United States Department of Education
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United States Department of Education

United States
Department of Education
Seal of the United States Department of Education.svg
Seal of the U.S. Department of Education
Flag of the United States Department of Education.svg
Flag of the U.S. Department of Education
Usdepartmentofeducationbuilding.jpg
Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building, Department Headquarters
Department overview
FormedOctober 17, 1979; 40 years ago (1979-10-17)
Preceding agencies
JurisdictionFederal government of the United States
HeadquartersLyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building, 400 Maryland Avenue, Southwest, Washington, D.C., U.S. 20202
Coordinates: 38°53?11.5?N 77°1?7.9?W / 38.886528°N 77.018861°W / 38.886528; -77.018861
Employees3912 (2018)[1]
Annual budget$68 billion (2016)[2]
Department executives
Key document
Websiteed.gov

The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government. It began operating on May 4, 1980, having been created after the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare was split into the Department of Education and the Department of Health and Human Services by the Department of Education Organization Act, which President Jimmy Carter signed into law on October 17, 1979.[3][4]

The Department of Education is administered by the United States secretary of education. It has under 4,000 employees (2018)[1] and an annual budget of $68 billion (2016).[2] The 2019 Budget also supports $129.8 billion in new postsecondary grants, loans, and work-study assistance to help an estimated 11.5 million students and their families pay for college.[5] Its official abbreviation is "ED" ("DOE" refers to the United States Department of Energy) and is also often abbreviated informally as "DoEd".

Functions

The primary functions of the Department of Education are to "establish policy for, administer and coordinate most federal assistance to education, collect data on US schools, and to enforce federal educational laws regarding privacy and civil rights."[6] The Department of Education does not establish schools or colleges.[7]

Unlike the systems of most other countries, education in the United States is highly decentralized, and the federal government and Department of Education are not heavily involved in determining curricula or educational standards (with the exception of the No Child Left Behind Act). This has been left to state and local school districts. The quality of educational institutions and their degrees is maintained through an informal private process known as accreditation, over which the Department of Education has no direct public jurisdictional control.

The Department of Education is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness,[8] and works with federal partners to ensure proper education for homeless and runaway youth in the United States.

Opposition to the Department of Education mainly stems from conservatives, who see the department as an undermining of states rights, and libertarians who believe it results in a state-imposed leveling towards the bottom and low value for taxpayers' money.[9]

Budget

The U.S. Department of Education oversees the nation's education system. The department sets uniform rules and standards which are applied nationwide. "Since the Department of Education (Education) began operations in fiscal year 1980, its mission has included promoting student achievement and ensuring equal access to educational opportunity. To do so, Education partners with state and local governments, which provide most of the resources to school districts for K-12 programs".[10]

Pell GrantFederal Direct Student Loan ProgramElementary and Secondary Education Act#Title ISpecial education in the United StatesOther: $7.92B (9.1%)Circle frame.svg
Budget of the Department of Education for FY 2015, showing its largest components[11]

For 2006, the ED discretionary budget was $56 billion and the mandatory budget contained $23 billion.[12] In 2009 it received additional ARRA funding of $102 billion.[13] As of 2011, the discretionary budget is $70 billion.[12]

History

Establishment

A previous Department of Education was created in 1867 but was soon demoted to an Office in 1868.[14][15] Another unsuccessful attempt at creating a Department of Education, headed by a Secretary of Education, came with the Smith-Towner Bill in 1920.[16] As an agency not represented in the president's cabinet, it quickly became a relatively minor bureau in the Department of the Interior. In 1939, the bureau was transferred to the Federal Security Agency, where it was renamed the Office of Education. In 1953, the Federal Security Agency was upgraded to cabinet-level status as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.

In 1979, President Carter advocated for creating a cabinet-level Department of Education.[17] Carter's plan was to transfer most of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare's education-related functions to the Department of Education.[17] Carter also planned to transfer the education-related functions of the departments of Defense, Justice, Housing and Urban Development, and Agriculture, as well as a few other federal entities.[17] Among the federal education-related programs that were not proposed to be transferred were Headstart, the Department of Agriculture's school lunch and nutrition programs, the Department of the Interior's Native Americans' education programs, and the Department of Labor's education and training programs.[17]

Upgrading Education to cabinet level status in 1979 was opposed by many in the Republican Party, who saw the department as unconstitutional, arguing that the Constitution doesn't mention education, and deemed it an unnecessary and illegal federal bureaucratic intrusion into local affairs. However, many see the department as constitutional under the Commerce Clause, and that the funding role of the department is constitutional under the Taxing and Spending Clause. The National Education Association supported the bill, while the American Federation of Teachers opposed it.[18]

