paderborn, Germany
19:00 UTC+2
Report Stadium: Benteler-Arena
Referee: Sascha Stegemann (Germany)
11 June 2021 UEFA Euro 2020 Turkey  0-3  Italy Rome, Italy
21:00 (UTC+2) Report
Stadium: Stadio Olimpico
Attendance: 12,916
Referee: Danny Makkelie (Netherlands)
16 June 2021 UEFA Euro 2020 Turkey  0-2  Wales Baku, Azerbaijan
20:00 (UTC+4) Report
Stadium: Olympic Stadium
Attendance: 19,762
Referee: Artur Soares Dias (Portugal)
20 June 2021 UEFA Euro 2020 Switzerland   3-1  Turkey Baku, Azerbaijan
20:00 (UTC+4)
Report
Stadium: Olympic Stadium
Attendance: 17,138
Referee: Slavko Vin?i? (Slovenia)
1 September 2021 WCQ2022 UEFA Group G Turkey  2-2  Montenegro Istanbul, Turkey
20:45 (21:45 UTC+3)
Report
Stadium: Vodafone Park
Referee: Benoît Bastien (France)
7 September 2021 WCQ2022 UEFA Group G Netherlands  6-1  Turkey Amsterdam, Netherlands
20:45
Report
Stadium: Johan Cruyff Arena
Referee: Daniele Orsato (Italy)
8 October 2021 WCQ2022 UEFA Group G Turkey  v  Norway Istanbul, Turkey
20:45 Stadium: ?ükrü Saraco?lu Stadium
11 October 2021 WCQ2022 UEFA Group G Latvia  v  Turkey Riga, Latvia
20:45 Stadium: Daugava Stadium

Coaching staff

As of 16 September 2021:[48]
Position Name
Head coach Germany Stefan Kuntz
Assistant coaches Turkey Bayram Bekta?
Turkey ?eref Çiçek
Turkey Kerem Yava?
Goalkeeping coach Turkey Emrah Karakovan
Fitness coach Turkey Ömür Serdal Altunsöz
Analyst Turkey Eren ?afak
Assistant analyst Turkey Okan Ayd?ner

Players

Current squad

The following players were called up for the 2022 FIFA World Cup qualification matches against Montenegro, Gibraltar and Netherlands respectively on 1, 4 and 7 September 2021.[49]
Caps and goals are as of 7 September 2021, after the match against Netherlands.

No. Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club
1GK Mert Günok (1989-03-01) 1 March 1989 (age 32) 22 0 Turkey Be?ikta?
1GK U?urcan Çak?r (1996-04-05) 5 April 1996 (age 25) 13 0 Turkey Trabzonspor
1GK Altay Bay?nd?r (1998-04-14) 14 April 1998 (age 23) 2 0 Turkey Fenerbahçe

2DF Kaan Ayhan (1994-11-10) 10 November 1994 (age 26) 43 4 Italy Sassuolo
2DF Ça?lar Söyüncü (1996-05-23) 23 May 1996 (age 25) 40 2 England Leicester City
2DF Merih Demiral (1998-03-05) 5 March 1998 (age 23) 27 0 Italy Atalanta
2DF Zeki Çelik (1997-02-17) 17 February 1997 (age 24) 25 2 France Lille
2DF Ozan Kabak (2000-03-25) 25 March 2000 (age 21) 13 0 England Norwich City
2DF Mert Müldür (1999-04-03) 3 April 1999 (age 22) 13 0 Italy Sassuolo
2DF R?dvan Y?lmaz (2001-05-21) 21 May 2001 (age 20) 3 0 Turkey Be?ikta?
2DF Alpaslan Öztürk (1993-07-16) 16 July 1993 (age 28) 1 0 Turkey Galatasaray
2DF Abdülkerim Bardakc? (1994-07-09) 9 July 1994 (age 27) 0 0 Turkey Konyaspor

3MF Ozan Tufan (1995-03-23) 23 March 1995 (age 26) 64 9 England Watford
3MF Hakan Çalhano?lu (1994-02-08) 8 February 1994 (age 27) 62 14 Italy Internazionale
3MF Okay Yoku?lu (1994-03-09) 9 March 1994 (age 27) 39 1 Spain Celta Vigo
3MF Yusuf Yaz?c? (1997-01-29) 29 January 1997 (age 24) 37 2 France Lille
3MF Orkun Kökçü (2000-12-29) 29 December 2000 (age 20) 10 0 Netherlands Feyenoord
3MF Efecan Karaca (1989-11-16) 16 November 1989 (age 31) 8 1 Turkey Alanyaspor
3MF Taylan Antalyal? (1995-01-08) 8 January 1995 (age 26) 7 0 Turkey Galatasaray
3MF Kerem Aktürko?lu (1998-10-21) 21 October 1998 (age 22) 4 0 Turkey Galatasaray
3MF Salih Uçan (1994-01-06) 6 January 1994 (age 27) 1 0 Turkey Be?ikta?

