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United States Senate Select Committee On Improper Activities in Labor and Management
Former U.S. Senate committee
The United States Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management (also known as the McClellan Committee) was a select committee created by the United States Senate on January 30, 1957, and dissolved on March 31, 1960. The select committee was directed to study the extent of criminal or other improper practices in the field of labor-management relations or in groups of employees or employers, and to suggest changes in the laws of the United States that would provide protection against such practices or activities. It conducted 253 active investigations, served 8,000 subpoenas for witnesses and documents, held 270 days of hearings, took testimony from 1,526 witnesses (343 of whom invoked the Fifth Amendment), and compiled almost 150,000 pages of testimony. At the peak of its activity in 1958, 104 persons worked for the committee.
The select committee's work led directly to the enactment of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Public Law 86-257, also known as the Landrum-Griffin Act) on September 14, 1959.
Beck and other Teamster leaders subsequently challenged the authority of the Permanent Subcommittee to investigate the union by arguing that the Senate's Labor and Public Welfare Committee had jurisdiction over labor racketeering, not Government Operations. McClellan objected to the transfer of his investigation to the Labor Committee because he felt the Labor chairman, Senator John F. Kennedy, was too close to union leaders and would not thoroughly investigate organized labor.
To solve its jurisdictional and political problems, the Senate established on January 30, 1957, an entirely new committee, the Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management, and gave it broad subpoena and investigative powers. The new select committee was given a year to complete its work, and charged with studying the extent of criminal or other improper practices in the field of labor-management relations or in groups of employees or employers. Half the membership was drawn from the Committee on Government Operations and half from the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. McClellan, Ervin, McCarthy, and Mundt were drawn from Government Operations, and Kennedy, McNamara, Ives, and Goldwater from Labor. An equal number of Democrats and Republicans sat on the Select Committee. Senator McClellan was named chair of the Select Committee, and Republican Senator Irving Ives of New York vice chair. Democrats and liberals, primarily, criticized the committee for not having a neutral attitude toward labor. Only three of the committee's eight members looked on organized labor favorably, and only one of them (Senator Patrick McNamara) was strongly pro-labor. The committee's other five members were strongly pro-management, and that included the Select Committee's Southern conservative chair, John L. McClellan. McClellan hired Robert F. Kennedy as the subcommittee's chief counsel and investigator. Kennedy, too, did not have a neutral opinion of labor unions. Appalled by stories he had heard about union intimidation on the West Coast, Kennedy undertook the chief counsel's job determined to root out union malfeasance and with little knowledge or understanding of or even concern over management misbehavior. The biases of the Select Committee members and its chief counsel, some observers concluded, led the committee to view corruption in labor-management relations as a problem with unions, not management, and management as nothing more than a victim.
Senator McClellan gave Robert Kennedy extensive control over the scheduling of testimony, areas of investigation, and questioning of witnesses. This suited McClellan, a conservative Democrat and opponent of labor unions: Robert Kennedy would take the brunt of organized labor's outrage, while McClellan would be free to pursue an anti-labor legislative agenda once the hearings began to draw to a close. Republican members of the Select Committee voiced strong disagreement with McClellan's decision to let Kennedy set the direction for the committee and ask most of the questions, but McClellan largely ignored their protests. Robert Kennedy proved to be an inexpert interrogator, fumbling questions and engaging in shouting matches with witnesses rather than laying out legal cases against them. McClellan and Kennedy's goal had been to refer nearly all their investigations to the Justice Department for prosection, but the department refused to do so because it concluded that nearly all the legal cases were significantly flawed. A frustrated Robert Kennedy publicly complained about the Justice Department's decisions in September 1958.
The Select Committee focused its attention for most of 1957 on the Teamsters union. Teamsters President Dave Beck fled the country for a month to avoid its subpoenas before returning in March 1957. The Select Committee had a difficult time investigating the Teamsters. Four of the paper locals were dissolved to avoid committee scrutiny, several Teamster staffers provided verbal testimony which differed substantially from their prior written statements (the Select Committee eventually charged six of them with contempt of Congress), and union records were lost or destroyed (allegedly on purpose). But, working with the FBI, the Select Committee electrified the nation when on February 22, 1957, wiretaps were played in public before a national television audience in which Dio and Hoffa discussed the creation of even more paper locals, including the establishment of a paper local to organize New York City's 30,000 taxi cab drivers and use the charter as a means of extorting money from a wide variety of employers. The 1957 hearings opened with a focus on corruption in Portland, Oregon, and featured the testimony of Portland crime boss Jim Elkins. With the support of 70 hours of taped conversations, Elkins described being approached by two Seattle gangsters about working with the Teamsters to take over Portland vice operations. The colorful testimony brought the committee's investigations national media attention from the outset. As 1.2 million viewers watched on live television, evidence was unearthed over the next few weeks of a mob-sponsored plot in which Oregon Teamsters unions would seize control of the state legislature, state police, and state attorney general's office through bribery, extortion and blackmail. On March 14, 1957, Jimmy Hoffa was arrested for allegedly trying to bribe an aide to the Select Committee. Hoffa denied the charges (and was later acquitted), but the arrest trigged additional investigations and more arrests and indictments over the following weeks. Less than a week later, Beck admitted to receiving an interest-free $300,000 loan from the Teamsters which he had never repaid, and Select Committee investigators claimed that loans to Beck and other union officials (and their businesses) had cost the Teamsters more than $700,000. Beck appeared before the Select Committee for the first time on March 25, 1957, and notoriously invoked his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination 117 times. Beck was called before the McClellan Committee again in May 1957, and additional interest-free loans and other potentially illegal and unethical financial transactions exposed. Based on these revelations, Beck was indicted for tax evasion on May 2, 1957.
