Uber
Get Uber essential facts below. View Videos or join the Uber discussion. Add Uber to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Uber

Uber Technologies, Inc.
Formerly
Ubercab (2009-2011)
Public
Traded asNYSEUBER
Russell 1000 Index component
ISINUS90353T1007 Edit this on Wikidata
IndustryTransportation
FoundedMarch 2009; 11 years ago (2009-03)
FoundersGarrett Camp
Travis Kalanick
HeadquartersSan Francisco, California, U.S.
Area served
63 countries, 785 metropolitan areas
Key people
Ronald Sugar (Chairman)
Dara Khosrowshahi (CEO)
Nelson Chai (CFO)
Thuan Pham (CTO)
Tony West (CLO)
ProductsMobile app, website
ServicesVehicle for hire
Delivery (commerce)
RevenueIncreaseUS$14.147 billion (2019)
Decrease -US$8.596 billion (2019)
Decrease -US$8.506 billion (2019)
Increase US$31.761 billion (2019)
Increase US$14.872 billion (2019)
Number of employees
22,263 worldwide, including 11,488 outside the United States (2018)
SubsidiariesUber Eats
Careem
Websitewww.uber.com/ Edit this on Wikidata
Footnotes / references
[1][2][3][4]
Yellow Uber car in Moscow

Uber Technologies, Inc., commonly known as Uber, is an American multinational ride-hailing company offering services that include peer-to-peer ridesharing, ride service hailing, food delivery (Uber Eats), and a micromobility system with electric bikes and scooters. The company is based in San Francisco and has operations in over 785 metropolitan areas worldwide.[3] Its platforms can be accessed via its websites and mobile apps.

In California, Uber is a public utility, and operates under the jurisdiction of the California Public Utilities Commission. California Public Utilities Commission regulates public utilities within its jurisdiction, including by setting rates for transportation services provided by Uber's "partner drivers." [5]

As of 2019, Uber was estimated to have over 110 million worldwide users.[6] In the United States, Uber had a 67% market share for ride-sharing in early 2019[7] and a 24% market share for food delivery in 2018.[8] Uber has been so prominent in the sharing economy that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as uberisation,[9][10][11] and many startups have described their products as "Uber for X".[12][13][14] The National Bureau of Economic Research estimated that, in 2015, Uber had accounted for $6.8 billion in consumer surplus.[15]

As with other transportation network companies, Uber has been criticized for unfair treatment of drivers, disruption of the taxicab business, and the increase of traffic congestion. The company has also been criticized for its aggressive strategy in dealing with regulators and for several unlawful and/or questionable practices.

Business model

Stakeholders

Passengers

Passengers use the Uber app to order a ride, where they are quoted the fare.[16] Uber uses a dynamic pricing model; prices for the same route vary according to supply and demand for rides at the time that the ride is requested.[17] At the beginning of the ride, payment is made based on the rider's pre-selected preferences, such as a credit card on file, Google Pay, Apple Pay, PayPal, cash, or, in India, Paytm, Airtel mobile wallet[18] or Unified Payments Interface.[19] After the ride is over, the rider is given the option to provide a gratuity to the driver, which is also billed to the rider's payment method.[20] In some locations, if the driver has to wait more than a few minutes after arriving to the pickup location, riders are charged a wait time fee.[21]

Drivers

An Uber driver in Bogotá, Colombia with the Uber app on a dashboard-mounted smartphone

The status of drivers as independent contractors is an unresolved issue (see Criticism). Uber drivers use their own cars although drivers can rent or lease a car to drive with Uber.[22][23][24] Uber offers car rental or leasing via Getaround, Hertz, and Fair[25] and Uber and BYD Auto have a partnership to provide leasing of electric cars to Uber drivers in Chicago and New York City.[26]

Drivers must meet requirements for age, health, car age and type, have a driver's license and a smartphone or tablet, and must pass a background check.[23] In many cities, vehicles used by Uber drivers must pass annual safety inspections and/or must have an Uber emblem posted in the passenger window. Some cities also require Uber drivers to have a business license.[27] A mechanism called "Real-Time ID Check" requires some drivers to occasionally take selfies when logging on to Uber.[28][29]

Drivers use an app to receive and accept offers for transportations and further information.[30] The Uber driver app includes accommodations for hearing-impaired drivers.[31][32]

Service options

Offered

  • UberX, the basic level of service, provides a private ride in a standard car with driver for up to four passengers. UberX and UberXL cars with child safety seats are available for an additional charge. Persons with a service animal may use any type of Uber service, as required by law. Rider service levels, many of which are only available in certain cities, include:[33]
  • ASSIST provides additional assistance to senior citizens and passengers with a physical disability, but cannot transport a non-folding wheelchair (see UberWAV for wheelchair-accessible vehicles).
  • Bike is a dockless bicycle-sharing system that allows users to rent electric bicycles via Uber subsidiary Jump Bikes in nine metropolitan areas in the United States including San Francisco and Washington, D.C.[34][35] Uber users are also able to rent Lime scooters in 46 cities via the Uber mobile app.[36]
  • BLACK provides a black luxury vehicle.
  • Chapchap, available in Nairobi, Kenya is a low-cost service offering transport via a Suzuki Alto, a kei car. "Chapchap" means "faster" in the Swahili language.[37]
  • ESPAÑOL, is a version of UberX (see below) that provides a Spanish-speaking driver.[38]
  • Comfort includes newer cars less then 5 years old with additional legroom.
  • FLASH, available in Hong Kong and Singapore, is a service that combines both private cars and taxis, operated by ComfortDelGro in Singapore.[39]
  • Green, available in Europe, provides an electric car or hybrid vehicle at the same price as UberX.
  • Health, available for health professionals in the United States, is a HIPAA-compliant method to arrange rides for patients to-and-from their appointments. Patients without smartphones can receive pickup information via Text messaging or via the health professional's office.[40]
  • Hire, available in India, provides a vehicle for hire for local travel..
  • MOTO, available in India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Dominican Republic, provides transportation by motorcycle.[41][42][43][44]
  • Pet, allows users to hail a vehicle that allows animals to ride.
  • POOL, available for up to two people per party, provides a ride that is possibly shared with other riders going in the same general direction. Unless the rider pays an additional fee for door-to-door service, the rider(s) are required to walk a short distance at both ends of the ride to save time for the driver and other riders. The pickup/drop-off locations are indicated via a map in the mobile app. During the COVID-19 pandemic, in March 2020, Uber announced that they are temporarily suspending shared POOL rides, in order to stop the spread of the virus as much as possible.[45]
  • Upper-class vehicles are marketed under the names Premier (India), Premium (New York City suburbs but not in the city itself), Exec (London, Berlin?) Lux (Miami, Houston, Los Angeles' New York City its self not suburbs)
  • Select offers a car with leather seats and a few other premium features but cheaper than Black or the Upper class options.
  • SUV provides a sport utility vehicle.
  • Taxi allows users to summon a taxi using the Uber software application.[46] Users pay an additional booking fee and can leave a gratuity through the app.[46] The service was implemented to appease taxi drivers who protested the increased competition from Uber.[46]
  • Van, available in Europe, provides a van for groups of up to 6 people.
  • WAV aka ACCESS provides a wheelchair accessible vehicle.[47]
  • UberAuto, available in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan, provides transportation by auto rickshaw.[48][49]
  • UberGO, available in India and Sri Lanka, provides for a ride in a hatchback.[50]
  • UberXL provides a ride in a Minivan or large SUV that can seat up to 6 passengers.

Services under development

  • UberAIR / UberElevate will provide short flights using VTOL aircraft. Demonstration flights are projected to start in 2020 in Dallas and Los Angeles. Commercial operations are projected to begin in 2023.[51] Although technically feasible, the program is expected to encounter safety and regulatory obstacles.[52]
  • In early October 2019, Uber announced a service called Uber Works that matches Temporary workers with potential jobs and employers. The new service is available only in Chicago.[53]

Promotional limited services

DeLorean "time machine" provided by Uber

Uber has also operated promotional limited services, such as rides of up to 15 minutes each on September 6-8, 2013 in San Francisco in the DeLorean that was featured in the Back to the Future film franchise.[54]

Uber allowed users to hire speedboats in the summer to and from certain points on the coast of Croatia.[55] Uber has also offered transport across Biscayne Bay during Miami Art Week[56][57] and across the Bosporus strait in Istanbul in the summer.[58]

Rating scores

After each journey, drivers are required to rate passengers on a scale of 1 to 5 stars. Passengers also have the option to rate the driver. Riders and drivers who have low ratings can be deactivated.[59][60] In May 2019, Uber began actively banning riders with low ratings.[61] The company has not defined in detail what will be considered a "below average rating", but the update is intended to remove users who are unable to improve their behavior.[62]

Other products and services

History

Travis Kalanick, former CEO of Uber, in 2013

In 2009, Uber was originally founded as Ubercab by Garrett Camp, a computer programmer and the co-founder of StumbleUpon, and Travis Kalanick, who sold his Red Swoosh startup for $19 million in 2007.[67][68][69]

After Camp and his friends spent $800 hiring a private driver, he wanted to find a way to reduce the cost of direct transportation. He realized that sharing the cost with people could make it affordable, and his idea morphed into Uber. Kalanick joined Camp and gives him "full credit for the idea" of Uber.[70] The first prototype was built by Camp and his friends, Oscar Salazar and Conrad Whelan, with Kalanick as the "mega advisor" to the company.[70]

Following a beta launch in May 2010, Uber's services and mobile app officially launched in San Francisco in 2011.[71][72] Originally, the application only allowed users to hail a black luxury car and the price was 1.5 times that of a taxi.[73][74]

In February 2010, Ryan Graves became the first Uber employee and received 5-10% of the company.[] Graves started out as general manager and was named CEO shortly after the launch.[70] In December 2010, Kalanick succeeded Graves as the CEO of Uber.[70][71][75][76] Graves became the company's chief operating officer (COO).[77]

In 2011, the company changed its name from UberCab to Uber after receiving complaints from San Francisco taxi operators.[78][79]

The company's early hires included a nuclear physicist, a computational neuroscientist, and a machinery expert who worked on predicting demand for private hire car drivers and where demand is highest.[67][80] In April 2012, Uber launched a service in Chicago where users were able to request a regular taxi or an Uber driver via its mobile app.[81][82]