4FW Burak Y?lmaz (captain) (1985-07-15) 15 July 1985 (age 36) 72 29 France Lille
4FW Cengiz Ünder (1997-07-14) 14 July 1997 (age 24) 34 11 France Marseille
4FW Kenan Karaman (1994-03-05) 5 March 1994 (age 27) 28 6 Turkey Be?ikta?
4FW Enes Ünal (1997-05-10) 10 May 1997 (age 24) 24 2 Spain Getafe
4FW Halil Dervi?o?lu (1999-12-08) 8 December 1999 (age 21) 6 2 Turkey Galatasaray

Recent call-ups

The following players have been called up for the team within the last 12 months.

Pos. Player Date of birth (age) Caps Goals Club Latest call-up
GK Gökhan Akkan (1995-01-01) 1 January 1995 (age 26) 1 0 Turkey Rizespor v.  Guinea, 31 May 2021

DF Umut Mera? (1995-12-20) 20 December 1995 (age 25) 15 0 Turkey Be?ikta? v.  Montenegro, 1 September 2021 INJ
DF Caner Erkin (1988-10-04) 4 October 1988 (age 32) 59 2 Turkey Fatih Karagümrük v.  Latvia, 30 March 2021
DF Bünyamin Balc? (2000-05-31) 31 May 2000 (age 21) 0 0 Turkey Antalyaspor v.  Latvia, 30 March 2021
DF Naz?m Sangaré (1994-05-30) 30 May 1994 (age 27) 6 0 Turkey Fenerbahçe v.  Netherlands, 24 March 2021 COV
DF Ömer Bayram (1991-07-27) 27 July 1991 (age 30) 10 0 Turkey Galatasaray v.  Hungary, 18 November 2020
DF Mert Çetin (1997-01-01) 1 January 1997 (age 24) 2 0 Italy Verona v.  Russia, 15 November 2020 INJ
DF Hasan Ali Kald?r?m (1989-12-09) 9 December 1989 (age 31) 35 1 Turkey ?stanbul Ba?ak?ehir v.  Serbia, 14 October 2020

MF Abdülkadir Ömür (1999-06-25) 25 June 1999 (age 22) 9 0 Turkey Trabzonspor v.  Montenegro, 1 September 2021 INJ
MF Halil Akbunar (1993-11-09) 9 November 1993 (age 27) 2 0 Turkey Göztepe v.  Montenegro, 1 September 2021 INJ
MF ?rfan Kahveci (1995-07-15) 15 July 1995 (age 26) 21 1 Turkey Fenerbahçe UEFA Euro 2020
MF Dorukhan Toköz (1996-05-21) 21 May 1996 (age 25) 10 1 Turkey Trabzonspor UEFA Euro 2020
MF Mahmut Tekdemir (1988-01-20) 20 January 1988 (age 33) 22 0 Turkey ?stanbul Ba?ak?ehir v.  Guinea, 31 May 2021
MF Deniz Türüç (1993-01-29) 29 January 1993 (age 28) 11 2 Turkey ?stanbul Ba?ak?ehir v.  Latvia, 30 March 2021
MF Emre K?l?nç (1994-08-23) 23 August 1994 (age 27) 4 0 Turkey Galatasaray v.  Latvia, 30 March 2021 COV
MF Berkay Özcan (1998-02-15) 15 February 1998 (age 23) 6 0 Turkey ?stanbul Ba?ak?ehir v.  Hungary, 18 November 2020

FW Enis Destan (2002-06-15) 15 June 2002 (age 19) 0 0 Turkey Alt?nordu v.  Latvia, 30 March 2021
FW Cenk Tosun (1991-06-07) 7 June 1991 (age 30) 45 18 England Everton v.  Latvia, 30 March 2021 COV
FW Ahmed Kutucu (2000-03-01) 1 March 2000 (age 21) 2 0 Turkey ?stanbul Ba?ak?ehir v.  Serbia, 14 October 2020

INJ Withdrew due to injury
COV Withdrew due to COVID-19
PRE Preliminary squad / standby
RET Retired from the national team
SUS Serving suspension
WD Player withdrew from the squad due to non-injury issue.