The Beck and Hoffa hearings generated strong criticisms of Robert Kennedy. Many liberal critics said he was a brow-beater, badgerer, insolent, overbearing, intolerant, and even vicious. Hoffa and other witnesses often were able to anger Kennedy to the point where he lost control, and would shout and insult them. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas, one of Robert Kennedy's mentors and a close friend, criticized Kennedy for presuming the guilt of anyone who exercised his Fifth Amendment rights. Noted attorney Edward Bennett Williams accused the Select Committee of bringing witnesses into executive session, ascertaining that they would exercise their Fifth Amendment rights, and then force them to return in public and refuse to answer questions--merely to generate media attention. The Chicago American newspaper so strongly criticized Robert Kennedy for his overbearing, zealous behavior during the hearings that a worried Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr. rushed to Washington, D.C. to see for himself if Robert Kennedy was endangering John Kennedy's political future.
While continuing to investigate and hold hearings on other unions and corporations, the McClellan Committee also began to examine the behavior of Jimmy Hoffa and other Teamsters officials. Senator McClellan accused Hoffa of attempting to gain control of the nation's economy and set himself up as a sort of private government. The Select Committee also accused Hoffa of instigating the creation of the paper locals, and of arranging for a $400,000 loan to the graft-ridden International Longshoremen's Association in a bid to take over that union and gain Teamsters control of the waterfront as well as warehouses. Johnny Dio, who by late summer 1957 was in prison serving time on bribery and conspiracy charges, was paroled by a federal court in order to testify at the Select Committee's hearings. But in a two-hour appearance before the Select Committee, Dio invoked his Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination 140 times, and refused to answer any of the committee's questions. But despite the problems encountered in interrogating Dio, the Select Committee developed additional testimony and evidence alleging widespread corruption in Hoffa-controlled Teamster units was presented in public in August 1957. The worsening corruption scandal led the AFL-CIO to eject the Teamsters on December 6, 1957.
As the Hoffa hearings occurred in August 1957, the Select Committee met in executive session to restructure its organizations and set its agenda for the future. The Select Committee had succeeded in securing the removal of Beck as Teamsters president and seemed on the verge of sending Jimmy Hoffa to jail as well, but the Committee had also been strongly criticized for its handling of witnesses and its apparent one-sidedness in exposing union but not management corruption. To guide the Select Committee's investigations in the future, McClellan established a set of 11 areas of investigation for the committee, nine of which involved labor misdeeds and only one of which involved management misbehavior (preventing workers from organizing unions). The management-oriented area came last on the committee's list of priorities, and there were no staff assigned to investigate the issue.
Under the new guidelines, the Select Committee's schedule of hearings slowed. In January 1958, Chairman McClellan asked for and received permission from the Senate to extend the deadline for completing the committee's work for another year. For a short time early in the year, the Select Committee investigated the International Union of Operating Engineers, and uncovered a limited financial scandal at the top of the union. But the main focus of the committee for the first half of the year was the United Auto Workers. Republicans on the Select Committee, notably Barry Goldwater, had for several months in late 1957 accused Robert Kennedy of covering up extensive corruption in the UAW. The Republicans pointed to a lengthy, ongoing, and sometimes violent strike which the UAW was conducting against the Kohler plumbing fixtures company in Wisconsin.Walter Reuther, President of the Auto Workers, told Select Committee investigators that the Kohler Company was committing numerous unfair labor practices against the union and that the union's books were in order. Despite no evidence of any mismanagement or organized crime infiltration, Kennedy and McClellan went ahead with hearings on the UAW in February 1958. The five-week series of hearings produced no evidence of corruption. A second set of hearings into the UAW in September 1959 lasted just six days, and once more uncovered no evidence of UAW malfeasance. The September 1959 hearings were the last public hearings the embarrassed committee ever held.
As the UAW hearings were winding down, the Select Committee issued its first Interim Report on March 24, 1958. The report roundly condemned Jimmy Hoffa (by now President of the Teamsters) and accused the Teamsters of gathering enough power to destroy the national economy. Refocusing its attention back on the Teamsters, the Select Committee held a short set of hearings in August 1958 intended to expose corruption by the Hoffa regime. But a number of witnesses recanted their written testimony and the hearings led nowhere.
In February 1959, the Select Committee's attention turned to an investigation of organized crime. McClellan had won yet another one-year extension of the Select Committee's existence in January, giving it additional time for more investigations. This new focus was a natural outgrowth of the committee's previous investigations, but it also reflected the committee's frustration at uncovering no additional scandals like the one which had rocked the Teamsters. Through much of the spring and summer of 1959, the committee held a series of public hearings which brought a number of organized crime figures to the public's attention, including Anthony Corrallo, Vito Genovese, Anthony Provenzano, Joey Glimco, Sam Giancana, and Carlos Marcello. Although more muted and less frequent, criticisms of the Select Committee and Robert Kennedy continued. Kennedy's moralism about labor racketeering, several high-profile critics concluded, even endangered the Constitution. Although McClellan wanted to further investigate organized crime, the Select Committee had reached the limits of its jurisdiction and no further investigations were made.