In July 2012, the company introduced UberX, a cheaper option that allows people to drive for Uber using non-luxury vehicles, subject to a background check, registration requirement, and car standards.[83][79] By early 2013, the service had operated in 35 cities.[84][68] In April 2013, Uber allowed drivers to use their personal vehicles as part of UberX.[85][86] Rates were quickly lowered, which caused some dissatisfaction among UberBLACK and taxi drivers, whose earnings decreased as a result of the increased competition at lower rates.[87][better source needed]

In August 2014, Uber launched UberPOOL, a carpooling service in the San Francisco Bay Area.[88][89] The service soon launched in other cities worldwide including Paris,[90] New York City,[91] China,[92]Washington, D.C.,[93] London,[94]Boston,[95] Hyderabad, Kolkata,Mumbai, Singapore,[96][97]Delaware,[98]Toronto,[99]Nashville,[100]Sydney,[101] and Melbourne.[102]

In August 2014, Uber launched a food delivery service called Uber Eats.[103][104]

Uber logo used from February 2016 until September 2018

In August 2016, after facing tough competition in China, Uber sold its operations in China to DiDi, in exchange for an 18% stake in Didi.[105] Didi also agreed to invest $1 billion into Uber Global.[106] Uber had started operations in China in 2014, under the name (Y?ubù).[107]

In August 2017, Dara Khosrowshahi, the former CEO of Expedia Group became the CEO of Uber.[108][109]

In fall 2017, Uber became a gold member of the Linux Foundation[110][111] and received a five-star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation.[112]

In February 2018, Uber combined its operations in Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia and Kazakhstan with those of Yandex.Taxi and invested $225 million in the venture.[113]

In March 2018, Uber merged its services in Southeast Asia with those of Grab in exchange for a 27.5% ownership stake in Grab.[114][115][116]

Uber Rent, powered by Getaround, was a peer-to-peer carsharing service available to some users in San Francisco between May 2018 and November 2018.[117]

In March 2019, Uber proposed the idea of acquiring Careem, a transportation network company based in Dubai for $3.1 billion. As part of the deal, Careem maintains an independent brand and operates separately.[118]

On May 10, 2019, Uber became a public company via an initial public offering.[119] Following the IPO, Uber's shares dropped 11%, resulting in the biggest first-day dollar loss in IPO history for the US.[120] A month after going public, both COO Barney Harford and CMO Rebecca Messina stepped down.[121][122] Uber posted a US$1 billion loss in the first quarter of 2019, and a US$5.2 billion loss of for the second quarter of 2019.[123][124]

In June 2019, during the process of acquiring Careem, Uber cleared it first regulatory hurdle by getting its application approved from United Arab Emirates' Ministry of Economy. Sultan bin Saeed Al Mansouri, Minister of Economy issued a ministerial decision approving the status of Economic Concentration in the UAE market for the acquisition of Careem by Uber.[125]

In July 2019, the marketing department was reduced by a third, with the lay-off of 400 people after the company experienced continued losses.[126][127] Engineer hires were frozen as well.[128]

In early September 2019, Uber laid off an additional 435 employees with 265 coming from the engineering team and another 170 coming from the product team.[129][130]

In October 2019, Uber launched Uber Works to connect workers who want temporary jobs with businesses. The app was initially available only in Chicago and expanded to Miami in December 2019.[131][132]

In October 2019, Uber announced an airport helicopter taxi service at JFK airport.[133]

In January 2020, Uber completed the acquisition of Careem for $3.1 billion after receiving regulatory approval from Egyptian Competition Authority (ECA). The regulatory approval from other countries where Careem operates including Qatar, Morocco and Pakistan was still awaited.[134]

In early May, Uber disclosed plans to layoff 3,700 employees (around 14% of its total workforce) due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[135] The same month, it was announced that Uber made a move to acquire Grubhub in "all-stock" deal.[136] On May 18, the company announced that they will be cutting 3,000 more jobs and closing 45 offices in order to slow down revenue loss caused by the Covid 19 pandemic.[137] In July of 2020, Uber announced its intentions to acquire Postmates for 2.65 billion dollars. [138]

In June 2020, Uber announced that it will manage the on-demand high-occupancy vehicle fleet for the public bus agency Marin Transit in Marin County, California. This partnership is the first SaaS partnership for Uber.[139]

Self-driving car research

Uber autonomous vehicle Volvo XC90 in San Francisco

Advanced Technologies Group (Uber ATG) is a subsidiary of the company that is developing self-driving cars. Uber ATG is minority-owned by Softbank Vision Fund, Toyota, and Denso.[140]

In early 2015, the company hired approximately 50 people from the robotics department of Carnegie Mellon University.[141]

On September 14, 2016, Uber launched its first self-driving car services to select customers in Pittsburgh, using a fleet of Ford Fusion cars. Each vehicle was equipped with 20 cameras, seven lasers, Global Positioning System, lidar, and radar equipment that enabled the car to create a three-dimensional map.[142][143]

On December 14, 2016, Uber began using self-driving Volvo XC90 SUVs in its hometown of San Francisco.[] On December 21, 2016, the California Department of Motor Vehicles revoked the registration of the vehicles Uber was using for the test and forced the program to cease operations in California.[144] Two months later, Uber moved the program to Arizona, where the cars were able to pick up passengers, although, as a safety precaution, two Uber engineers were always in the front seats of each vehicle.[145] In March 2017, an Uber self-driving car was hit and flipped on its side by another vehicle that failed to yield.[146] In October 2017, Uber started using only one test driver, despite some employees' safety concerns.[147]

In November 2017, Uber announced a non-binding plan to buy up to 24,000 Volvo XC90 SUV vehicles designed to accept autonomous technology (including a different type of steering and braking mechanism and sensors) between 2019 and 2021.[148][149]

In March 2018, there was a temporary pause to Uber's self-driving vehicle testing after the death of Elaine Herzberg by an Uber self-driving vehicle in Tempe, Arizona.[150] According to police, the woman was struck by the Uber vehicle while attempting to cross the street, while the Uber engineer in the vehicle was watching videos on her phone.[150] Uber pulled its self-driving cars off all public roads[151] and reached a settlement with the victim's family.[152] There was disagreement among local authorities as to whether or not the car or the victim was at fault.[153] In December 2018, after receiving local approval, Uber restarted testing of its self driving cars, only during daylight hours and at slower speeds, in Pittsburgh[154][155] and Toronto.[156] In March 2019, Uber was found not criminally liable by Yavapai County Attorney's Office for the death of Herzberg.[157] The company changed its approach to self-driving vehicles after Herzberg's death, inviting both Waymo and General Motors' Cruise self-driving vehicle unit to operate vehicles on Uber's ride-hailing network.[158] In February 2020, Uber regained the permit to test self-driving vehicles on public roads of California with backup drivers. The company is going to resume testing in San Francisco, where its main office is based.[159]

Prior to its IPO, Uber projected the potential operation of 75,000 autonomous vehicles, in 13 cities, by 2022. These projections, developed through an internal effort codenamed Project Rubicon, targeted the possibility of profitable autonomous vehicles by 2018 in an initial January 2016 report, with a May 2016 report claiming that 13,000 autonomous Uber vehicles could be operating by 2019. The 75,000-vehicle figure was proposed in September 2016. To reach these goals, Uber spent a reported $20 million a month on research and development, according to TechCrunch.[160] Other sources have estimated Uber's spending on self-driving vehicle research to have reached as high as $200 million per quarter.[158]

In April 2019, Uber scientist Raquel Urtasun offered a more cautious estimate of the company's eventual self-driving capabilities, saying "self-driving cars are going to be in our lives. The question of when is not clear yet. To have it at scale is going to take a long time."[158]

Cancellation of research on autonomous trucks

After spending over $925 million to develop autonomous trucks, Uber cancelled its self-driving truck program in July 2018.[65] Uber acquired Otto for $625 million in 2016.[161][162] According to a February 2017 lawsuit filed by Waymo, owned by an affiliate of Google, ex-Google employee Anthony Levandowski allegedly "downloaded 9.7 GB of Waymo's highly confidential files and trade secrets, including blueprints, design files and testing documentation" before resigning to found Otto, which was purchased by Uber.[163][164] A ruling in May 2017 required Uber to return documents to Waymo.[165] The trial began February 5, 2018.[166] A settlement was announced on February 8, 2018 in which Uber gave Waymo $244 million in Uber equity and agreed not to infringe on Waymo's intellectual property.[167]

Criticism

Criticism by the taxi industry

The taxi industry has claimed that ridesharing companies skirt regulations that apply to passenger transport and ridesharing companies are therefore illegal taxicab operations. This has resulted in additional regulations imposed on ridesharing companies and, in some jurisdictions, certain ridesharing companies are banned from operating.[168]

In New York City, use of ridesharing companies has reduced the value of taxi medallions, transferable permits or licenses authorizing the holder to pick up passengers for hire. A couple of credit unions that lent money secured by medallions suffered from bank failure.[169]

Classification of drivers as independent contractors

Unless otherwise required by law, rideshare drivers are generally independent contractors and not employees. This designation may affect taxation, work hours, and overtime benefits and lawsuits have been filed by drivers alleging that they are entitled to the rights and remedies of being considered "employees" under employment law.[170] In response, ridesharing companies say they provide "flexible and independent jobs" for drivers.[171]

In O'Connor v. Uber Technologies, a lawsuit filed in the United States District Court for the Northern District of California on August 16, 2013, Uber drivers pleaded that according to the California Labor Code they should be classified as employees and receive reimbursement of business expenses such as gas and vehicle maintenance costs. In March 2019, Uber agreed to pay $20 million to settle the case.[172]

On October 28, 2016, in the case of Aslam v Uber BV, the Central London Employment tribunal ruled that Uber drivers are "workers", rather than self-employed individuals, and are entitled to the minimum wage under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, paid holiday, and other normal worker entitlements.[173] Two Uber drivers had brought the test case to the employment tribunal with the assistance of the GMB Union, on behalf of a group of drivers in London. Uber appealed the decision.[174] In December 2018, Uber lost an appeal of the case at the Court of Appeal, but was granted permission to appeal to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.[175]

In March 2018, the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research of Switzerland, gave the legal opinion that under the conditions that bind drivers to Uber that they should be classified as employees.[176]