Player records

Most capped players

Rü?tü Reçber is Turkey's most capped player with 120 caps.
As of 20 June 2021[50][51]
Players in bold are still available to play in Turkey national team.
Rank Name Caps Goals Career
1 Rü?tü Reçber 120 0
2 Hakan ?ükür 112 51 1992-2007
3 Bülent Korkmaz 102 3 1990-2005
4 Emre Belözo?lu 101 9 2000-2019
5 Arda Turan 100 17 2006-2017
6 Tugay Kerimo?lu 94 2 1990-2007
7 Alpay Özalan 90 4 1995-2005
8 Hamit Alt?ntop 82 7 2004-2014
9 Mehmet Topal 81 2 2008-2018
10 Tuncay ?anl? 80 22 2002-2010

Top goalscorers

Hakan ?ükür is Turkey's all-time record goalscorer with 51 goals.
As of 20 June 2021[52]
Players in bold are still available to play in Turkey national team.
Rank Player Goals Caps Ratio Career
1 Hakan ?ükür 51 112 0.46
2 Burak Y?lmaz 29 70 0.41 2006-
3 Tuncay ?anl? 22 80 0.28 2003-2010
4 Lefter Küçükandonyadis 21 46 0.46 1948-1963
5 Metin Oktay 19 36 0.53 1956-1968
Cemil Turan 19 44 0.43 1969-1979
Nihat Kahveci 19 68 0.28 2000-2011
8 Cenk Tosun 18 45 0.4 2013-
9 Arda Turan 17 100 0.17 2006-2017
10 Zeki R?za Sporel 15 16 0.94 1923-1932

Centuriate goals

Selçuk ?nan scored Turkey's 700th overall goal in November 2015

As of 29 September 2020:[53][54]

Rank Date Scorer Opponent Score
1st 26 October 1923 Zeki R?za Sporel  Romania 2-2
100th 23 June 1954 Mustafa Ertan  West Germany 2-7
200th 14 February 1973 Osman Arpac?o?lu  Algeria 4-0
300th 27 February 1991 U?ur Tütüneker  Yugoslavia 1-1
400th 27 March 1999 Sergen Yalç?n  Moldova 2-0
500th 9 October 2004 Fatih Tekke  Kazakhstan 4-0
600th 5 September 2009 Arda Turan  Estonia 4-2
700th 3 September 2015 Selçuk ?nan  Latvia 1-1

Competitive record

FIFA World Cup

FIFA World Cup record Qualification record
Year Result Position Pld W D* L GF GA Squad Pld W D L GF GA
Uruguay 1930 Did not enter Did not enter
Italy 1934 Withdrew Withdrew
France 1938 Did not enter Did not enter
Brazil 1950 Qualified but withdrew 1 1 0 0 7 0
Switzerland 1954 Group stage 9th 3 1 0 2 10 11 Squad 3 1 1 1 4 6
Sweden 1958 Withdrew Withdrew
Chile 1962 Did not qualify 4 2 0 2 4 4
England 1966 6 1 0 5 4 19
Mexico 1970 4 0 0 4 2 13
West Germany 1974 6 2 2 2 5 3
Argentina 1978 6 2 1 3 9 5
Spain 1982 8 0 0 8 1 22
Mexico 1986 8 0 1 7 2 24
Italy 1990 8 3 1 4 12 10
United States 1994 10 3 1 6 11 19
France 1998 8 4 2 2 21 9
South Korea Japan 2002 Third place 3rd 7 4 1 2 10 6 Squad 12 8 3 1 24 8
Germany 2006 Did not qualify 14 7 5 2 27 13
South Africa 2010 10 4 3 3 13 10
Brazil 2014 10 5 1 4 16 9
Russia 2018 10 4 3 3 14 13
Qatar 2022 To be determined In progress
Canada Mexico United States 2026 To be determined
Total Third place 2/21 10 5 1 4 20 17 -- 128 47 24 57 176 187