As of 1979, the Office of Education had 3,000 employees and an annual budget of $12 billion.[19] Congress appropriated to the Department of Education an annual budget of $14 billion and 17,000 employees when establishing the Department of Education.[20] During the 1980 presidential campaign, Gov. Reagan called for the total elimination of the U.S. Department of Education, severe curtailment of bilingual education, and massive cutbacks in the federal role in education. Once in office, President Reagan significantly reduced its budget.[21]

Early history

The Republican Party platform of 1980 called for the elimination of the Department of Education created under Carter and President Ronald Reagan promised during the 1980 presidential election to eliminate it as a cabinet post,[22] but he was not able to do so with a Democratic House of Representatives.[23] In the 1982 State of the Union Address, he pledged: "The budget plan I submit to you on Feb. 8 will realize major savings by dismantling the Department of Education."[23]

By 1984 the GOP had dropped the call for elimination from its platform, and with the election of President George H. W. Bush in 1988, the Republican position evolved in almost lockstep with that of the Democrats, with Goals 2000 a virtual joint effort.

After the Newt Gingrich-led "revolution" in 1994 had taken control of both Houses of Congress, federal control of and spending on education soared. That trend continued unabated despite the fact that the Republican Party made abolition of the department a cornerstone of 1996 platform and campaign promises, calling it an inappropriate federal intrusion into local, state, and family affairs.[23] The GOP platform read: "The Federal government has no constitutional authority to be involved in school curricula or to control jobs in the market place. This is why we will abolish the Department of Education, end federal meddling in our schools, and promote family choice at all levels of learning."[23]

In 2000, the Republican Liberty Caucus passed a resolution to abolish the Department of Education.[24] Abolition of the organization was not pursued under the George W. Bush administration, which made reform of federal education a key priority of the president's first term. In 2008 and 2012, presidential candidate Ron Paul campaigned in part on an opposition to the department.[25]

Later history

A construction project to repair and update the building façade at the Department of Education headquarters in 2002 resulted in the installation of structures at all of the entrances to protect employees and visitors from falling debris. ED redesigned these protective structures to promote the No Child Left Behind Act. The structures were temporary and were removed in 2008. Source: U.S. Department of Education,[26]

Under President George W. Bush, the department primarily focused on elementary and secondary education, expanding its reach through the No Child Left Behind Act. The department's budget increased by $14 billion between 2002 and 2004, from $46 billion to $60 billion.[23][27]

On March 23, 2007, President George W. Bush signed into law H.R. 584, which designates the ED Headquarters building as the Lyndon Baines Johnson Department of Education Building.[28]

In the time after George W. Bush's presidency and towards the end of President Barack Obama's presidency, there was an extremely noticeable problem within the education system that was excluding many children from receiving the striving opportunities that they should have been given throughout their schooling careers. So, In December 2015 President Barack Obama had instituted the Every Student Succeeds Act, which reauthorized the Elementary Secondary Education Act. "In December 2015, the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) was signed into law, reauthorizing the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and replacing the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). ESEA, the federal law that authorizes federal funding for K-12 schools, represents the nation's commitment to equal educational opportunity for all students and has influenced the education of millions of children."

On February 7, 2017, Representative Thomas Massie (R-KY) introduced H.R. 899, a bill to abolish the department. Massie's bill, which is one sentence long, states, "The Department of Education shall terminate on December 31, 2018."[29]

Organization

Department of Education structure
Program
Secretary of Education Office of Communications and Outreach
Office of the General Counsel
Office of Inspector General
Office of Legislation and Congressional Affairs
Office for Civil Rights
Office of Educational Technology
Institute of Education Sciences
*National Center for Education Statistics
**National Assessment of Educational Progress
**Education Resources Information Center
Office of Innovation and Improvement
Office of the Chief Financial Officer
Office of Management
Office of the Chief Information Officer
Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy Development
*Budget Service
Risk Management Service
Deputy Secretary of Education Office of Elementary and Secondary Education
*Education Facilities Clearinghouse
*Office of Migrant Education
*Office of Safe and Healthy Students
*Student Achievement and School Accountability Programs
*White House Initiative on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders
*White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanics
*White House Initiative on American Indian and Alaska Native Education
*White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for African Americans
Office of English Language Acquisition
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services
*National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
*Office of Special Education Programs
*Rehabilitation Services Administration
Office of Innovation and Improvement
Under Secretary of Education Office of Postsecondary Education
Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education
Office of Federal Student Aid
President's Advisory Board on Tribal Colleges and Universities
President's Advisory Board on Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Associated federal organizations Advisory Councils and Committees
National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB)[1]
National Advisory Council on Indian Education
Federal Interagency Committee on Education
Advisory Commission on Accessible Instructional Materials in Postsecondary Education for Students with Disabilities
National Board for Education Sciences
National Board of the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education
Federally aided organizations Gallaudet University
Howard University
National Technical Institute for the Deaf