In April 2018, the California Supreme Court ruled in Dynamex Operations v. Superior Court that document delivery company Dynamex has misclassified its delivery drivers as independent contractors rather than employees.[177] This ultimately led to California passing Assembly Bill 5 on September 11, 2019, which would require many jobs, to be classified as employees, with the according minimum wage protections and unemployment benefits, beginning in 2020.[178][179][180] Uber and Lyft both pledged to keep drivers classified as contractors, saying they could meet the requirements of the new test, and both pledged $30 million on a 2020 ballot initiative against AB 5.[181]

Driver criticism of compensation

Drivers have complained that in some cases, after expenses, they earn less than minimum wage. As a result, in some jurisdictions, such as New York City, drivers are guaranteed a minimum wage. The New York City minimum wage was set at $26.51 before expenses or $17.22 after expenses in 2019, and an analysis by the NYC Taxi and Limousine Commission revealed that 85% of drivers made less than the minimum wage prior to the law.[182]

In May 2018, a unanimous panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found that the City of Seattle's attempt to engage in collective bargaining on behalf of ridesharing company workers was not entitled to state action immunity from the Sherman Antitrust Act.[183][184]

Dynamic pricing

Ridesharing companies use dynamic pricing models; prices for the same route vary based on the supply and demand for rides at the time the ride is requested.[185] When rides are in high demand in a certain area and there are not enough drivers in such area, fares increase to get more drivers to that area.[186] The rate quoted and they are to the rider reflects such dynamic pricing.[187]

Ridesharing companies were criticized for extreme surcharges during emergencies such as Hurricane Sandy,[188] the 2014 Sydney hostage crisis,[189] and the 2017 London Bridge attack,[190] especially when taxis offered to transport riders for free.

Increased traffic congestion

Ridesharing companies have been criticized for increasing traffic congestion in New York City and San Francisco.[191][192] A report published by Schaller Consulting in July 2018 showed that, as a result of ridesharing companies, traffic congestion increased in both cities, which already had comprehensive public transport systems in place.[193][194] A main reason was that a large number of people, who would otherwise have used public transport, shifted to services offered by transportation network companies. Compared with data in the report, taxis out-perform ridesharing companies in high-demand locations in terms of rider waiting time and vehicle empty driving time, and thus contribute less to congestion and pollution in downtown area.[195]

Reduced usage of public transportation

Studies have shown that ridesharing companies have led to a reduction in use of public transportation.[196]

Contribution to climate change

The Union of Concerned Scientists found that due to extra miles driven by ride share vehicles prior to picking up passengers, "ride-hailing trips produce 47 percent more carbon emissions than a similar trip taken in your own private car." In addition, passengers often opt for a ride-hailing trip over more efficient public transportation or not taking a trip at all.[197]

Lack of wheelchair accessible vans

In some areas, ridesharing companies are required by law to have a certain amount of wheelchair accessible vans (WAVs) on the road at any given time. This can be a difficult requirement for ridesharing companies to meet because the companies don't provide vehicles and most drivers do not own a WAV, causing a shortage.[198]

Drivers using their phones while driving

When a customer makes a pick-up request, a driver is notified via mobile app and is provided the customer's location. The driver has approximately 15 seconds to tap the phone to accept the request. In many jurisdictions, tapping a phone while driving is against the law as it could result in distracted driving.[199]

Antitrust price fixing allegations

Uber Technologies has been a subject of several private antitrust legal cases in the United States and elsewhere. The main argument behind litigation rests with the fact that Uber does not actually provide services to consumers directly, instead, drivers are independent contractors and not employees. Antitrust law generally holds that price setting activities are permissible within business firms, but bars them beyond firm boundaries. The antitrust law's firm exemption strictly applies to entities that a platform have a direct control over, such as employees. The core of Uber's business model is the coordination of consumer prices across drivers as means to deliver upfront fares calculated by an algorithm. Uber has managed to avoid directly litigating this antitrust problem by compelling a consumer (Meyer v. Uber Technologies, Inc.) lawsuit to be moved into arbitration.[200]

1951 antitrust case United States v. Richfield Oil Co. the court ruled unequivocally for the government on the grounds that Richfield Oil Co. exercised de facto control over "independent business men," in contravention of the antitrust laws, despite the fact that they were not employees of the company. This has become the basis for delineation between the realm of labor and antitrust: if subordinate entities are "independent business men" and not employees, it is illegal to exercise control. The United States Supreme Court affirmed the same basic principle against coercion of non-employees by vertical supply contract in the 1964 case Simpson v. Union Oil Co. of California.

Online labor platforms like Uber, Lyft, Handy, Amazon Home Services, DoorDash, and Instacart have perfected a process where workers deal bilaterally with gigs whose employers have none of the standard obligations of employers, while the platform operates the entire labor market to its own benefit -- what some antitrust experts call a "for-profit hiring hall." [201]

Uber drivers are not employees, so then they must be independent businesses, and hence Uber setting the terms on which they transact with customers, including fixing the prices charged to customers, constitutes a violation of the Sherman Act's ban on restraints of trade. The issue whether Uber is a price-fixing conspiracy, and whether that price-fixing is horizontal has yet to be resolved at trial. Uber publicly states that: "we believe the law is on our side and that's why in four years no anti-trust agency has raised this as an issue and there has been no similar litigation like it in the U.S." [202]

Driver status and earnings

While Uber is viewing drivers as contractors, courts in the United Kingdom[203] and Switzerland [204] consider their drivers to be employees of the company. The Guardian quoted a driver in March 2019 who said he was earning $3.75 per hour after expenses.[205] A report published by the Economic Policy Institute in 2018 found the average wage for drivers to be $9.21.[206] Austrian weekly papers Profil and Trend found the hourly wage of drivers to be at EUR4 and claimed a high incidence of tax evasion, social fraud and circumvention of labour laws by the companies employing drivers on Uber's behalf.[207][208] A 2017 report claimed that only 4 percent of all drivers were still working as such one year after entering the company.[209]

In November 2019, the New Jersey labor department gave Uber a $650 million bill for overdue unemployment and disability insurance taxes from the previous four years.[210]

Misleading drivers of potential earnings

In January 2017, Uber agreed to pay $20 million to the US government to resolve accusations by the Federal Trade Commission of having misled drivers about potential earnings.[211][212][213]

Alleged short-changing of drivers

In 2017, lawyers for drivers filed a class action lawsuit that alleged that Uber did not provide drivers with the 80% of collections they were entitled to.[214]

In May 2017, after the New York Taxi Workers Alliance (NYTWA) filed a class action lawsuit in federal court in New York, Uber admitted to underpaying New York City drivers tens of millions of dollars over 2.5 years by calculating driver commissions on a net amount. Uber agreed to pay the amounts owed plus interest.[215]

Driver refusal to transport a service animal

In March 2018, a lawsuit filed against Uber in the United States accused the company's drivers of not serving a woman with cerebral palsy due to her service dog, in violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Texas Human Resources Code.[216][217]

Criticism for collecting fares during a taxi strike

In late January 2017, Uber was targeted by GrabYourWallet for collecting fares during a taxi strike in New York City in protest of Trump travel ban Executive Order 13769.[218] The Order had triggered a taxi strike in New York City, to which Uber responded by removing surge pricing from JFK airport, where Muslim refugees had been detained upon entry. Uber was also targeted because then-CEO Travis Kalanick joined an Economic Advisory Council with Donald Trump.[219] A social media campaign known as #deleteuber was formed in protest, resulting in approximately 200,000 users deleting the app.[220] Uber added user account deletion to meet the resulting surge in requests.[221] Statements were e-mailed to former users who had deleted their accounts, asserting that the company would assist refugees, and that CEO Kalanick joining the Council was not an endorsement of President Trump.[222] On February 2, 2017, Kalanick resigned from the business advisory council.[223]

Aggressive strategy for dealing with regulators

When Uber was led by Travis Kalanick, the company took an aggressive strategy in dealing with obstacles, including regulators. In 2014, Kalanick said "You have to have what I call principled confrontation." Uber's strategy was generally to commence operations in a city, then, if it faced regulatory opposition, Uber mobilized public support for its service and mounted a political campaign, supported by lobbyists, to change regulations.[224][225][226]

In 2014, while in the midst of a regulatory battle, Portland, Oregon's transportation commissioner called Uber management "a bunch of thugs".[227]

In June 2014, Uber distributed to its riders the personal contact information of a commissioner in Virginia who opposed the company, and told riders to flood his inbox with complaints.[228][229]

In November 2017, CEO Dara Khosrowshahi dropped the "win at all costs" strategy and implemented new values for the company, including "we do the right thing".[230]

In December 2019, Uber and Postmates sued California over labour law, alleging that legislation set to take effect in the US state, meant to improve worker conditions, unfairly targeted them, and should be considered unconstitutional. [231]

Alleged cancellation of ride requests to disrupt competitors

Uber issued an apology on January 24, 2014, after documents were leaked to Valleywag and TechCrunch saying that, earlier in the month, Uber employees in New York City deliberately ordered rides from Gett, a competitor, only to cancel them later. The purpose of the fake orders was two-fold: wasting drivers' time to obstruct legitimate customers from securing a car, and offering drivers incentives--including cash--to join Uber.[232]

Operation SLOG plan to disrupt Lyft

Following Lyft's expansion into New York City in July 2014, Uber, with the assistance of TargetCW, sent emails offering a "huge commission opportunity" to several contractors based on the "personal hustle" of the participants. Those who responded to the solicitation were offered a meeting with Uber marketing managers who attempted to create a "street team" to gather intelligence about Lyft's launch plans in New York City and recruit their drivers to Uber. Recruits were given two Uber-branded iPhones (one a backup in case the person was identified by Lyft) and a series of valid credit card numbers to create dummy Lyft accounts. Participants were also required to sign non-disclosure agreements.[233][234]

In August 2014, Lyft reported that 177 Uber employees had ordered and canceled approximately 5,560 Lyft rides since October 2013, and that it had found links to Uber recruiters by cross-referencing the phone numbers involved. The report identified one Lyft passenger who canceled 300 rides from May 26 to June 10, 2014, and who was identified as an Uber recruiter by seven different Lyft drivers. Uber did not apologize, but suggested that the recruitment attempts were possibly independent parties trying to make money.[235][236]