UEFA European Championship

UEFA European Championship record Qualifying record
Year Result Position Pld W D* L GF GA Squad Pld W D L GF GA
France 1960 Did not qualify 2 1 0 1 2 3
Spain 1964 2 0 0 2 0 7
Italy 1968 6 1 2 3 3 8
Belgium 1972 6 2 1 3 5 13
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1976 6 2 2 2 5 10
Italy 1980 6 3 1 2 5 5
France 1984 8 3 1 4 8 16
West Germany 1988 6 0 2 4 2 16
Sweden 1992 6 0 0 6 1 14
England 1996 Group stage 16th 3 0 0 3 0 5 Squad 8 4 3 1 16 8
Belgium Netherlands 2000 Quarter-finals 6th 4 1 1 2 3 4 Squad 10 5 4 1 16 7
Portugal 2004 Did not qualify 10 6 2 2 19 8
Austria Switzerland 2008 Semi-finals 3rd 5 2 1 2 8 9 Squad 12 7 3 2 25 11
Poland Ukraine 2012 Did not qualify 12 5 3 4 13 14
France 2016 Group stage 17th 3 1 0 2 2 4 Squad 10 5 3 2 14 9
Europe 2020 24th 3 0 0 3 1 8 Squad 10 7 2 1 18 3
Germany 2024 To be determined To be determined
Total Third place 5/16 18 4 2 12 14 30 -- 120 51 29 40 152 152

UEFA Nations League

UEFA Nations League record
Season Division Group Pld W D* L GF GA P/R RK
Portugal 2018-19 B 2 4 1 0 3 4 7 Same position 22nd
Italy 2020-21 B 3 6 1 3 2 6 8 Fall 29th
2022-23 C TBD To be determined
Total 10 2 3 5 10 15 22nd

FIFA Confederations Cup

FIFA Confederations Cup record
Year Result Position Pld W D* L GF GA Squad
Saudi Arabia 1992 Did not qualify
Saudi Arabia 1995
Saudi Arabia 1997
Mexico 1999
South Korea Japan 2001
France 2003 Third place 3rd 5 2 1 2 8 8 Squad
Germany 2005 Did not qualify
South Africa 2009
Brazil 2013
Russia 2017
Total Third place 1/10 5 2 1 2 8 8 --
*Draws include knockout matches decided on penalty kicks.

Olympic Games

1968-1988 see Turkey national amateur football team. Football at the Summer Olympics has been an under-23 tournament since 1992.

Olympic Games record
Year Result Position Pld W D L GF GA Squad
France 1924 Round 1 13th 1 0 0 1 2 5 Squad
Netherlands 1928 Round 1 14th 1 0 0 1 1 7 Squad
Nazi Germany 1936 Round 1 15th 1 0 0 1 0 1 Squad
United Kingdom 1948 Quarter-finals 6th 2 1 0 1 5 3 Squad
Finland 1952 Quarter-finals 8th 2 1 0 1 3 8 Squad
Australia 1956 Withdrew
Italy 1960 Round 1 14th 3 0 1 2 3 10 Squad
Japan 1964 Did not qualify
Mexico 1968
West Germany 1972
Canada 1976
Soviet Union 1980
United States 1984 Withdrew
South Korea 1988 Did not qualify
Since 1992 See Turkey national under-23 football team
Total Quarter-finals 6/14 10 2 1 7 14 34 --

Mediterranean Games

Turkey B Turkey

Mediterranean Games record
Year Result Position Pld W D L GF GA
Egypt 1951 Did not participate
Spain 1955
Lebanon 1959 Runners-up 2nd 2 1 1 0 7 4
Italy 1963 Runners-up 2nd 5 3 1 1 12 7
Tunisia 1967 Fourth place 4th 5 2 1 2 5 7
Turkey 1971 Third place 3rd 4 3 1 0 4 1
Algeria1975 Group stage 7th 4 0 2 2 1 5
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1979 Group stage 5th 3 1 1 1 2 2
Morocco 1983 Runners-up 2nd 4 2 0 2 4 5
Syria 1987 Third place 3rd 5 3 0 2 6 2
1991-present See Turkey national under-20 football team
Total Runners-up 8/10 32 15 7 10 41 33

Balkan Cup

Balkan Cup record
Year Result Position Pld W D L GF GA
1929-31 Did not participate
Bulgaria 1931 Runners-up 2nd 2 1 0 1 3 5
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia 1932 Did not participate
Romania 1933
Greece 1934-35
Bulgaria 1935
Romania 1936
Albania 1946
1947
1948
1973-76 Semi-finals 4th 2 1 0 1 6 7
1977-80 Group stage 3rd 4 1 1 2 4 8
Total Runners-up 3/12 8 3 1 4 13 20

ECO Cup

ECO Cup record
Year Result Position Pld W D L GF GA
Iran 1965 Runners-up 2nd 2 1 1 0 3 1
Pakistan 1967 Champions 1st 4 2 2 0 8 4
Turkey 1969 Champions 1st 4 2 2 0 8 2
Iran 1970 Runners-up 2nd 3 2 1 0 4 2
Pakistan 1974 Champions 1st 3 2 1 0 3 2
Iran 1993 Did not participate
Total 3 Titles 5/6 16 9 7 0 26 11

Head-to-head record

The following table shows Turkey's all-time international record, correct as of 7 September 2021.