By September 1959, it was clear that the Select Committee was not developing additional information to justify continued operation. A second interim report was released in August 1959 once again denouncing the Teamsters and Jimmy Hoffa. Robert F. Kennedy resigned as the Select Committee's chief counsel on September 11, 1959, and joined Senator John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign as campaign manager. Committee members became more involved in passing legislation to deal with the abuses uncovered.
Although his committee had already been dissolved by 1960, McClellan began a related three-year investigation in 1963 into the union benefit plans of labor leader George Barasch, alleging misuse and diversion of $4,000,000 of benefit funds. McClellan's notable failure to find any legal wrongdoing led to his introduction of several pieces of new legislation including McClellan's own bill on October 12, 1965 setting new fiduciary standards for plan trustees. Senator Jacob K. Javits (R) of New York also introduced bills in 1965 and 1967 increasing regulation on welfare and pension funds to limit the control of plan trustees and administrators. Provisions from all three bills ultimately evolved into the guidelines enacted in the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA).
Disbandment and legislative and other outcomes
The final report of the Select Committee on Improper Activities in Labor and Management was issued on March 31, 1960. At that time, the authority granted by the Senate to the Select Committee was transferred to the Committee on Government Operations.
During its existence, the Select Committee conducted 253 active investigations, served 8,000 subpoenas for witnesses and documents, held 270 days of hearings with 1,526 witnesses (343 of whom invoked the Fifth Amendment), compiled almost 150,000 pages of testimony, and issued two interim and one final report. At its peak, 104 persons were engaged in the work of the committee, including 34 field investigators. Another 58 staffers were delegated to the committee by the Government Accounting Office and worked in Detroit, Chicago, New York City, and southern Florida. To accommodate the huge staff, a corridor was blocked off in the Old Senate Office Building and turned into a suite of offices.
Some observers continued to criticize the Select Committee. In 1961, Yale Law professor Alexander Bickel accused Kennedy of being punitive and battering witnesses, compared his tactics to those of Joseph McCarthy, and declared Kennedy unfit to be Attorney General. At the turn of the century, historians and biographers continued to criticize the Select Committee's lack of respect for the constitutional rights of witnesses brought before it.
Legislative and legal outcomes
Several historic legal developments came out of the select committee's investigation, including a U.S. Supreme Court decision and landmark labor legislation. The right of union officials to exercise their Fifth Amendment rights was upheld and a significant refinement of constitutional law made when the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed the right of union officials to not divulge the location of union records in Curcio v. United States,354 U.S. 118 (1957).
The Enemy Within, Robert F. Kennedy's best-selling book, published in February 1960, which documents his experiences on the Select Committee.
The scandals uncovered by the Select Committee led directly to passage of the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (also known as the Landrum-Griffin Act) in 1959. Calls for legislation and drafts of bills began circulating in the Senate as early as May 1957. Among the more prominent bills was one submitted in 1958 by Senators John F. Kennedy and Irving Ives (with assistance from nationally-known labor law professor Archibald Cox) which covered 30 areas, including union recordkeeping, finances, and democratic organizational structures and rules. The Kennedy-Ives bill proved immensely controversial, leading to the longest Senate debate of the year, and the greatest number of amendments and floor votes any piece of legislation that year. But President Dwight D. Eisenhower opposed the bill and it died when the Congressional session ended in December 1958. Kennedy reintroduced the bill, with some additional provisions, in 1959. Although Ives had retired from the Senate, Senator Sam Ervin agreed to co-sponsor the revised bill. The Kennedy-Ervin bill also encountered stiff opposition, and Republicans were able to win Senate approval of a management "bill of rights" to the bill which labor strongly denounced. But with this and other Republican-backed amendments, the bill passed the Senate overwhelmingly.
By 1959 the Eisenhower administration had crafted its own bill, which was co-sponsored in the House of Representatives by Phillip M. Landrum (Democrat from Georgia) and Robert P. Griffin (Republican from Michigan). The Landrum-Griffin bill contained much stricter financial reporting and fiduciary restrictions than the Kennedy-Ervin bill as well as several unrelated provisions restricting union organizing, picketing, and boycott activity. A conference committee to reconcile the House and Senate bills began meeting on August 18, 1959. On September 3 and 4, the House and Senate passed the conference committee bill, which was far closer to the original Landrum-Griffin bill than the Kennedy-Ervin bill, and President Eisenhower signed the bill into law on September 14, 1959.
After the Select Committee's mandate expired, Senator McClellan and others advocated that the Senate expand the jurisdiction of one or more committees not only to provide oversight of the new labor law but also to continue the Senate's investigations into organized crime. McClellan originally sought jurisdiction for his own Committee on Government Operations, but members of his committee balked at the request. However, McClellan was able to convince the full Senate to impose jurisdiction on Government Operations, and the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations began making inquiries into matters pertaining to syndicated or organized crime.