Evasion of law enforcement operations

Greyball

Uber developed an internal software tool called Greyball, which uses data collected from the Uber mobile app and other means, to avoid giving rides to certain individuals. The tool was used starting in 2014. By showing "ghost cars" driven by fake drivers to the targeted individuals in the Uber mobile app, and by giving real drivers a means to cancel rides requested by those individuals, Uber was able to avoid giving rides to known law enforcement officers in areas where its service is illegal. Investigative journalism by The New York Times and the resulting report, published on March 3, 2017, made public Uber's use of Greyball since 2014, describing it as a way to evade city code enforcement officials in Portland, Oregon, Australia, South Korea, and China.[237] At first, in response to the report, Uber stated that Greyball was designed to deny rides to users who violate Uber's terms of service, including those involved in sting operations.[237][238] According to Uber, Greyball can "hide the standard city app view for individual riders, enabling Uber to show that same rider a different version". Uber reportedly used Greyball to identify government officials through factors such as whether a user frequently opens the app near government offices, a review of social media profiles by Uber employees to identify law enforcement personnel, and the credit cards associated with the Uber account.[237]

On March 6, 2017, the City of Portland, Oregon announced an investigation into whether Uber had used its Greyball software tool to obstruct the enforcement of city regulations.[239] The investigation by the Portland Bureau of Transportation (PBOT) found that: "Uber used Greyball software to intentionally evade PBOT's officers from December 5 to December 19, 2014 and deny 29 separate ride requests by PBOT enforcement officers."[240] Following the release of the audit, Portland's commissioner of police suggested that the city subpoena Uber to force the company to turn over information on how Uber used software to evade regulatory officials.[241]

On March 8, 2017, Uber admitted that it had used Greyball to thwart government regulators and pledged to stop using the service for that purpose.[242][243]

In May 2017, the United States Department of Justice opened a criminal investigation into Uber's use of Greyball to avoid local law enforcement operations.[244]

Ripley

After a police raid in Uber's Brussels office, a January 2018 report by Bloomberg News stated that "Uber routinely used Ripley to thwart police raids in foreign countries."[245] Developed as a type of secret "panic button" system, initially called "unexpected visitor protocol", then nicknamed "Ripley", to disrupt government raids on Uber's offices by locking, shutting off, and changing passwords on staff computers upon a raid; Uber likely used this button at least 24 times, from spring 2015 until late 2016.[246][247]

User privacy and data breaches

God view

On November 19, 2014, then U.S. Senator Al Franken, Chairman of the United States Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on Privacy, Technology and the Law, sent a letter to Kalanick regarding privacy.[248][249][250] Concerns were raised about internal misuse of the company's data, in particular the ability of Uber staff to track the movements of its customers, known as "God View". In 2011, a venture capitalist disclosed that Uber staff members were using the function to track journalists and politicians as well as using the feature recreationally. Staff members viewed being tracked by Uber as a positive reflection on the subject's character.[251] An Uber job interviewee said that he was given unrestricted access to Uber's customer tracking function as part of the interview process, and that he retained that access for several hours after the interview ended.[252]

Data breaches

On February 27, 2015, Uber admitted that it had suffered a data breach more than nine months prior. The names and license plate information from approximately 50,000 drivers were inadvertently disclosed.[253] Uber discovered this leak in September 2014, but waited more than five months to notify the affected individuals.[254]

An announcement in November 2017 revealed that in 2016, a separate data breach had disclosed the personal information of 600,000 drivers and 57 million customers. This data included names, email addresses, phone numbers, and drivers' license information. Hackers used employees' usernames and passwords that had been compromised in previous breaches (a "credential stuffing" method) to gained access to a private GitHub repository used by Uber's developers. The hackers located credentials for the company's Amazon Web Services datastore in the repository files, and were able to obtain access to the account records of users and drivers, as well as other data contained in over 100 Amazon S3 buckets. Uber paid a $100,000 ransom to the hackers on the promise they would delete the stolen data.[255][256] Uber was subsequently criticized for concealing this data breach.[257] CEO Dara Khosrowshahi apologized.[258][259] Uber's British divisions were fined £385,000 (reduced to £308,000) by the Information Commissioner's Office.[260]

In September 2018, Uber settled with the Federal Trade Commission for $148 million and admitted that its claim that internal access to consumers' personal information was closely monitored on an ongoing basis was false. Uber also stated that it had failed to live up to its promise to provide reasonable security for consumer data.[261][262] It was the largest multi-state settlement related to a data breach.[263]

Safety concerns

It is unclear if Uber is less or more safe than taxicabs, as major cities don't have much data on taxi-related incidents.[264]

Inadequate background checks and vetting of drivers

Concerns regarding Uber's background checks were raised after reports of sexual abuse of passengers by Uber drivers. Sexual assaults in relation to Uber are most often committed by either Uber drivers themselves [265] or by individuals posing as Uber drivers. In the latter case, imposters have lured unsuspecting passengers to their vehicles by placing an Uber sticker on their dashboard or by claiming to be a passenger's expected driver.[266]

In September 2017, Uber's application for a new license in London was rejected by Transport for London (TfL) because of the company's approach and past conduct showed a lack of corporate responsibility related to driver background checks, obtaining medical certificates and reporting serious criminal offences.[267]

In November 2017, The Colorado Public Utilities Commission fined Uber $8.9 million after discovering that 57 drivers in the state had violations in their background checks. The fine amount equaled $2,500 per day that an unqualified driver worked.[268]

In November 2019, Transport for London (TfL) announced it would not renew Uber's license to operate in London for the second time in just over two years, following a two-month probationary extension granted in September 2019, on the grounds that Uber had failed to adequately address issues with checks on drivers, insurance and safety.[269][270][271] Part of TfL's rationale for removing Uber's licence was evidence that Uber driver accounts had been used by unauthorized drivers.[272][273]

Crimes committed by drivers

In February 2016, Uber was criticized following the 2016 Kalamazoo shootings, a shooting spree in Kalamazoo, Michigan that left six people dead and two wounded. It was committed by Jason Dalton, who was driving for Uber while conducting the shooting. During the ensuing seven-hour manhunt, authorities believe that Dalton continued to drive and accept fares. Uber was aware of issues with Dalton's driving skills, having received multiple complaints, though critics agree that Dalton would not have raised any red flags since he did not have a criminal record.[274]

Sexual harassment allegations and management shakeup (2017)

On February 20, 2017, former Uber engineer Susan Fowler stated that she was subjected to sexual harassment by a manager and subsequently threatened with termination of employment by another manager if she continued to report the incident. Kalanick was reportedly aware of the harassment issues.[275][276]

CTO Thuan Pham was alleged to have had knowledge of and to ignore Susan Fowler's sexual harassment allegations; however, investigations by TheInformation and Buzzfeed showed this to not be the case, allowing Pham to keep his job.[277][278]

Uber hired former attorney general Eric Holder to investigate the claims.[279]Arianna Huffington, a member of Uber's board of directors, also oversaw the investigation.[280] Fowler likened Uber's culture to A Game of Thrones, in which rivals vie for the throne the same way Uber employees were encouraged to vie for power and aggression and betrayal was common.[281][282][283] On February 20, 2017, Kalanick led a meeting with employees that was described by the participants as honest and raw.[284]

On February 27, 2017, Amit Singhal, Uber's Senior Vice President of Engineering, was forced to resign after it came to light that he failed to disclose a sexual harassment claim against him that occurred while he was the Vice President of Google Search.[285][286][287][288][289]

On June 6, 2017, Uber announced that it fired over 20 employees as a result of the investigation.[290][291] On June 13, 2017, Kalanick took an indefinite leave of absence from Uber.[292][293] On June 20, 2017, after multiple shareholders reportedly demanded his resignation, Kalanick resigned as CEO.[294][295]

Scandals and departure of Emil Michael

At a private dinner in November 2014, Emil Michael, senior vice president of Uber, suggested that Uber hire a team of opposition researchers and journalists, with a million-dollar budget, to "dig up dirt" on the personal lives and backgrounds of media figures who reported negatively about Uber.[296] Specifically, he targeted Sarah Lacy, editor of PandoDaily, who, in an article published in October 2014, accused Uber of sexism and misogyny in its advertising.[297][298][299] Michael issued a public apology[300] and apologized to Lacy in a personal email, claiming that Uber would never actually undertake the plan.[301][302] Several journalists deleted their Uber apps.[303] After several additional scandals involving Emil Michael, including an escort-karaoke bar scandal in Seoul and the questioning of the medical records of a rape victim in India, he left the company in June 2017 when Kalanick, who reportedly was protecting Michael, resigned.[304]

Settlement with victims

In August 2018, Uber agreed to pay a total of $7 million to 480 workers to settle claims of gender discrimination, harassment and hostile work environment.[305]

Use of offshore companies to minimize tax liability

In November 2017, the Paradise Papers, a set of confidential electronic documents relating to offshore investment, revealed that Uber is one of many corporations that used an offshore company to minimize taxes.[306][307]

CEO's comments on the killing of Jamal Khashoggi

On November 11, 2019, Uber was seen trending on Twitter on #BoycottUber, after the company's CEO Dara Khosrowshahi characterized Saudi Arabia's murder of Jamal Khashoggi as a "mistake" in comments. In his interview with Axios on HBO, he compared the assassination of Khashoggi to Uber's decision of including self-driving cars, which resulted in a death of a woman in 2018. He called them both "mistakes" that can "be forgiven".[308]

Awards

In 2013, USA Today named Uber its tech company of the year.[309]