FIFA Rankings

Last update was on 21 December 2020. Source:[55]

Honours

3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Third place (1): 2002

3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Semi-finals (1): 2008

3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Third place (1): 2003

Decoration

In 2002, the national team was honored with the Turkish "State Medal of Distinguished Service" for their third place achievement at the 2002 FIFA World Cup. All the team members, coaches and officials were given medals.[56]

Gallery

See also

References

Footnotes
  1. ^ Turkey withdrew due to financial reasons.
  2. ^ Includes the results of  Czechoslovakia.
  3. ^ Includes the results of  West Germany.
  4. ^ Includes the results of  Soviet Union.
  5. ^ Includes the results of  Yugoslavia.
Citations
  1. ^ "Turkey sneak through as best third-placed team". UEFA. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  2. ^ Jeffree, Iain (6 August 2015). "FIFA Country Codes". RSSSF. Retrieved 2016.
  3. ^ "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking". FIFA. 16 September 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  4. ^ Since the Republic was not formally declared by the time of the event, the game was played between Romania and TFF. The city also was not consistently known as Istanbul in the English speaking world until 1930
  5. ^ Elo rankings change compared to one year ago. "World Football Elo Ratings". eloratings.net. 10 September 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ "TFF » Ortaklar?" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ "Zirveye Ko?uyoruz". Milliyet (in Turkish). 10 June 2004. p. 34.
  8. ^ "Türkiye, FIFA dünya s?ralamas?nda yeniden 10. s?raya yükseldi" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 31 August 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ a b "A Milli Tak?m'?n Tarihteki 'En'leri" (in Turkish). Hürriyet. Anadolu News Agency. 20 November 2007. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ "Türkiye, ?ngiltere'ye ilk golü ar?yor" (in Turkish). NTV (Turkey). 10 October 2003. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ "Türk futbolundan Turgay ?eren geçti" (in Turkish). Milliyet. Anadolu News Agency. 12 July 2016. Archived from the original on 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 020.
  12. ^ Erdinç, Sivritepe. "Turkey 2-2 Romania". Turkey international football matches. Retrieved 2010.
  13. ^ "Magical Magyars beating". Retrieved 2010.
  14. ^ "Brazil beat brave Turks". BBC Sport. 3 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  15. ^ "Parks strike denies Turkey". BBC Sport. 14 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  16. ^ "Turkey reach last 16". BBC Sport. 13 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  17. ^ "Turkey end Japan's dream". BBC Sport. 18 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  18. ^ "Turkey's golden delight". BBC Sport. 22 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  19. ^ "Brazil stride into final". BBC Sport. 26 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  20. ^ "Turkey finish in style". BBC Sport. 29 June 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  21. ^ "World Cup Rewind: Hakan ?ükür scores the tournament's fastest ever goal". guinnessworldrecords.com. Guinness World Records. 6 June 2014. Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ Fastest Goals in World Cup History
  23. ^ "Turkey heroes return home". BBC Sport. 1 July 2002. Retrieved 2009.
  24. ^ "Portugal 2-0 Turkey". BBC Sport. 7 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  25. ^ "Switzerland 1-2 Turkey". BBC Sport. 11 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  26. ^ "Turkey 3-2 Czech R & Switzerland 2-0 Portugal". BBC Sport. 15 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  27. ^ "Turkey edge out Czechs in thriller". FIFA.com. FIFA. 15 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  28. ^ "Croatia 1-1 Turkey (1-3 pens)". BBC Sport. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  29. ^ "Germany 3-2 Turkey". BBC Sport. 25 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  30. ^ "Terim Resignation". Guardian Sport. 7 June 2008. Retrieved 2009.