See also

Related legislation

References

  1. ^ a b Stratford, Michael (22 January 2018). "Education Department goes into shutdown mode". Politico. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Overview and Mission Statement - U.S. Department of Education". www2.ed.gov.
  3. ^ Pub.L. 96-88, S. 210, 93 Stat. 668, enacted October 17, 1979
  4. ^ "Department of Education Organization Act, 1979". wordpress.com. 15 April 2011.
  5. ^ U.S. Secretary of Education (14 February 2018). "ED FY2019 Budget" (PDF). ed.gov.
  6. ^ What We Do. ED.gov. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  7. ^ "An Overview of the U.S. Department of Education, p. 2". United States Department of Education. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ "Department of Education | Member Agency | United States Interagency Council on Homelessness (USICH)". Usich.gov. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ "Laissez-faire-learning". 25 June 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ Hubbard, Janie; Swain, Holly Hilboldt (July 2017). "Using the U.S. Civil Rights Movement to explore social justice education with K-6 pre-service teachers". The Journal of Social Studies Research. 41 (3): 217-233. doi:10.1016/j.jssr.2016.09.002. ISSN 0885-985X.
  11. ^ "ED History" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education. 25 September 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Overview". U.S. Department of Education Budget Office. 12 February 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). archive.org. 13 January 2017.
  14. ^ "Act to Establish a Federal Department of Education, 1867". wordpress.com. 19 February 2011.
  15. ^ Chap. CLVIII. 14 Stat. 434 from "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U. S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875". Library of Congress, Law Library of Congress. Retrieved April 25, 2012.
  16. ^ "The Smith-Towner Bill". Elementary School Journal. 20 (8): 575-583. April 1920. doi:10.1086/454812. JSTOR 994235.
  17. ^ a b c d "Department of Education Outlined". Associated Press. 9 February 1979.
  18. ^ "House Narrowly Passes Department of Education Bill". Spokane, Washington. The New York Times. 12 July 1979.
  19. ^ Hechinger, Fred M (3 September 1979). "Federal Education Branch Is Foundering, Leaderless". Lexington, North Carolina. New York Times News Service.
  20. ^ "Education Department Created". United Press International. 18 October 1979.
  21. ^ Educational Horizons: "The Educational Legacy of Ronald Reagan", Summer 2004 v. 82 n. 4 p. 256
  22. ^ "Online Backgrounders: The Department of Education". PBS. Fall 1996. Retrieved 2005.
  23. ^ a b c d e Veronique de Rugy and Marie Gryphon (11 February 2004). "Elimination Lost: What happened to abolishing the Department of Education?". Cato Institute. Retrieved 2017. This article originally appeared in National Review Online on February 11, 2004.
  24. ^ "Education". 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  25. ^ Stossel, John (10 December 2007). "Ron Paul Unplugged". ABC News. Retrieved 2008.
  26. ^ "Paige Fields Team to Leave No Child Behind". United States Department of Education. 11 April 2002. Archived from the original on 24 September 2003.
  27. ^ Young, Michelle D.; Winn, Kathleen M.; Reedy, Marcy A. (13 October 2017). "The Every Student Succeeds Act: Strengthening the Focus on Educational Leadership". Educational Administration Quarterly. 53 (5): 705-726. doi:10.1177/0013161x17735871. ISSN 0013-161X.
  28. ^ "President Bush Signs H.R. 584, Designates U.S. Department of Education as the Lyndon Baines Johnson Federal Building". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. 23 March 2007. Retrieved 2012.
  29. ^ "Rep. Massie Introduces Bill to Abolish Federal Department of Education". house.gov. 7 February 2017.

Further reading

  • Radin, Beryl A., and Willis D. Hawley (1988). Politics of Federal Reorganization: Creating the U.S. Department of Education, ISBN 978-0080339771
  • Heffernan, Robert V. (2001). Cabinetmakers: Story of the Three-Year Battle to Establish the U.S. Department of Education, ISBN 978-0595158706

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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