References

  1. ^ "Uber Technologies, Inc. - Financials (10K)". investor.uber.com. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ "Uber Technologies, Inc. Form S-1 Registration Statement". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 11, 2019. Archived from the original on April 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Uber: Cities". Archived from the original on October 3, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ Bhuiyan, Johana (April 25, 2018). "Uber's first diversity report under CEO Dara Khosrowshahi shows Uber is still mostly white and male". Recode. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "UBER TECHNOLOGIES PRICING CASES" (PDF). Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ "Monthly number of Uber's active users worldwide". Statista. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ Gessner, Kathryn. "Rideshare Industry Overview". Second Measure. Archived from the original on April 6, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ Carson, Biz. "Uber's Secret Gold Mine: How Uber Eats Is Turning into a Billion-Dollar Business to Rival Grubhub". Forbes. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ Boland, Michael (December 1, 2014). "Apple Pay's Real Killer App: The Uber-ification of Local Services". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on April 29, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ Lazo, Kristyn, Nika M. (May 4, 2016). "Execs wary 'disruptive tech' to heighten biz competition - IBM". The Manila Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ "Taking uberization to the Field - Disruption is coming for Field Marketing". International Data Group. April 14, 2016. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ Webb, Amy (December 9, 2016). "The 'Uber For X' Fad Will Pass Because Only Uber Is Uber". Wired. Archived from the original on August 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  13. ^ Madden, Sam (August 17, 2017). "Read This Before You Build Uber for X". Y Combinator. Archived from the original on January 4, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ Porat, Shawn (January 6, 2016). "The 'Uber for X' Model: Opportunities and Challenges". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 12, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ [Peter Cohen, Robert Hahn, Jonathan Hall, Steven Levitt, Robert Metcalfe (2016). Using Big Data to Estimate Consumer Surplus: The Case of Uber. NBER Working Paper No. 22627. https://www.nber.org/papers/w22627]
  16. ^ Chin, Monica (November 14, 2017). "Uber finally shows upfront pricing, following in Lyft's footsteps". Mashable. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (October 24, 2017). "Uber will now charge you extra if your driver has to travel longer to reach you". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ Mishra, Lalatendu (August 21, 2015). "Airtel ties up with Uber". The Hindu. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ Agarwal, Surabhi (August 23, 2017). "Uber integrates with UPI BHIM payment for riders". The Economic Times. Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ "Riding With Uber: Tipping". Uber. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ "Wait time fees". Uber. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ Goode, Lauren (June 17, 2011). "Worth It? An App to Get a Cab". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on November 23, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ a b "Driver requirements: How to drive with Uber". Uber. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ Bensinger, Greg (February 9, 2017). "Uber Taps Zipcar to Put More Drivers on the Road". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on February 24, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  25. ^ "Car offers: Wheels by the week". Uber. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ Bateman, Joshua (January 18, 2018). "The Biggest Electric Vehicle Company You've Never Heard Of". Fast Company. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ Wells, Georgia; MacMillan, Douglas (April 15, 2016). "Uber, Lyft Drivers Need Business Licenses to Operate in San Francisco". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on March 25, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  28. ^ "Engineering Safety with Uber's Real-Time ID Check". Uber. March 13, 2017. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  29. ^ Choney, Suzanne (September 26, 2016). "How Uber is using driver selfies to enhance security, powered by Microsoft Cognitive Services". Microsoft. Archived from the original on February 25, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  30. ^ "Long trip notifications: Get a heads-up on long trip requests". Uber. Archived from the original on April 23, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  31. ^ Alba, Davey (May 28, 2015). "Uber unveils app update to help its deaf drivers". Wired. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  32. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (April 19, 2016). "Uber's latest changes make trips easier for deaf drivers and their passengers". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ Schneider, Henrique (March 10, 2017). Uber: Innovation in Society. Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 9783319495149. Archived from the original on March 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  34. ^ Price, Rob (January 31, 2018). "Uber is now letting people in San Francisco rent ebikes on its app". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ Dickey, Megan Rose (April 9, 2018). "Uber acquires bike share startup jump". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ "Uber invests in Lime city scooter hire company'". BBC News. July 9, 2018. Archived from the original on July 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ "Uber to push further into East Africa with services like Chapchap". TRT World. August 18, 2018. Archived from the original on August 20, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ "uberESPAÑOL". Uber. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  39. ^ Abdullah, Zhaki (January 20, 2018). "UberFlash service quick - but not always cheaper". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on July 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  40. ^ "Uber Health FAQ". Uber. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  41. ^ Chathurvedula, Sadhana (December 14, 2016). "Uber launches bike taxi service UberMOTO in Hyderabad". Livemint. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  42. ^ "Uber launches bike-hailing service in Pakistan". The Express Tribune. March 28, 2018. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ "Introducing uberMOTOR". Uber. April 12, 2016. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ "Uber enters Dominican Republic's vast moto-taxi market". Dominican Today. March 16, 2017. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ "Uber and Lyft suspend shared rides to combat the spread of coronavirus". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020.
  46. ^ a b c Ferenstein, Gregory (January 23, 2013). "Ironically, Cab Drivers 'Love' The New UberTaxi in DC". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  47. ^ "uberWAV". Uber. Archived from the original on March 26, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  48. ^ "Uber re-launches Auto service in India". Press Trust of India. Mint. January 9, 2018. Archived from the original on June 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  49. ^ "Uber launches uberAUTO rickshaw service in Karachi". Dawn. November 24, 2016. Archived from the original on February 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  50. ^ Russell, Jon (November 19, 2014). "Uber Wants To Replace India's Iconic Auto Rickshaws With Chauffeured Hatchbacks". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  51. ^ "Uber Elevate: The Future Of Urban Air Transport". Uber. Archived from the original on December 8, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  52. ^ Davies, Alex (October 27, 2016). "Inside Uber's Plan to Take Over the Skies With Flying Cars". Wired. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  53. ^ Talbot, Peter (October 3, 2019). "Uber Launches An App To Connect Job Seekers With Gig Work". NPR. Retrieved 2019.
  54. ^ Statt, Nick (September 6, 2013). "Uber offering rides back in time with DeLorean promotion". CNET. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  55. ^ Ilic, Igor (June 30, 2017). "Uber will now let you hire a speedboat to cruise along the Croatian coast". Business Insider. Reuters. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  56. ^ Basel, Art (November 20, 2016). "Dreading Art Basel traffic? Here's a guide to avoiding Art Week's crush". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  57. ^ Saunders, Hilary (December 3, 2016). "UberBOAT Sets Sail in Time for Art Basel 2015". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  58. ^ D'Orazio, Dante (June 28, 2015). "Uber will help you hail a boat in Istanbul". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on February 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  59. ^ Allen, Samantha (January 27, 2015). "The Mysterious Way Uber Bans Drivers". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  60. ^ Wolfe, Sean (September 5, 2018). "Uber is expanding its six-month ban for passengers with low ratings". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  61. ^ "Uber Will Ban Riders From App If They Repeatedly Misbehave". May 28, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  62. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (May 29, 2019). "Uber will now deactivate riders with below average ratings". The Verge. Retrieved 2019.
  63. ^ "UberEATS - How it Works". Uber. Archived from the original on June 3, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  64. ^ Hardekopf, Bill (October 30, 2017). "This Week In Credit Card News: Uber Launches Its Own Credit Card; Why Companies Push Mobile Payments". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  65. ^ a b Chappell, Bill (July 31, 2018). "Uber Parks Its Self-Driving Truck Project, Saying It Will Push For Autonomous Cars". NPR. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  66. ^ Wiggers, Kyle (August 21, 2018). "Uber Freight expands to small and mid-sized businesses". VentureBeat. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  67. ^ a b Bacon, James (February 3, 2012). "Innovation Uber Alles; Personal-Driver Service Can Revolutionize Transportation Services". The Washington Times. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  68. ^ a b Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (July-August 2013). "Resistance is Futile". Inc.com. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  69. ^ Blystone, Dan. "The Story of Uber". Investopedia. Retrieved 2020.
  70. ^ a b c d Shontell, Alyson (January 11, 2014). "All Hail The Uber Man! How Sharp-Elbowed Salesman Travis Kalanick Became Silicon Valley's Newest Star". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  71. ^ a b Lagorio-Chafkin, Christine (January 15, 2014). "How Uber Is Going To Hire 1,000 People This Year". INC.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  72. ^ Huet, Ellen (December 11, 2014). "Uber's Global Expansion in Five Seconds". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved 2017.
  73. ^ McAlone, Nathan (February 10, 2016). "This is how Uber used to look when it first started out - and how it's changed over time". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  74. ^ "You Can Now Tell Your Uber Black Driver You Don't Want to Talk Before You Even Get in the Car". Travel + Leisure. Retrieved 2020.
  75. ^ Lund, Brian (July 3, 2014). "From Dead-End Job to Uber Billionaire: Meet Ryan Graves". AOL. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  76. ^ Huet, Ellen (March 2, 2015). "Uber Cofounder Garrett Camp, First Hire Ryan Graves Join Forbes Billionaires List". Forbes. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  77. ^ Cellan-Jones, Rory (June 24, 2014). "Uber and Indiegogo - tales of disruption". BBC News. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  78. ^ O'Brien, Danny (January 13, 2012). "New York cab fleecing holds lesson on data versus intuition". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on November 29, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  79. ^ a b Leskin, Avery Hartmans, Paige. "The history of how Uber went from the most feared startup in the world to its massive IPO". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020.
  80. ^ Lacy, Sarah (June 15, 2011). "Uber Out-Maths Google on NYC ETAs". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  81. ^ Rao, Leena (April 18, 2012). "Uber Experiments With Lower-Priced Taxis in Chicago Through Newly Launched Labs Group, 'Garage'". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on January 22, 2018. Retrieved 2017.