Impact on key participants
The national attention paid to Robert F. Kennedy during the Select Committee's hearings helped launch his career as a government official and politician. It also earned him a reputation for ruthlessness and hard work. His experiences with the Select Committee significantly affected Robert Kennedy, and strongly influenced his decision to make fighting organized crime a high priority during his tenure as United States Attorney General. After leaving the Select Committee, Robert F. Kennedy spent the better part of a year writing about his experiences and what he had learned about unions and organized crime. Kennedy's book, The Enemy Within, was published in February 1960.
The hearings also made Jimmy Hoffa a household name in the United States. The hearings were a critical turning point in Hoffa's career as a labor leader. Bringing down Dave Beck ensured that Hoffa would become president of the Teamsters, an outcome Robert Kennedy later regretted. Although Hoffa was indicted several times in federal and state courts based on evidence uncovered by the Select Committee, he was never convicted on any of the charges. Prosecutors and others accused Hoffa of jury tampering and suborning witnesses in order to beat conviction, but these charges also were never proven in a court of law. After he became U.S. Attorney General in January 1961, Robert F. Kennedy formed a "get Hoffa squad" whose mission was to identify additional evidence and secure a conviction against Hoffa. Kennedy's focus on Hoffa was so strong that many observers at the time as well as later historians believed Kennedy had a personal vendetta against Hoffa. Hoffa was eventually convicted by a federal district court jury on March 4, 1964, on two counts of tampering with the jury during his 1962 conspiracy trial in Nashville, Tennessee, and sentenced to eight years in prison and a $10,000 fine. While on bail during his appeal, a second federal district court jury convicted Hoffa on July 26, 1964, on one count of conspiracy and three counts of mail and wire fraud. Hoffa entered prison on March 7, 1967, and Frank Fitzsimmons was named Acting President of the union. Hoffa resigned as Teamsters president on July 9, 1971. Barred by a commutation of sentence agreement from participating directly or indirectly in union activities until 1980, Hoffa was released from prison on December 23, 1971, but disappeared on July 30, 1975 (and was presumably murdered).
The hearings had positive benefits for other key participants as well. The Kennedy-Ives bill was Senator John F. Kennedy's most important legislative accomplishment, and although it was not enacted into law many Senators nonetheless revised their opinion and now saw him as a serious legislator. This helped remove a major obstacle to Kennedy's political aspirations. Kennedy also used the publicity he gained from the Select Committee's work to launch his own presidential bid in 1960. The work of the Select Committee also was a key turning point in the Senate career of John L. McClellan. McClellan devoted significant time and resources of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (of which he was chair) to pushing anti-organized crime agenda in 1960s, and his efforts kept the issue alive despite the prominence of other issues such as the civil rights movement and Vietnam War. When limited jurisdiction over organized crime was transferred to the Committee on Government Operations after the disbandment of the Select Committee, Senator McClellan held a number of sensational hearings on organized crime from 1960 to 1964 which became known as the Valachi Hearings. In 1962, McClellan published his own account of the Select Committee's activities and findings in the book Crime Without Punishment. The senator sponsored several pieces of important anti-crime legislation in the 1960s and early 1970s, including the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 and the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970 (part of which contains the highly influential Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act).
85th United States Congress
Chief Counsel Robert F. Kennedy (left) and Sen. John F. Kennedy listen as Sen. Karl Mundt (right) questions a witness at a Select Committee hearing in May 1957. Eighteen months later, Mundt would be the Select Committee's influential new Vice Chair.
The Select Committee's chair was Senator John L. McClellan, and the vice chair was Senator Irving Ives. An equal number of Democrats and Republicans sat on the committee. Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy died on May 2, 1957, and was replaced by Republican Senator Homer E. Capehart. Democratic Senator Patrick McNamara resigned from the committee on March 31, 1958, to protest the Select Committee's rough treatment of union witnesses. He was replaced by Democratic Senator Frank Church.
The Select Committee's chair was Senator John L. McClellan. With the retirement of Senator Irving Ives from the Senate in December 1958, the new Vice Chair became Senator Karl E. Mundt. Senator Homer E. Capehart joined the committee to keep the partisan balance.
Senator John L. McClellan (D-Arkansas) was the committee's only chair for its entire history.
At the peak of its activity in 1958, 104 persons worked for the committee, including 34 field investigators. Another 58 staff were loaned to the committee from the General Accounting Office. Committee staff included:
Robert F. Kennedy, Chief Counsel.
Carmine Bellino, Chief Assistant to the Chief Counsel.
Angela Novello, Personal Secretary to the Chief Counsel.
