Udmurtia
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Udmurtia
Udmurt Republic
? ?
Other transcription(s)
 o Udmurt ?
Anthem: National Anthem of the Udmurt Republic
Map of Russia - Udmurtia.svg
Coordinates: 57°17?N 52°45?E / 57.283°N 52.750°E / 57.283; 52.750Coordinates: 57°17?N 52°45?E / 57.283°N 52.750°E / 57.283; 52.750
CountryRussia
Federal districtVolga[1]
Economic regionUrals[2]
EstablishedDecember 28, 1934[3]
CapitalIzhevsk
Government
 o BodyState Council[4]
 o Head[4]Alexander Brechalov
Area
 o Total42,100 km2 (16,300 sq mi)
Population
(2010 Census)[6]
 o Total1,521,420
 o Estimate 
(2018)[7]
1,513,044 (-0.6%)
 o Rank30th
 o Density36/km2 (94/sq mi)
 o Urban
69.2%
 o Rural
30.8%
Time zoneUTC+4 (MSK+1 Edit this on Wikidata[8])
ISO 3166 codeRU-UD
License plates18
OKTMO ID94000000
Official languagesRussian;[9] Udmurt[10]
Websitehttp://www.udmurt.ru/en/

Udmurtia (Russian: , tr. Udmúrtiya, IPA: [?'dmurtj?]; Udmurt: ), or the Udmurt Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) within the Volga Federal District. Its capital is the city of Izhevsk. Population: 1,521,420 (2010 Census).[6]

History

Map of the Udmurt Republic.

On November 4, 1920, the Votyak Autonomous Oblast was formed.[3] On January 1, 1932, it was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast,[] which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934.[3] During World War II, many industrial factories were evacuated from Ukraine and western borderlands to Udmurtia.

Geography

The republic is located to the west of the Ural Mountains and borders Kirov, Perm, Bashkortostan, and Tatarstan.[11]

Udmurtia is a republic in the Russian Federation, located in Central Russia between the branches of two of the largest and oldest rivers in Europe: the Kama and its right tributary the Vyatka.

The city of Izhevsk is the administrative, industrial and cultural center of Udmurtia. Geographically, it is located not far from Moscow, the capital and largest city of the Russian Federation. The city has a well developed transport system (including air, land and water).

On the west and north the Udmurtia borders the Kirov Oblast, on the east the Perm Oblast, and on the south the Bashkortostan and Tatarstan Republics.

Climate

The republic has a moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow.[]

Average temperatures
Month Average temperature
January -14.5 °C (5.9 °F)
July +18.3 °C (64.9 °F)

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population: ;[6];[12].[13]

Although as of 2007 the population was declining, the decline was stabilizing and was more pronounced in urban areas. Out of the 19,667 births reported in 2007, 12,631 were in urban areas (11.86 per 1000) and 7,036 were in rural areas (14.88 per 1000). Birth rates for rural areas are 25% higher than that of urban areas. Of the total of 21,727 deaths, 14,366 were reported in urban areas (13.49 per 1000) and 7,361 were in rural areas (15.56 per 1000). Natural decline of population was measured at -0.16% for urban areas and an insignificant -0.07% for rural areas (average for Russia was -0.33% in 2007).[14]