  82. ^ O'Brien, Terrence (April 18, 2012). "Uber tackles Taxis in Chicago with Uber Garage experiment". Engadget. Archived from the original on February 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  83. ^ Hahn, Fritz (December 4, 2012). "Uber opens doors in D.C." The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 22, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  84. ^ "Uber - What's Fueling Uber's Growth Engine?". GrowthHackers. Archived from the original on December 14, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  85. ^ "Uber Moves Deeper Into Ride Sharing, Promises To Roll Out Services Where Regulators Have Given 'Tacit Approval'". TechCrunch. April 12, 2013. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  86. ^ Dec 19, Kelsey Brugger Thu; 2013 | 12:00am (December 19, 2013). "Uber Taxi App a Fit for Santa Barbara?". The Santa Barbara Independent. Retrieved 2020.
  87. ^ "See, Uber - This Is What Happens When You Cannibalize Yourself". TechCrunch. March 15, 2013. Archived from the original on July 5, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  88. ^ Lawler, Ryan (September 2, 2014). "Uber Opens Up UberPool To All San Francisco Users". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on April 23, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  89. ^ "Lyft and Uber launch carpool-like services in San Francisco". Los Angeles Times. August 6, 2014. Retrieved 2020.
  90. ^ Schechner, Sam (November 13, 2014). "Uber Launches Car Pooling Service in Paris". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  91. ^ Lowensohn, Josh (December 2, 2014). "Uber begins testing out its carpooling service in New York next week". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved 2017.
  92. ^ "Uber launches UberPool carpool service in China as "Peoples' Uber +"". China Travel News. August 27, 2015. Archived from the original on January 11, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  93. ^ DeCaro, Martin (October 15, 2015). "With Launch Of UberPOOL, Uber Enters Washington's 'Shared Rides' Market". WAMU. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  94. ^ Burgess, Matt (November 30, 2015). "Uber launches uberPOOL ridesharing in London". Wired. Archived from the original on February 12, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  95. ^ Castellanos, Sara (January 12, 2016). "UberPool expanding to Boston suburbs, following surge in demand". American City Business Journals.
  96. ^ "Uber expands uberPOOL to three more Indian cities". The Economic Times. June 5, 2016. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  97. ^ Ho, Victoria (June 20, 2016). "Singaporeans have another way to share rides with strangers with launch of UberPool". Mashable. Archived from the original on February 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  98. ^ Goss, Scott. "Uber launches carpool service in Delaware". delawareonline. Retrieved 2020.
  99. ^ "Uber bringing Express Pool service to Toronto". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2020.
  100. ^ McGee, Jamie (December 19, 2017). "Carpooling expands in Nashville with Lyft Line, uberPOOL". The Tennessean.
  101. ^ Whigham, Nick (April 3, 2018). "UberPOOL to launch in Sydney on April 3". news.com.au. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  102. ^ Thomsen, Simon (April 12, 2018). "Uber rival Ola has launched in Melbourne". Business Insider Australia. Retrieved 2020.
  103. ^ Carson, Biz (March 2, 2016). "Uber's GrubHub killer is finally in the US - here's the inside story on its big bet on food". Business Insider. Archived from the original on August 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  104. ^ Dickey, Megan Rose (January 20, 2016). "Uber's Standalone Food Delivery App Is Coming To The U.S." TechCrunch. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  105. ^ Crabtree, James (February 9, 2018). "Didi Chuxing took on Uber and won. Now it's taking on the world". Wired. Archived from the original on October 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  106. ^ Issac, Mike (August 26, 2016). "How Uber Lost More Than $1 Billion in the First Half of 2016". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  107. ^ Kirby, William (August 2, 2016). "The Real Reason Uber Is Giving Up in China". Harvard Business Review. Archived from the original on January 22, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  108. ^ Said, Carolyn (August 28, 2017). "New Uber CEO will face daunting challenges". San Francisco Chronicle.
  109. ^ Flynn, Kerry (August 28, 2017). "Uber's (probable) new CEO is known to be 'fair and nice,' for a change". Mashable.
  110. ^ "Uber joins Linux Foundation, cementing commitment to open-source tools". TechCrunch. November 15, 2018. Archived from the original on November 16, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  111. ^ "SD Times news digest: Alexa-hosted skills, Uber becomes Gold member of the Linux Foundation, and Oasis Devnet". SD Times. November 19, 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  112. ^ Reitman, Rainey (July 10, 2017). "Who Has Your Back? Government Data Requests 2017". Electronic Frontier Foundation. Archived from the original on September 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  113. ^ Stubbs, Jack (February 7, 2018). "Uber, Yandex complete ride services merger". Reuters.
  114. ^ "Uber sells South East Asia business to Grab". BBC News. March 26, 2018. Archived from the original on June 28, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  115. ^ Waters, Richard; Lucas, Louise (March 26, 2018). "Uber exits south-east Asia with sale to rival Grab". Financial Times. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  116. ^ Keeton-Olsen, Danielle (March 26, 2018). "Grab Officially Takes Control Of Uber's Southeast Asia Operations". Fortune. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  117. ^ Griswold, Alison (November 27, 2018). "Uber shut down its rental car program for Uber riders". Quartz.
  118. ^ Conger, Kate (March 26, 2019). "Uber to Acquire Careem, Its Top Mideast Rival, for $3.1 Billion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  119. ^ Driebusch, Corrie; Farrell, Maureen (May 10, 2019). "Uber IPO Stumbles, Stock Trades Below Offering Price". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2019.
  120. ^ "Uber tanked 11% after logging the biggest first-day dollar loss in US IPO history". markets.businessinsider.com. Retrieved 2019.
  121. ^ "Uber's COO and chief marketing officer are out". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019.
  122. ^ "Uber Operating, Marketing Chiefs Leaving in Leadership Shake-Up". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2020.
  123. ^ Rapier, Graham. "Uber estimates it lost at least $1 billion in the first quarter of 2019". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020.
  124. ^ Uber lost over $5 billion in one quarter, but don't worry, it gets worse
  125. ^ "Ministry of Economy approves Uber's acquisition of Careem". wam. Retrieved 2020.
  126. ^ Newcomer, Eric (July 29, 2019). "Uber, Citing Slowed Growth, Is Cutting One-Third of Its Global Marketing Staff". Fortune. Retrieved 2019.
  127. ^ Conger, Kate (July 29, 2019). "Uber Lays Off 400 as Profitability Doubts Linger After I.P.O." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020.
  128. ^ Uber, losing billions, freezes engineering hires
  129. ^ Dickey, Megan Rose (September 10, 2019). "Uber lays off 435 people across engineering and product teams". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019.
  130. ^ "Uber Makes a Second Round of Employee Cuts, Laying Off 435 From the Engineering and Product Teams". Fortune. Retrieved 2020.
  131. ^ "Uber launches app aimed at connecting workers with businesses". Reuters. October 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  132. ^ Wile, Rob (December 18, 2019). "Uber is about to provide a lot more gig opportunities in Miami-Dade". Miamiherald.com.
  133. ^ "Uber makes JFK airport helicopter taxis available to all users". Reuters. October 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  134. ^ Singh, Pradeep (January 6, 2020). "[Big News] Uber closes the acquisition of Middle-Eastern rival Careem for $3.1 Billion". LAFFAZ. Retrieved 2020.
  135. ^ Heater, Brian (May 6, 2020). "Uber is laying off 3,700 as rides plummet due to COVID-19". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020.
  136. ^ Lombardo, Cara (May 12, 2020). "Uber Technologies Makes Takeover Approach to Grubhub". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2020.
  137. ^ Preetika Rana (May 18, 2020). "Uber Cuts 3,000 More Jobs, Shuts 45 Offices in Coronavirus Crunch". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2020.
  138. ^ Fiegerman, Seth. "Uber to buy Postmates for $2.65 billion". CNN. Retrieved 2020.
  139. ^ Korosec, Kirsten (June 17, 2020). "Uber pushes into on-demand public transit with its first SaaS partnership". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2020.
  140. ^ Griswold, Alison (April 19, 2019). "Uber raised $1 billion for self-driving cars because it desperately needs the money". Quartz. Archived from the original on April 22, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  141. ^ Lowensohn, Josh (May 19, 2015). "Uber gutted Carnegie Mellon's top robotics lab to build self-driving cars - A 'partnership' based on poaching". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  142. ^ Tascarella, Patty (September 14, 2016). "Uber debuts self-driving cars in Pittsburgh, customers including Mayor Bill Peduto taking the first trips on Wednesday morning". American City Business Journals. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  143. ^ Hook, Leslie (September 16, 2016). "Uber's Pittsburgh pitch at a driverless future". Financial Times. Archived from the original on October 30, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  144. ^ Schneider, Avie (December 21, 2016). "Uber Stops Self-Driving Test In California After DMV Pulls Registrations". NPR. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  145. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (February 21, 2017). "Uber's self-driving cars are now picking up passengers in Arizona". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  146. ^ Bensinger, Greg (March 27, 2017). "Uber Resumes Self-Driving-Vehicle Program After Arizona Accident". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  147. ^ Wakabayashi, Daisuke (March 23, 2018). "Uber's Self-Driving Cars Were Struggling Before Arizona Crash". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  148. ^ Gibbs, Samuel (November 20, 2017). "Uber plans to buy 24,000 autonomous Volvo SUVs in self-driving push". The Guardian. Archived from the original on December 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  149. ^ Pollard, Niklas; Somerville, Heather (November 20, 2017). "Volvo Cars to supply Uber with up to 24,000 self-driving cars". Reuters. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  150. ^ a b Sage, Alexandra (March 19, 2018). "Woman dies in Arizona after being hit by Uber self-driving SUV". Reuters.
  151. ^ "Uber parks its self-driving cars after fatal pedestrian crash in Tempe". VentureBeat. March 19, 2018. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  152. ^ "Uber has settled with the family of the homeless victim killed last week". TechCrunch. March 29, 2018. Archived from the original on March 31, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  153. ^ Lee, Timothy (March 20, 2018). "Police chief: Uber self-driving car "likely" not at fault in fatal crash". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on March 20, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  154. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (December 20, 2018). "Uber's self-driving cars return to public roads for the first time since fatal crash". The Verge. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  155. ^ Linder, Courtney (December 18, 2018). "Uber was just approved to resume self-driving tests in Pittsburgh and the rest of the state". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  156. ^ Vella, Erica (December 28, 2018). "Uber's self-driving cars back on the road in Toronto after 9-month hiatus". Global News. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  157. ^ Walker, Max. "Yavapai County Attorney clears Uber in deadly self-driving car crash in Tempe". ABC15 Arizona. Archived from the original on April 26, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  158. ^ a b c "Uber expects a long wait before self-driving cars dominate". VentureBeat. April 9, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  159. ^ "Uber self-driving cars allowed back on California roads". BBC News. February 5, 2020.
  160. ^ "Uber's self-driving car unit was burning $20 million a month". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019.