^ abcdefghijklmnLee, R. Alton. Eisenhower & Landrum-Griffin: A Study in Labor-management Politics. Lexington, Ky.: University Press of Kentucky, 1990. ISBN0-8131-1683-X
^Robert Kennedy's resignation was prompted by concerns over the McCarthy committee's procedures, which he felt did not sufficiently protect the rights of witnesses and skirted both federal law and legal ethics. See: Schlesinger, Robert Kennedy and His Times, 1978; Schwartz, David G. Cutting the Wire: Gambling, Prohibition and the Internet. Las Vegas: University of Nevada Press, 2005. ISBN0-87417-620-4
^In the U.S. Congress, each committee in each chamber has its own budget and its own staff, which can vary widely depending on the committee's jurisdiction, size, and political importance. A small percentage of each committee's budget and staff are devoted to the institutional needs of the committee. The staff employed in this capacity are known as "committee staff," and are nonpartisan career employees. Under the rules established by the majority party in each chamber, the remaining budget and staff are allocated to the majority and largest minority party, respectively. These staff are known as "majority staff" and "minority staff," although many commentators refer to all committee staff as "committee staff" (leading to some confusion). The tradition of "firm party control" in the House of Representatives usually means that the majority party will control as much as 80 percent of a committee's staff and budget, while the minority party and nonpartisan committee staff control 10 percent each. In the Senate, the tradition of comity and unanimous consent has led to distribution of staff and budgetary resources on a basis closer to each party's representation in that chamber. There is wide variety in the titles and functions of committee, majority, and minority staff. As Chief Minority Counsel, Kennedy led a small legal staff employed to provide legal and strategic advice the minority party on the committee. See: Congressional Management Foundation. Setting Course: A Congressional Management Guide. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Management Foundation, 2008. 1930473117; Koempel, Michael L. and Schneider, Judy. Congressional Deskbook: The Practical and Comprehensive Guide to Congress. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: TheCapitol.Net, Inc., 2007. ISBN1-58733-097-0; Oleszek, Walter J. Congressional Procedures and the Policy Process. 7th paperback ed. Washington, D.C.: CQ Press, 2007. ISBN0-87289-303-0
^"No Ordinary Hoodlum". New York Times. August 30, 1956.
^ abLoftus, Joseph A. (August 20, 1957). "Top Beck Aide Links Hoffa to 'Phony' Teamster Locals". New York Times.
^Chartering is the process by which a local labor union becomes part of a larger regional, national, or international union. The charter is similar to a constitution, and establishes the membership requirements, work and/or geographical jurisdiction, and structure of the new local union. Early in American history, a parent union would issue a charter, and organize workers into the new union. Since the mid-20th century, more frequently unions have organized workers first and then issued a charter. See: Doherty, Robert Emmett. Industrial and Labor Relations Terms: A Glossary. 5th ed. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989. ISBN0-87546-152-2
^Katz, Ralph. "Teamsters' Union in Control Fight." New York Times. January 10, 1956.
^Raskin, A.H. "Teamster Units Stir New Storm." New York Times. February 4, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Hoffa of the Teamsters Forcing Labor Showndown." New York Times. March 4, 1956.
^Ranzal, Edward. "Inquiry Is Set Off By Lacey Charge." New York Times. March 24, 1956; Ranzal, Edward. "7 Teamster Units Face U.S. Inquiry." New York Times. March 30, 1956; Kihss, Peter. "Local Chartered With No Members." New York Times, April 25, 1956; Kihss, Peter. "Teamsters' Rules Appall U.S. Judge." New York Times. April 26, 1956; "Racketeer Is Guilty of Contempt." New York Times. May 10, 1956; Levey, Stanley. "Writ Restores Lacey As Teamster Leader." New York Times. May 13, 1956; "Dio Indicted Here In Union Sell-Out." New York Times. June 20, 1956; "Dio's Locals Face Charter Reviews." New York Times. June 21, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Senators Study Dio Union Tie-In." New York Times. September 14, 1956; Roth, Jack. "Dio and Unionist Named Extorters." New York Times. October 30, 1956; "Teamsters Spurn 'Dio Local' Order." New York Times. December 5, 1956; "Lacey Will Defy Teamster Chief." New York Times. December 6, 1956; Raskin, A.H. "Dio 'Paper' Unions Offer First Dues." New York Times. December 13, 1956; Loftus, Joseph A. "Teamster Union Tied to Rackets." New York Times. January 6, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "O'Rourke Wins Post." New York Times. January 9, 1957.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Teamsters Aide Balks at Inquiry on Union Rackets." New York Times. January 19, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "Teamsters Avoid Challenge to U.S." New York Times. January 24, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "Teamsters Seek Way to Avoid a Showdown." New York Times. January 27, 1957.
^"New Senate Unit to Widen Inquiry In Labor Rackets." New York Times. January 24, 1957; "Teamster Study Is 3 Months Old." New York Times. May 26, 1957; "Senate Votes Inquiry on Labor Rackets." New York Times. January 31, 1957.
^ ab"M'Clellan Asks Funds." Associated Press. January 14, 1958.
^ abcd"M'Clellan Panel Keeps Party Ratio." Associated Press. January 23, 1959.
^ abThomas, Evan. Robert Kennedy: His Life. Reprint ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2002. ISBN0-7432-0329-1
^Woodiwiss, Michael (2001). Organized crime and American power: a history. University of Toronto Press. ISBN978-0-8020-8278-7.
^Clarke, Thurston. The Last Campaign: Robert F. Kennedy and 82 days That Inspired America. New York: Macmillan, 2008. ISBN0-8050-7792-8
^Malcolm Anderson, the Assistant U.S. Attorney in charge of the Justice Department's Criminal Division, told Kennedy in a letter made available to the news media "that of the fourteen cases that the committee has referred to the departments as involving perjury, eight have been closed after investigation and study because the evidence failed to substantiate the allegations, and that the committee was so advised." See: "Rogers Defended on Prosecutions." Associated Press. September 15, 1958.
^"Rogers Assailed for Delay In Rackets Perjury Cases." Associated Press. September 14, 1958; "Kennedy Asks U.S. Cleanup of Teamsters." Chicago Daily Tribune. September 22, 1958.