Settlements

Vital statistics

Source[15]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1970 1,421 23,286 13,265 10,021 16.4 9.3 7.1
1975 1,459 26,497 14,666 11,831 18.2 10.1 8.1
1980 1,508 27,601 16,862 10,739 18.3 11.2 7.1
1985 1,562 29,343 17,553 11,790 18.8 11.2 7.5
1990 1,614 24,345 15,816 8,529 15.1 9.8 5.3 2.04
1991 1,619 22,213 16,002 6,211 13.7 9.9 3.8 1.90
1992 1,623 20,074 18,063 2,011 12.4 11.1 1.2 1.73
1993 1,622 17,126 21,923 -4,797 10.6 13.5 -3.0 1.48
1994 1,619 16,874 24,183 -7,309 10.4 14.9 -4.5 1.45
1995 1,615 15,484 22,445 -6,961 9.6 13.9 -4.3 1.32
1996 1,610 14,877 20,641 -5,764 9.2 12.8 -3.6 1.26
1997 1,606 15,368 19,881 -4,513 9.6 12.4 -2.8 1.30
1998 1,603 16,130 19,080 -2,950 10.1 11.9 -1.8 1.36
1999 1,598 15,793 20,745 -4,952 9.9 13.0 -3.1 1.32
2000 1,592 16,256 21,852 -5,596 10.2 13.7 -3.5 1.36
2001 1,583 16,636 22,810 -6,174 10.5 14.4 -3.9 1.38
2002 1,572 17,746 24,520 -6,774 11.3 15.6 -4.3 1.46
2003 1,561 17,982 24,571 -6,589 11.5 15.7 -4.2 1.47
2004 1,552 18,238 23,994 -5,756 11.7 15.5 -3.7 1.47
2005 1,543 17,190 24,006 -6,816 11.1 15.6 -4.4 1.38
2006 1,535 17,480 22,011 -4,531 11.4 14.3 -3.0 1.40
2007 1,529 19,667 21,727 -2,060 12.9 14.2 -1.3 1.57
2008 1,525 20,421 21,436 -1,015 13.4 14.1 -0.7 1.65
2009 1,523 21,109 20,227 882 13.9 13.3 0.6 1.71
2010 1,522 21,684 21,100 584 14.3 13.9 0.4 1.78
2011 1,519 21,905 20,358 1,547 14.4 13.4 1.0 1.83
2012 1,518 23,225 19,526 3,699 15.3 12.9 2.4 1.98
2013 1,517 22,138 19,332 2,806 14.6 12.7 1.9 1.92
2014 1,517 22,060 19,461 2,599 14.5 12.8 1.7 1.96
2015 1,517 22,195 19,533 2,662 14.6 12.9 1.7 2.01
2016 1,517 21,024 19,090 1,934 13.8 12.6 1.2 1.96
2017 1,515 17,954 18,130 -176 11.9 12.0 -0.1 1.72

TFR source[16]

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census,[6]Russians make up 62.2% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Udmurts make up only 28%. Other groups include Tatars (6.7%), Ukrainians (0.6%), Mari (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the republic's total population.

Ethnic
group
1970 Census[] 1979 Census[] 1989 Census[] 2002 Census[] 2010 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Udmurts 484,168 34.2% 479,702 32.1% 496,522 30.9% 460,584 29.3% 410,584 28.0%
Besermyan 2,998 0.2% 2,111 0.1%
Russians 809,563 57.1% 870,270 58.3% 945,216 58.9% 944,108 60.1% 912,539 62.2%
Tatars 87,150 6.1% 99,139 6.6% 110,490 6.9% 109,218 7.0% 98,831 6.7%
Others 36,794 2.6% 43,061 2.9% 53,435 3.3% 53,408 3.4% 42,558 2.9%
154,797 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[17]

Over two-thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in the republic.[18]

Religion

Religion in Udmurtia as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[19][20]
Russian Orthodoxy
33.1%
Other Orthodox
2.4%
Old Believers
0.9%
Protestantism
1.4%
Other Christians
5.3%
Islam
4.3%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
1.5%
Spiritual but not religious
29%
Atheism and irreligion
19.1%
Other and undeclared
3%

According to a 2012 survey,[19] 33.1% of the population of Udmurtia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, 4% are Muslims, 2% of the population adheres to the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery) or to Udmurt Vos (Udmurt native faith), 1% adheres to forms of Protestantism, and 1% of the population are Old Believers. In addition, 29% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 19% is atheist, and 3.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[19]

The local Russian Orthodox Church is the Metropolitanate of Udmurtia, comprising the Eparchy of Izhevsk (founded 1927) under Bishop and Metropolitan Viktorin (Kostenkov) (2015), the Eparchy of Glazov (founded 1889) under Bishop Viktor (Sergeyev) and the Eparchy of Sarapul (founded 1868) under Bishop Anthony (Prostikhin) (2015) <https://ru.www.popflock.com/learn?s=>.

