|340,000 (2010 census)|
Official language in
Udmurt ( , udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian. It is written using the Cyrillic alphabet with the addition of five characters not used in the Russian orthography: ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, and ?/?. Together with Komi and Komi-Permyak languages, it constitutes the Permic grouping of the Uralic family. Among outsiders, it has traditionally been referred to by its Russian exonym, Votyak. Udmurt has borrowed vocabulary from neighboring languages Tatar and Russian.
Udmurt varieties can be grouped in three broad dialect groups:
The differences between the dialects are regardless not major, and mainly involve differences in vocabulary, largely attributable to the stronger influence of Tatar in the southern end of the Udmurt-speaking area. A few differences in morphology and phonology still exist as well, e.g.
|?||?||d, ?||[d]; palatal [d?] when followed by ?, ?, ?, ?, ? or ?|
|?||?||e, je||[je]; [?e] when preceded by ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, or ?||?|
|?||?||jo||[jo]; [?o] when preceded by ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, or ?||?|
|?||?||z, ?||[z]; palatal [?] when followed by ?, ?, ?, ?, ? or ?|
|?||?||i||[i]; [?i] when preceded by ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, or ?||?|
|?||?||ï||[i] when preceded by ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, or ?||? ?, ? ("dotted i")|
|?||?||j||[j]||? ("short i")|
|?||?||l, ?||[?]; palatal [?] when followed by ?, ?, ?, ?, ? or ?|
|?||?||n, ?||[n]; palatal [?] when followed by ?, ?, ?, ?, ? or ?|
|?||?||ö||[? ~ ?]||?|
|?||?||s, ?||[s]; palatal [?] when followed by ?, ?, ?, ?, ? or ?|
|?||?||t, ?||[t]; palatal [t?] when followed by ?, ?, ?, ?, ? or ?|
|?||?||y||[? ~ ?]||?|
|?||?||ju||[ju]; [?u] when preceded by ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, or ?||?|
|?||?||ja||[j?];  when preceded by ?, ?, ?, ?, ?, or ?||?|
The language does not distinguish between long and short vowels and does not have vowel harmony.
The consonants /f x t?s/ are restricted to loanwords, and are traditionally replaced by /p k t/ respectively.
No gender distinction is made in nouns or in personal pronouns
Udmurt has fifteen cases: eight grammatical cases and seven locative cases.
There is no congruency between adjectives and nouns in neutral Udmurt noun phrases, i.e. there is no adjective declension as in the inessive noun phrase ?, 'in a large/big village' (cf. Finnish inessive phrase isossa kylässä 'in a large/big village', in which iso 'big/large' is inflected according to the head noun).
|of a village / village's|
|village (as an object)|
|from a village|
|to a village|
|by means of a village|
|without a village|
|in a village way|
|in a village|
|into a village (or house)|
|from a village|
|starting from a village|
|end up at a village|
|along a village|
|towards a village|
*Of all the locative cases, personal pronouns can only inflect in the allative (also called approximative).
There are two types of nominal plurals in Udmurt. One is the plural for nouns -/-ë? and the other is the plural for adjectives -/-.
The noun is always in plural. In attributive plural phrases, the adjective is not required to be in the plural:
|() ?ë?||(the) beautiful girls|
The plural marker always comes before other endings (i.e. cases and possessive suffixes) in the morphological structure of plural nominal.
|?ë?||to the girls|
|??ë?||to/in their villages|
|?ë?||the girls are beautiful|
|the winters are cold|
Udmurt pronouns are inflected much in the same way that their referent nouns are. However, personal pronouns are only inflected in the grammatical cases and cannot be inflected in the locative cases.
Somewhat like in English, Udmurt personal pronouns are used to refer to human beings only. However, the third person singular can be referred to it. The nominative case of personal pronouns are listed in the following table:
|/so/||she or he or it|
Udmurt interrogative pronouns inflect in all cases. However, the inanimate interrogative pronouns 'what' in the locative cases have the base form -. The nominative case of interrogative pronouns are listed in the following table:
|Interrogative pronouns (nominative case)|
There are three verbal moods in Udmurt: indicative, conditional and imperative. There is also an optative mood used in certain dialects. The indicative mood has four tenses: present, future, and two past tenses. In addition there are four past tense structures which include auxiliary verbs. Verbs are negated by use of an auxiliary negative verb that conjugates with personal endings.
The basic verbal personal markers in Udmurt are (with some exceptions):
|Personal endings of verbs|
|Example conjugation: (conjugation I)|
*The present tense in Udmurt in all but the third person, is marked with -(?)?-/-(?)?-.
Udmurt is an SOV language.
The Udmurt language itself, together with the Tatar language, influenced the language of the Udmurt Jews, in the dialects of which the words of Finno-Ugric and Turkic origin there were recorded.
The romantic comedy film Berry-Strawberry, a joint Polish-Udmurt production, is in the Udmurt language.