  31. ^ "Turkey marks 500th match". Hürriyet Daily News. 14 November 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  32. ^ Er, ?smail (15 November 2012). "Türkiye 1-1 Danimarka". Hürriyet Spor (in Turkish). Retrieved 2012.
  33. ^ "Terim leaves Turkey role after brawl". goal.com. Goal. 26 July 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Euro 2020 team guides part 3: Turkey". Guardian. 1 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  35. ^ "Croatia and Turkey resume old European rivalry in Paris". AP News. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ "Croatia national football team: record v Turkey". www.11v11.com. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ uefa.com (6 October 2003). "UEFA EURO 1996 - History - Turkey-Croatia - UEFA.com". Uefa.com. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ uefa.com (20 June 2008). "UEFA EURO 2008 - History - Croatia-Turkey - UEFA.com". Uefa.com. Retrieved 2018.
  39. ^ uefa.com (11 November 2011). "UEFA EURO 2012 - History - Turkey-Croatia - UEFA.com". Uefa.com. Retrieved 2018.
  40. ^ uefa.com (15 November 2011). "UEFA EURO 2012 - History - Croatia-Turkey - UEFA.com". Uefa.com. Retrieved 2018.
  41. ^ "Turkey 0-1 Croatia". BBC Sport. 12 June 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  42. ^ "[VIDEO] Modri? gol?inom sru?io ?estoke Turke!". Hrvatska radiotelevizija. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ FIFA.com. "2018 FIFA World Cup Russia(TM) - Matches - Croatia-Turkey - FIFA.com". FIFA.com. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ FIFA.com. "2018 FIFA World Cup Russia(TM) - Matches - Turkey-Croatia - FIFA.com". FIFA.com. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ "[VIDEO] Hrvatska izgubila u Eskisehiru, Turci slavili 1:0". Hrvatska radiotelevizija. Retrieved 2018.
  46. ^ "Turkey national football team: record v Greece". www.11v11.com. Retrieved 2018.
  47. ^ Duke, Greg. "Top 10 international rivalries". edition.cnn.com. Retrieved 2018.
  48. ^ "A Milli Tak?m Teknik Kadrosu" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Retrieved 2021.
  49. ^ "A Millî Tak?m'?n Karada?, Cebelitar?k ve Hollanda maçlar? aday kadrosu aç?kland?" [List of players for Montenegro, Gibraltar and Netherlands matches announced]. Turkish Football Federation (in Turkish). 27 August 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  50. ^ "En Fazla Milli Olan Oyuncular?m?z" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  51. ^ Mamrud, Roberto. "Turkey - Record International Players". RSSSF.
  52. ^ "En Fazla Fazla Gol Atan Oyuncular?m?z" (in Turkish). Turkish Football Federation. Archived from the original on 9 June 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  53. ^ "Türkiye'nin 700. golü Selçuk ?nan'dan" (in Turkish). Haberturk. 4 September 2015. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ "A Milli Tak?m 700. gole yak?n!" (in Turkish). Milliyet. 11 June 2015. Archived from the original on 3 September 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ "Turkey Mens ranking". Retrieved 2020.
  56. ^ "Hata Sayfas?". Retrieved 2016.
Bibliography
  • Akar, R?dvan; Tunç, Sevecen (2017). Be?ikta? Mimarlar? - "Baba" Hakk? (in Turkish). Turkeynk?lâp Yay?nlar?. ISBN 978-975-10-3843-2.
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  • Demirkol, Mehmet (2002). Tae Han Min Guk 2002 Dünya Kupas? Mektuplar? (in Turkish). Istanbulleti?im Yay?nlar?. ISBN 975050075X.
  • Dilek, Hakan (2002). te Böyle Bir ?ey (in Turkish). Istanbulleti?im Yay?nlar?. ISBN 9789750500206.
  • K?vanç, Halit (2004). Futbol! Bir A?k... (in Turkish). Istanbulleti?im Yay?nlar?. ISBN 9789750502576.
  • Yüce, Mehmet (2014). Osmanl? Melekleri: Futbol Tarihimizin Kadim Devreleri Türkiye Futbol Tarihi - Birinci Cilt (in Turkish). Istanbulleti?im Yay?nlar?. ISBN 9789750515804.
  • Yüce, Mehmet (2015). ?dmanc? Ruhlar: Futbol Tarihimizin Klasik Devreleri: 1923-1952 Türkiye Futbol Tarihi - 2. Cilt (in Turkish). Istanbulleti?im Yay?nlar?. ISBN 9789750516955.
  • Yüce, Mehmet (2016). Romantik Yürekler: Futbol Tarihimizin Yeni Devreleri: 1952-1992 Türkiye Futbol Tarihi 3. Cilt (in Turkish). Istanbulleti?im Yay?nlar?. ISBN 9789750519932.

External links


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