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Ultranationalism is "extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others", or simply "extreme devotion to one's own nation". When combined with the notion of national rebirth, ultranationalism is a key foundation of fascism. Some ultranationalist organisations have been designated as terrorist movements by certain nation states.
According to Janusz Bugajski, "in its most extreme or developed forms, ultra-nationalism resembles fascism, marked by a xenophobic disdain of other nations, support for authoritarian political arrangements verging on totalitarianism, and a mythical emphasis on the 'organic unity' between a charismatic leader, an organizationally amorphous movement-type party, and the nation".
Roger Griffin asserts that ultranationalism is essentially xenophobic and is known to legitimise itself "through deeply mythicized narratives of past cultural or political periods of historical greatness or of old scores to settle against alleged enemies". It can also draw on "vulgarized forms of physical anthropology, genetics, and eugenics to rationalize ideas of national superiority and destiny, of degeneracy and subhumanness".
Ultranationalist political parties
Currently represented in national legislatures
The following political parties have been characterised as ultranationalist.
^"Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition". The Times. 23 July 2019. A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel's party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
^Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), "Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece", Journal of Political Ideologies, 16 (1): 11-31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, S2CID143633586, ...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi).
^"Abe's cabinet reshuffle". East Asia Forum. 14 September 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him -- so-called 'ideological friends' who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration -- such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered 'reliable' as the government's policy leader on national education.
^"Japan combats rise in hate speech". Al Jazeera. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 2020. ... and many don't speak Korean or have ties to Korea. Even so, ultranationalist groups like Zaitokukai have singled them out and used Japan's very liberal protection of speech to harass, intimidate and silence Zainichi with noisy street protests and attacks online, often anonymously.