  161. ^ Isaac, Mike (November 20, 2017). "Uber Strikes Deal With Volvo to Bring Self-Driving Cars to Its Network". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  162. ^ Estes, Adam Clark (November 20, 2017). "Why Uber Just Ordered a Buttload of Volvos". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  163. ^ Isaac, Mike; Wakabayashi, Daisuke (February 24, 2017). "A Lawsuit Against Uber Highlights the Rush to Conquer Driverless Cars". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  164. ^ "A note on our lawsuit against Otto and Uber". Medium. February 23, 2017. Archived from the original on February 27, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  165. ^ Levine, Dan; Somerville, Heather (May 15, 2017). "Uber must return stolen Waymo files, can continue self-driving work: U.S. judge". Reuters. Archived from the original on April 1, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  166. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (February 5, 2018). "Waymo: "We're bringing this case because Uber is cheating"". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  167. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (February 9, 2018). "Silicon Valley's most-watched trial ends as Waymo and Uber settle". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on March 31, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  168. ^ Dickenson, Greg (June 26, 2018). "How the world is going to war with Uber". The Daily Telegraph.
  169. ^ Berger, Paul; Gottfried, Miriam (January 17, 2018). "Hedge Fund Bets on Beaten-Up New York Taxi Business". The Wall Street Journal.
  170. ^ Tansey, Bernadette (July 17, 2015). "Sharing Economy Companies Sharing the Heat in Contractor Controversy". Xconomy.
  171. ^ "The gig-economy: Uber good or Uber bad?". Canadian Labour Congress. May 12, 2015.
  172. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (March 12, 2019). "Uber settles driver classification lawsuit for $20 million". The Verge.
  173. ^ Griswold, Alison (October 28, 2016). "A British court rules Uber drivers have workers' rights in the "employment case of the decade"". Quartz.
  174. ^ Between (1) Mr Y Aslam (2) Mr J Farrar & Others and (1) Uber B.V. (2) Uber London Ltd (3) Uber Britannia Ltd (PDF) (Report). Employment Tribunals. October 28, 2016. Case Nos: 2202550/2015 & Others.
  175. ^ "Uber loses latest legal bid over driver rights". BBC News. December 19, 2018.
  176. ^ "Swiss authorities say Uber drivers should be treated as 'employees'". Swissinfo. March 19, 2018.
  177. ^ "California's top court makes it more difficult for employers to classify workers as independent contractors". Los Angeles Times. May 1, 2018.
  178. ^ Conger, Kate; Scheiber, Noam (September 11, 2019). "California Passes Landmark Bill to Remake Gig Economy". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  179. ^ Canon, Gabrielle. "California's controversial labor bill has passed. Experts forecast more worker rights, higher prices for services". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2019.
  180. ^ "A bill giving workplace protection to a million Californians moves one step closer to law". Los Angeles Times. August 30, 2019.
  181. ^ "Uber defiant as gig workers on verge of becoming employees under AB 5". The Mercury News. September 11, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  182. ^ Brustein, Joshua (December 4, 2018). "New York Sets Nation's First Minimum Wage for Uber, Lyft Drivers". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2019.
  183. ^ Note, Recent Case: Ninth Circuit Holds Collective Bargaining Ordinance Not Entitled to State Action Immunity, 132 Harv. L. Rev. 2360 (2019).
  184. ^ Chamber of Commerce v. City of Seattle, 890 F.3d 769 (9th Cir. 2018).
  185. ^ Newcomer, Eric (May 15, 2017). "Uber Starts Charging What It Thinks You're Willing to Pay". Bloomberg News.
  186. ^ Kerr, Dara (August 23, 2015). "Detest Uber's surge pricing? Some drivers don't like it either". CNET.
  187. ^ Carson, Biz (June 23, 2016). "Uber will stop showing the surge price that it charges for rides". Business Insider.
  188. ^ Bosker, Bianca (October 31, 2012). "Uber Rethinks New York 'Surge Pricing,' But Doubles Driver Pay". HuffPost.
  189. ^ Mazza, Ed (December 15, 2014). "Uber Raises Fares During Sydney Hostage Crisis, Then Offers Free Rides". HuffPost.
  190. ^ "Uber has refunded passengers after London Bridge terror attack". BBC News. June 5, 2017.
  191. ^ Fitzgerald Rodriguez, Joe (December 11, 2016). "SF blasts Uber, Lyft for downtown traffic congestion". The San Francisco Examiner.
  192. ^ Fitzsimmons, Emma G.; Hu, Winnie (March 6, 2017). "The Downside of Ride-Hailing: More New York City Gridlock". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
  193. ^ "The New Automobility: Lyft, Uber and the Future of American Cities" (PDF). Schaller Consulting. July 25, 2018.
  194. ^ Wolfe, Sean (July 27, 2018). "Uber and Lyft are creating more traffic and congestion instead of reducing it, according to a new report". Business Insider.
  195. ^ Zhang, Ruda; Ghanem, Roger (2019). "Demand, Supply, and Performance of Street-Hail Taxi". IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems: 1-10. arXiv:1909.12861. Bibcode:2019arXiv190912861Z. doi:10.1109/TITS.2019.2938762.
  196. ^ Badger, Emily (October 16, 2017). "Is Uber Helping or Hurting Mass Transit?". The New York Times.
  197. ^ Liang, Jiayu (Spring 2020). "Ride-Hailing: Convenience at What Cost?" (PDF). Catalyst. 20: 10.
  198. ^ Said, Carolyn (February 27, 2018). "Uber does not have enough wheelchair-accessible vehicles, new lawsuit says". San Francisco Chronicle.
  199. ^ Jacks, Timna (January 11, 2019). "Uber drivers complain they are forced to break the law to do their job.So that means that the drivers put the passenger in danger to which is against the law". Sydney Morning Herald.
  200. ^ Paul, Sanjukta (October 19, 2019). "The Firm Exemption and the Hierarchy of Finance in the Gig Economy". Retrieved 2020.
  201. ^ Steinbaum, Marshall (June 18, 2019). "Antitrust, the Gig Economy, and Labor Market Power". SSRN 3347949. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  202. ^ Gordon, Aaron (September 19, 2019). "The Legal Argument That Could Destroy Uber Is About To Be Tested". Retrieved 2020.
  203. ^ "Uber loses appeal over driver employment rights". The Guardian. March 6, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  204. ^ "Swiss court declares driver an Uber employee". France 24. May 6, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  205. ^ "'I made $3.75 an hour': Lyft and Uber drivers push to unionize for better pay". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019.
  206. ^ "Uber and the labor market". Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved 2019.
  207. ^ "profil.at > Österreich Die Straßenkämpfer: Ein Uber-Fahrer-Report". Profil. May 24, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  208. ^ "Taxi-Konkurrent Uber: Am Rande des Gesetzes". Trend. Retrieved 2019.
  209. ^ "Only 4% of Uber drivers remain on the platform a year later, says report". CNBC. April 20, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  210. ^ "Uber has to pay New Jersey nearly $650 million in employment taxes". Engadget. Retrieved 2019.
  211. ^ Bartz, Diane (January 19, 2017). "Uber to pay $20 million to settle U.S. claims it misled drivers". Reuters. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  212. ^ Carson, Biz (January 20, 2017). "Uber to pay $20 million to FTC to settle claims that it exaggerated how much drivers could make". Business Insider. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  213. ^ Huet, Ellen (January 19, 2017). "Uber to Pay $20 Million to Settle FTC Suit Over Driver Pay". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on January 20, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  214. ^ Lien, Tracey (February 19, 2018). "Uber class-action lawsuit over how drivers were paid gets green light from judge". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 13, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  215. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (May 23, 2017). "Uber admits underpaying New York City drivers by millions of dollars". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 9, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  216. ^ O'Kane, Sean (March 20, 2018). "Uber drivers denied service to woman with cerebral palsy, new lawsuit claims". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  217. ^ Fingas, Jon (March 21, 2018). "Uber faces lawsuit for denying rides to woman with service animal". Engadget. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  218. ^ Siddiqui, Falz (January 29, 2017). "Uber triggers protest for collecting fares during taxi strike against refugee ban". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 3, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  219. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Segall, Laurie (February 2, 2017). "Uber CEO drops out of Trump's business advisory council". CNN. Archived from the original on November 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  220. ^ Carson, Biz (February 2, 2017). "Over 200,000 people deleted Uber after the company operated its service at JFK airport during the Trump strike". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  221. ^ Isaac, Mike (January 31, 2017). "What You Need to Know About #DeleteUber". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  222. ^ Molina, Brett (February 2, 2017). "Uber has an immigration message if you #DeleteUber". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 27, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  223. ^ Etherington, Darrell (February 2, 2017). "Uber CEO Travis Kalanick quits Donald Trump's business advisory council". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on September 17, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  224. ^ Weise, Karen (June 24, 2015). "How Uber Took Over Portland". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  225. ^ Walker, Edward T. (August 7, 2015). "The Uber-ization of Activism". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 18, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  226. ^ MacMillan, Douglas; Fleisher, Lisa (January 29, 2015). "How Sharp-Elbowed Uber Is Trying to Make Nice". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 20, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  227. ^ Boxwell, Robert (July 9, 2015). "Uber on a collision course with China's taxi drivers and cartels". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  228. ^ Aratani, Lori (June 6, 2014). "Uber mobilizes its users to fight ban in Virginia". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  229. ^ Helderman, Rosalind S. (December 13, 2014). "Uber pressures regulators by mobilizing riders and hiring vast lobbying network". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  230. ^ O'Brien, Sara Ashley (November 7, 2017). "New from Uber: 'We do the right thing. Period.'". CNN. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  231. ^ Patrick McGee [https://www.ft.com/content/3c3d0028-2b74-11ea-bc77-65e4aa615551 " Uber and Postmates sue California over labour law ", Financial Times, 31 December 2019
  232. ^ D'Orazio, Dante (January 24, 2014). "Uber employees spammed competing car service with fake orders". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  233. ^ Newton, Casey (August 26, 2014). "This is Uber's playbook for sabotaging Lyft". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on September 2, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  234. ^ Shontell, Alyson (August 26, 2014). "OperationSLOG: Uber's Aggressive Plan To Steal Lyft Drivers, Revealed". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  235. ^ Fink, Erica (August 12, 2014). "Uber's dirty tricks quantified: Rival counts 5,560 canceled rides". CNN Business. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  236. ^ Khaw, Cassandra (August 12, 2014). "Uber accused of booking 5,560 fake Lyft rides". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on November 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  237. ^ a b c Isaac, Mike (March 3, 2017). "How Uber Deceives the Authorities Worldwide". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  238. ^ Timberg, Craig; Fung, Brian (March 3, 2017). "Uber's secret 'Greyball' program shows just how far it will go to get its way". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on April 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  239. ^ Njus, Elliot (March 6, 2017). "Portland to investigate Uber's 'Greyball' scheme to thwart regulators". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  240. ^ "Transportation Network Companies: Regulation Evasion Audit". Portland Bureau of Transportation. April 28, 2017. Archived from the original on May 3, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  241. ^ Njus, Elliot (April 27, 2017). "Portland may subpoena Uber over regulator-dodging 'Greyball' software". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  242. ^ della Cava, Marco (March 8, 2017). "Uber admits its ghost driver 'Greyball' tool was used to thwart regulators, vows to stop". USA Today. Archived from the original on April 28, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  243. ^ Sullivan, Joe (March 8, 2017). "An update on "greyballing"". Uber. Archived from the original on March 29, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  244. ^ Levine, Dan; Menn, Joseph (May 5, 2017). "Exclusive: Uber faces criminal probe over software used to evade authorities". Reuters.