^"Beck Visiting in the Bahamas." New York Times. February 6, 1957; "Citation Is Asked for 3 Teamsters." New York Times. February 7, 1957; "Beck On Airliner Bound for London." New York Times. February 8, 1957; Love, Kenneth. "Beck Denies Aim to Dodge Inquiry." New York Times. February 9, 1957; "Tourist Beck." New York Times. February 10, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "Beck Slips Back to U.S. and Faces Senate Subpoena." New York Times. March 11, 1957.
^Raskin, A.H. "Union Dissolves Four Dio Locals." New York Times. February 15, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Senators Study Two Unions Here." New York Times. February 16, 1957; "4 Teamsters' Aides Cited for Contempt In Balking Inquiry." New York Times. February 20, 1957; "Records Destroyed, M'Clellan Charges." New York Times. February 22, 1957; "More Data of Union Reported Missing." Associated Press. February 23, 1957; "Teamster Admits Destroying Data." New York Times. March 14, 1957; "A Teamster Local, Under Fire, Robbed." United Press International. March 17, 1957; Mooney, Richard E. "M'Clellan Hunts Auditor of Union and Son of Beck." New York Times. April 28, 1957.
^"Wiretaps on Dio and Hoffa Cited." New York Times. February 23, 1957; "Labor Inquiry Gets Secret Tape Talks." New York Times. February 24, 1957.
^"Wiretaps on Dio and Hoffa Cited." New York Times. February 23, 1957; "Labor Inquiry Gets Secret Tape Talks." New York Times. February 24, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Bid to Dio On Union Charged." New York Times. August 17, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Senators Reveal Hoffa Bid to Get Dio In Teamsters." New York Times. August 22, 1957; "Wiretaps of 2 Hoffa-Dio Talks." New York Times. August 23, 1957.
^ abWoodiwiss, Michael (2001). Organized crime and American power: a history. University of Toronto Press. pp. 318-319. ISBN9780802082787.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Witnesses Link Teamsters Union to Underworld." New York Times. February 27, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Teamsters Chiefs Tied to Vice Plot and to Gambling." New York Times. February 28, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Teamsters Chiefs Charged With Plot to Rule Oregon, Sought All Law Enforcement Powers." New York Times. March 2, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Oregon Gambler Tells of Pay-Off." New York Times. March 7, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Portland Mayor Accused of Bribe." New York Times. March 8, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Portland Called Vice-Ridden Now." New York Times. March 9, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Teamsters Paid Gamblers' Bills." New York Times. March 13, 1957; "Holmes Denies Charge." New York Times. March 14, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Brewster Denies Teamsters' Plot to Rule Rackets." New York Times. March 16, 1957; "Portland Mayor Seized In Racket, Prosecutor Held." New York Times. March 29, 1957.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "F.B.I. Seizes Hoffa In A Plot To Bribe Senate Staff Aide." New York Times. March 14, 1957.
^Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN0-262-19309-4; Loftus, Joseph A. "Unionist Denies Bribery." New York Times. March 15, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "U.S. Jury Indicts 4 Teamster Aides Silent In Inquiry." New York Times. March 19, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "U.S. Jury Indicts Hoffa, Attorney." New York Times. March 20, 1957; "8 Hoffa Aides in Detroit Get Subpoenas to Appear Before U.S. Rackets Jury Here." New York Times. March 20, 1957; "Hoffa, Attorney Plead Not Guilty." New York Times. March 30, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Urges Court to Quash Charges." New York Times. April 23, 1957; Ranzal, Edward. "Jury Here Indicts Hoffa On Wiretap." New York Times. May 15, 1957.
^"Beck Says Union Lent Him $300,000 Without Interest." New York Times. March 18, 1957; Drury, Allen. "Teamster Loss Put At $709,420." New York Times. March 23, 1957; Morris, John D. "Inquiry Tracing Funds Beck Used." New York Times. March 24, 1957; "Million Teamster Loan To Tracks Under Study." New York Times. March 30, 1957.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Beck Appearance Today Indicated." New York Times. March 26, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Beck Uses 5th Amendment to Balk Senate Questions About Teamsters' $322,000." New York Times. March 27, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "M'Clellan Scores Beck for 'Theft' of Union's Funds." New York Times. March 28, 1957.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Beck Called Back By Senate Inquiry." New York Times. May 2, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Beck Again Fails to Give Answers." New York Times. May 9, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Kickback to Beck On Loan Charged." New York Times. May 10, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Loan of $200,000 to Beck Revealed at Senate Inquiry." New York Times. May 14, 1957; Drury, Allen. "Inquiry Is Told Shefferman Sought $7l,500 in Sale of Land to Teamsters." New York Times. May 16, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "$100,000 Repaid By Beck to Union in Last 2 Weeks." New York Times. May 17, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Beck Aide Pleads the 5th 71 Times." New York Times. May 18, 1957.
^"Beck Is Indicted." New York Times. May 3, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Beck Posts A Bond." New York Times. May 4, 1957; "Becks Indicted In Sale of Cars." New York Times. July 13, 1957.