Jews in Udmurtia

Udmurt Jews are a special territorial group of the Ashkenazi Jews, which started to be formed in the residential areas of mixed Turkic-speaking (Tatars, Kryashens, Bashkirs, Chuvash people), Finno-Ugric-speaking (Udmurts, Mari people) and Slavic-speaking (Russians) population. The Ashkenazi Jews on the territory of the Udmurt Republic first appeared in the 1830s.[21][22][23][24] The Udmurt Jewry had formed the local variety on the base of the Yiddish of Udmurtia till the 1930s and features of Yiddish of migrants "joined" into it (in the 1930s and 1940s);[25] as a result up to the 1970s and 1980s the Udmurt variety of Yiddish (Udmurtish) was divided into two linguistic subgroups: the central subgroup (with centers Izhevsk, Sarapul, and Votkinsk) and the southern subgroup (with centers Kambarka, Alnashi, Agryz and Naberezhnye Chelny).[25] One of the characteristic features of the Udmurtish is a noticeable number of Udmurt and Tatar loan words.[26][27]

Culture

St. Michael's Cathedral is one of the main churches of Udmurtia

References

Notes

  1. ^ ? . ? No849  13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No. 20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ ? . No 024-95 27 ? 1995 ?. « ? ? . 2. ? », ? . No5/2001 ?. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b c Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987., p. 57
  4. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.1
  5. ^ ? (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "?, ?, ? ? ? ? ? (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". ? 2002 ? (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011.
  6. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "? 2010 ?.  1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  7. ^ "26. ? ? 1 2018 ?". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution, Article 8
  11. ^ Robert W. Orttung; et al. (2000). "Republic of Udmurtia". The Republics and Regions of the Russian Federation: A Guide to Politics, Policies and Leaders. EastWest Institute. p. 586.
  12. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). " , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ?" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  13. ^ "? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -?" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  14. ^ "?:: ?".
  15. ^ "? ?:: ?".
  16. ^ "".
  17. ^ "-2010".
  18. ^ "General Information". Land and People. Udmurtia Official. Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  20. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", No 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  21. ^ ? ?.?., "? ?, , ..." ? ?. 2001. No11. ?. 18. (in Russian)
  22. ^ ?., "? ". . 2009. No1 (201). (in Russian)
  23. ^ ? ?.?., " ". (in Russian)
  24. ^ ?.,". ? ? ?. . 2012. No 8. ?. 47. (in Russian)
  25. ^ a b Altyntsev A.V., "The Concept of Love in Ashkenazim of Udmurtia and Tatarstan", Nauka Udmurtii. 2013. no. 4 (66), p. 131. ( ?.?., "? ? - ? ?". . 2013. No4. ?. 131?.) (in Russian)
  26. ^ Goldberg-Altyntsev A.V., "A short ethnographic overview of the Ashkenazic Jews' group in Alnashsky District of Udmurt Republic". Die Sammlung der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten der jungen jüdischen Wissenschaftler. Herausgegeben von Artur Katz, Yumi Matsuda und Alexander Grinberg. München, Dachau, 2015. S. 51.
  27. ^ - ?.?., "? ? ? ? / . ? ?. . ?.?. ?." Jewish studies in the Udmurt Republic: Online. Part 1. Edited by A. Greenberg. February 27, 2015 published. P. 3. (in Russian)

Sources

  • No663-XII 7 ? 1994 ?. « ? ?», ? . No62-  22 2007 ?. (#663-XII December 7, 1994 Constitution of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #62-RZ of November 22, 2007. ).
  • "?. - ? ? . 1987." (USSR. Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Union Republics. 1987) / ?. ?. ?, ?. ?. ?. -- ?.: - « ? ?», 1987. -- 673 ?.

Further reading

External links

Media related to Udmurtia at Wikimedia Commons


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