  245. ^ Zaleski, Olivia; Newcomer, Eric (January 11, 2018). "Uber's Secret Tool for Keeping the Cops in the Dark". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  246. ^ Matousek, Mark (January 11, 2018). "Uber reportedly disrupted government investigations for almost 2 years with a 'secret' system called 'Ripley'". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  247. ^ Solon, Olivia (January 11, 2018). "Uber developed secret system to lock down staff computers in a police raid". The Guardian. Archived from the original on January 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  248. ^ Biggs, John (November 19, 2014). "Senator Al Franken Asks Uber's CEO Tough Questions on User Privacy". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  249. ^ Hern, Alex (November 20, 2014). "US Senator Al Franken pushes Uber for answers on privacy fiasco". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  250. ^ Issac, Mike (November 19, 2014). "Uber's Privacy Practices Questioned by Senator Franken". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  251. ^ Bhuiyan, Johana; Warzel, Charlie (November 18, 2014). ""God View": Uber Investigates Its Top New York Executive For Privacy Violations". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  252. ^ Timberg, Craig (December 1, 2014). "Is Uber's rider database a sitting duck for hackers?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  253. ^ Guess, Megan (February 28, 2015). "50,000 Uber driver names, license plate numbers exposed in a data breach". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on November 25, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  254. ^ Taylor, Colleen (February 22, 2015). "Uber Database Breach Exposed Information Of 50,000 Drivers, Company Confirms". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on December 30, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  255. ^ Lee, Dave (November 22, 2017). "Uber concealed huge data breach". BBC News. Archived from the original on June 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  256. ^ Farivar, Cyrus (November 21, 2017). "Hackers hit Uber in 2016: data on 57 million riders, drivers stolen". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  257. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (November 22, 2017). "Uber faces slew of investigations in wake of 'outrageous' data hack cover-up". The Guardian. Archived from the original on November 22, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  258. ^ "Uber Paid Hackers to Delete Stolen Data on 57 Million People". Bloomberg News. November 21, 2017. Archived from the original on November 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  259. ^ Liedtke, Michael (November 22, 2017). "Uber reveals coverup of hack affecting 57M riders, drivers". Financial Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  260. ^ "Monetary Penalty Notice (Uber)" (PDF). Information Commissioner's Office. November 27, 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 28, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  261. ^ Al-Muslim, Aisha (September 26, 2018). "Uber to Pay $148 Million Penalty to Settle 2016 Data Breach". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on September 27, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  262. ^ "Uber Agrees to Expanded Settlement with FTC Related to Privacy, Security Claims". Federal Trade Commission (Press release). April 12, 2018. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  263. ^ Fung, Brian (September 26, 2018). "Uber reaches $148 million settlement over its 2016 data breach, which affected 57 million globally". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  264. ^ LaFrance, Adrienne; Eveleth, Rose (March 3, 2015). "Are Taxis Safer Than Uber?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on April 5, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  265. ^ "Beirut killing reignites concerns about Uber safety". Financial Times. December 19, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  266. ^ "They Thought It Was Their Uber. But the Driver Was a Predator". The New York Times. April 4, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  267. ^ Butler, Sarah; Topham, Gwyn (September 23, 2017). "Uber stripped of London licence due to lack of corporate responsibility". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019.
  268. ^ Yurieff, Kaya (November 20, 2017). "Uber fined $8.9 million in Colorado for problematic background checks". CNN. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  269. ^ "Uber loses licence to operate in London". The Guardian. November 25, 2019.
  270. ^ "Uber's License to Operate in London Isn't Extended". New York Times. November 25, 2019.
  271. ^ "Uber stripped of London operating licence, again". Reuters. November 25, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  272. ^ Kerr, Dara. "Some Uber drivers aren't who you think they are". CNET. Retrieved 2019.
  273. ^ Matters, Transport for London | Every Journey. "Uber London Limited found to be not fit and proper to hold a private hire operator licence". Transport for London. Retrieved 2019.
  274. ^ Durbin, Dee-Anne; Krisher, Tom (February 23, 2016). "Uber defends driver screening in wake of Kalamazoo shootings". CBC News. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  275. ^ Kosoff, Maya (February 20, 2017). "Uber C.E.O. Orders "Urgent Investigation" into Sexual Harassment Allegations". Vanity Fair. Archived from the original on July 13, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  276. ^ Isaac, Mike (February 22, 2017). "Inside Uber's Aggressive, Unrestrained Workplace Culture". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  277. ^ Efrati, Amir (June 23, 2017). "How Uber's Top Engineer Saved His Job". TheInformation. Archived from the original on September 3, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  278. ^ Anand, Priya (June 26, 2017). "Top Uber Engineer, Under Pressure, Tells Staff "I Take All Concerns Raised To Me Extremely Seriously"". BuzzFeed. Archived from the original on June 19, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  279. ^ Overly, Steven (February 21, 2017). "Uber hires Eric Holder to investigate sexual harassment claims". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on February 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  280. ^ Lee, David (February 25, 2017). "Uber's mess reaches beyond sexism - and Silicon Valley". BBC News. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  281. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (March 7, 2017). "Uber's 'hustle-oriented' culture becomes a black mark on employees' résumés". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 10, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  282. ^ Lacey, Sarah; Illing, Sean (February 28, 2017). "Uber and the problem of Silicon Valley's bro culture". Vox. Archived from the original on June 19, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  283. ^ Isaac, Mike (February 22, 2017). "Inside Uber's Aggressive, Unrestrained Workplace Culture". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  284. ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (February 21, 2017). "Uber employees say all-hands meeting about sexism allegations was 'honest, raw, and emotional'". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on August 16, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  285. ^ Isaac, Mike (February 27, 2017). "Amit Singhal, Uber Executive Linked to Old Harassment Claim, Resigns". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  286. ^ Ghoshal, Devjyot (February 28, 2017). "The rise and fall of Amit Singhal, the former Google star just fired by Uber". Quartz. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  287. ^ Swisher, Kara (February 27, 2017). "Uber's SVP of engineering is out after he did not disclose he left Google in a dispute over a sexual harassment allegation". Recode. Archived from the original on October 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  288. ^ Marinova, Polina (February 27, 2017). "Uber Exec Resigns After Sexual Harassment Allegations Surface From His Time at Google". Fortune. Archived from the original on March 3, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  289. ^ "Uber executive resigns after failing to disclose prior sexual harassment claim". The Guardian. Associated Press. February 27, 2017. Archived from the original on January 30, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  290. ^ Solon, Olivia (June 7, 2016). "Uber fires more than 20 employees after sexual harassment investigation". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on June 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  291. ^ Marinova, Polina (June 6, 2017). "Uber Fires More Than 20 Employees After Harassment Investigation: Report". Fortune. Archived from the original on June 8, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  292. ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (June 13, 2017). "Embattled Uber CEO Travis Kalanick takes indefinite leave of absence". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 13, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  293. ^ Bensinger, Greg (June 13, 2017). "Uber CEO Travis Kalanick to Take Leave of Absence". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  294. ^ Isaac, Mike (June 21, 2017). "Uber Founder Travis Kalanick Resigns as C.E.O.". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 21, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  295. ^ Segall, Laurie (June 21, 2017). "Travis Kalanick resigns as Uber CEO after months of crisis". CNN. Archived from the original on August 31, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  296. ^ Rose, Joseph (April 21, 2015). "Portland makes Uber and Lyft legal - for now". OregonLive.com. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  297. ^ Lacy, Sarah (October 22, 2014). "The horrific trickle down of Asshole culture: Why I've just deleted Uber from my phone". PandoDaily. Archived from the original on September 10, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  298. ^ Smith, Ben (November 17, 2014). "Uber Executive Suggests Digging Up Dirt On Journalists". Buzzfeed. Archived from the original on September 17, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  299. ^ Peterson, Andrea (November 19, 2014). "Uber's terrible, horrible, no good, very bad day". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on June 25, 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  300. ^ Isaac, Mike (November 18, 2014). "Uber Executive Proposes Digging into Journalists' Private Lives". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 3, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  301. ^ Lacy, Sarah (November 17, 2014). "The moment I learned just how far Uber will go to silence journalists and attack women". PandoDaily. Archived from the original on September 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  302. ^ Lacy, Sarah (November 14, 2017). "Uber Executive Said the Company Would Spend 'A Million Dollars' to Shut Me Up". Time. Archived from the original on July 28, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  303. ^ Valencia, Faith (November 20, 2014). "Love it or loathe it, Uber is punching above its weight". The Conversation. Archived from the original on November 22, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  304. ^ Griswold, Alison (June 12, 2017). "Uber's most scandal-ridden exec is out - and it's not Travis Kalanick". Quartz. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  305. ^ O'Brien, Sara Ashley (August 22, 2018). "Uber to pay 56 workers $1.9 million for harassment and discrimination claims". CNN. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  306. ^ Staudenmaier, Rebecca (November 5, 2017). "'Paradise papers' expose tax evasion schemes of the global elite". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on August 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  307. ^ "Offshore Trove Exposes Trump-Russia Links And Piggy Banks Of The Wealthiest 1 Percent". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. November 5, 2017. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  308. ^ "Uber CEO in hot water after calling Saudi journalist's killing 'a mistake'". Silicon Valley. Retrieved 2019.
  309. ^ Wolff, Michael (December 22, 2013). "Wolff: The tech company of the year is Uber". USA Today. Archived from the original on September 7, 2017. Retrieved 2017.

Further reading

Scholarly papers

Books

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Uber
 



 



 
Music Scenes