^ abShesol, Jeff. Mutual Contempt: Lyndon Johnson, Robert Kennedy, and the Feud That Defined a Decade. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. ISBN0-393-31855-9; Richardson, Darcy G.A Nation Divided: The 1968 Presidential Campaign. Bloomington, Ind.: iUniverse, 2001. ISBN0-595-23699-5
^"New Charge Faces Bakeres' Union Chief." United Press International. July 14, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Beating Charged to Union Leader." New York Times. July 17, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Use of Union Fund Linked to Officer." New York Times. July 24, 1957; "2 in Union Plead 5th." Associated Press. October 15, 1957; Levey, Stanley. "T.W.U. Unit Linked to Senate Inquiry." New York Times. October 22, 1957.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Senate Inquiry Focuses on Some Management Sins." New York Times. November 3, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Company Accused of Union Busting." New York Times. October 23, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Concern Defends Its Labor Policy." New York Times. October 24, 1957; Lewis, Anthony. "Sears Labor Role Deplored By Aide As 'Disgraceful'." New York Times. October 26, 1957.
^"M'Clellan Scores Hoffa Bid." New York Times. August 4, 1957.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Is Linked to Dio In Scheme To Control Port." New York Times. August 1, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Is Accused of Using Dio In Bid For Control Here." New York Times. August 23, 1957.
^"Court Paroles Dio and 3 Others to Testify Before Senate Hearings on Labor Rackets." New York Times. August 3, 1957.
^Shanley, J.P. "Du Mont Tally Machine Kept Busy as Dio Invokes Fifth Amendment at Hearing." New York Times. August 9, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Dio Pleads Fifth." New York Times. August 9, 1957.
^"Inquiry to Stress History of Hoffa." Associated Press. August 11, 1957; Drury, Allen. "Two Racketeers Tied to O'Rourke." New York Times. August 16, 1957; Mooney, Richard E. "Inquiry Set to Press Hoffa on Role Here." New York Times. August 18, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Says He Got $120,000 In Loans Without Security." New York Times. August 21, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Senators Reveal Hoffa Bid to Get Dio In Teamsters." New York Times. August 22, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Is Accused of Using Dio in Bid for Control Here." New York Times. August 23, 1957; "M'Clellan Seeks A Perjury Check On Hoffa Replies." New York Times. August 25, 1957; Drury, Allen. "New Fund Abuses Charged to Hoffa." New York Times. September 24, 1957; Drury, Allen. "M'Clellan Seeks Teamsters' Files." New York Times. October 11, 1957; "Hoffa Called Ruler of Hoodlum Empire." New York Times. March 26, 1958.
^"A.F.L.-C.I.O. to Go Ahead With Expulsion of Teamsters." New York Times. December 4, 1957; Raskin, "Meany Will Drop Teamster Ouster If Hoffa Gets Out." New York Times. December 5, 1957; "Teamsters Await Expulsion Today." New York Times. December 6, 1957; Raskin, "A.F.L.-C.I.O. Ousts Teamsters Union By Vote of 5 to 1." New York Times. December 7, 1957.
^Fones-Wolf, Elizabeth. Selling Free Enterprise: The Business Assault on Labor and Liberalism, 1945-60. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1994. ISBN0-252-06439-9; McCulloch, Frank W. and Bornstein, Tim. The National Labor Relations Board. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger Publishers, 1974; Finkelman, Paul. Encyclopedia of American Civil Liberties. New York: CRC Press, 2006. ISBN0-415-94342-6
^Only one set of hearings were ever held on the topic of management misdeeds, in mid-fall 1957. See: Witwer, Corruption and Reform in the Teamsters Union, 2003.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Union Head Cited on Expense Funds." New York Times. January 31, 1958; Raskin, A.H. "A.F.L.-C.I.O. Starts Engineer Inquiry." New York Times. February 5, 1958.
^Baltakis, Anthony. "On the Defensive: Walter Reuther's Testimony before the McClellan Labor Rackets Committee." Michigan Historical Review. 25 (1999); Barnard, John. American Vanguard: The United Auto Workers During the Reuther Years, 1935-1970. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2005. ISBN0-8143-3297-8; "Rackets Group Ends 6 Weeks of Inquiry." United Press International. April 2, 1958.
^"Inquiry on U.A.W. Opened to Public." Associated Press. August 19, 1959; "M'Clellan Group Ends U.A.W. Study." United Press International. September 10, 1959.
^The Select Committee would seek to prosecute 13 witnesses for contempt of Congress because of the recantments. See: Loftus, Joseph A. "Senators Balked in Effor to Link Hoffa to Pay-Off." New York Times. August 6, 1958; Drury, Allen. "Rackets Unit Asks Prosecution for 13." New York Times. August 9, 1958.
^Drury, Allen. "M'Clellan Calls Mobs Peril to U.S." New York Times. February 26, 1959.
^A noted attorney, speaking before the New York Bar Association, concluded that the Select Committee purposefully asked witnesses about issues it knew they could not answer without incriminating themselves. This led witnesses to rely on their Fifth Amendment rights repeatedly, and the Select Committee utilized this reliance to imply that the witnesses were guilty. This undercut the public's support for the Fifth Amendment, and endangered the right. See: Weaver, Jr., Warren. "Fifth Amendment Declared Abused." New York Times. June 27, 1959.
^"M'Clellan Group Ends U.A.W. Study." United Press International. September 10, 1959.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Hoffa Denounced in Senate Report for Union Abuses." New York Times. August 5, 1959.
^"Kennedy Quits as Inquiry Aide." New York Times. September 11, 1959.
^Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate (1966). Diversion of union welfare-pension funds of Allied Trades Council and Teamsters 815; report, together with individual views. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
^"Pension Fund Probe: Searching Questions and Puzzling Answers". Herald Tribune. August 8, 1965.
^"Report Declares Hoffa Pretender." New York Times. March 29, 1960; Loftus, Joseph A. "Vending Devices Linked to Racket." New York Times. April 1, 1960.
^Bickel, Alexander M. "Robert F. Kennedy: The Case Against Him for Attorney General." The New Republic. January 9, 1961.
^"Teamster Wins Contempt Test." New York Times. June 11, 1957; Goldstein, Howard W. Grand Jury Practice. New York: Law Journal Press, 1998. ISBN1-58852-083-8; Snider, Jerome G. and Ellins, Howard A. Corporate Privileges and Confidential Information. Rev. ed. New York: Law Journal Press, 1999. ISBN1-58852-087-0; Fellman, David. Defendants Rights Today. Madison, Wisc.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977. ISBN0-299-07204-5
^ abJacobs, James B. Mobsters, Unions, and Feds: The Mafia and the American Labor Movement. New York: NYU Press, 2006. ISBN0-8147-4273-4
^"Union Curbs Foreseen." New York Times. May 13, 1957; "M'Clellan Sees Stiff Labor Law." New York Times. May 18, 1957; Loftus, Joseph A. "Congress Disclosures Forecast New Labor Legislation." New York Times. June 2, 1957; Raskin, A.H. "White House Gives Program to Curb Abuses in Unions." New York Times. December 6, 1957; Higgins, John E. and Janus, Peter A. The Developing Labor Law: The Board, the Courts, and the National Labor Relations Act. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: BNA Books, 2006. ISBN1-57018-585-9; Wilson, Phillip B. "Conquering the Enemy Within: The Case for Reform of the Landrum-Griffin Act." Journal of Labor Research. 26:1 (December 2005).
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Kennedy Suffers Setback As Labor Bill Is Amended." New York Times. April 23, 1959.
^For example, the Landrum-Griffin bill also barred members of the Communist Party and convicted felons from holding union office, prohibited secondary boycotts, prohibited collective bargaining agreement allowing union members to refuse to handle cargo which had been handled by strikebreakers, and restricted picketing to obtain recognition of the union. See: Higgins and Janus, The Developing Labor Law: The Board, the Courts, and the National Labor Relations Act, 2006; Wilson, "Conquering the Enemy Within: The Case for Reform of the Landrum-Griffin Act," Journal of Labor Research, December 2005; Loftus, Joseph A. "President Terms Labor Bill Weak." New York Times. April 30, 1959; Loftus, Joseph A. "House Approves Labor Bill Urged By The President." New York Times. August 14, 1959.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Labor Bill Fight Put to Conferees." New York Times. August 18, 1959.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "New Labor Bill With Wide Curbs Set for Passage." New York Times. September 3, 1959.
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Watchdog Urged in Labor Reform." New York Times. March 16, 1960; Loftus, Joseph A. "2 Senate Groups Vie As Watchdog." New York Times. March 22, 1960; Loftus, Joseph A. "M'Clellan Fails in Watchdog Bid." New York Times. March 25, 1960.
^ abcdReppetto, Thomas. Bringing Down the Mob: The War Against the American Mafia. Reprint ed. New York: Macmillan, 2007. ISBN0-8050-8659-5
^Palmero, Joseph A. In His Own Right: The Political Odyssey of Senator Robert F. Kennedy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002. ISBN0-231-12069-9; Shakow, Peter. "An Insider's Look at RFK and Organized Crime." American Journal of Criminal Law. Summer 1997.
^Marion, Nancy E. A History of Federal Crime Control Initiatives, 1960-1993. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN0-275-94649-5
^ abcdKelly, Robert J.; Chin, Ko-lin; and Schatzberg, Rufus. Handbook of Organized Crime in the United States. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994. ISBN0-313-28366-4
^ abDavis, John H. The Kennedys: Dynasty and Disaster. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984. ISBN0-07-015860-6
^Theoharis, Athan G.; Poveda, Tony G.; Rosenfeld, Susan; and Powers, Richard Gid. The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. ISBN0-89774-991-X
^Loftus, Joseph A. "Counsel's Own Story." New York Times. February 28, 1960.
^James, Ralph C. and James, Estelle. Hoffa and the Teamsters: A Study of Union Power. New York: Van Nostrand, 1965.
^ abcdefMahoney, Richard D. Sons & Brothers: The Days of Jack and Bobby Kennedy. New York: Arcade Publishing, 1999. ISBN1-55970-480-2
^Axelrod, Alan and Phillips, Charles. What Every American Should Know about American History: 225 Events That Shaped the Nation. 3rd ed. Cincinnati: Adams Media, 2008. ISBN1-59869-428-6; Steel, Ronald. In Love With Night: The American Romance With Robert Kennedy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000. ISBN0-684-80829-3
^Hoffa was convicted of embezzling money from a Teamster-run pension fund and using it to invest in a Florida retirement community. In return, Hoffa had a 45 percent interest in the project, and he and several others received kickbacks in the form of "finder's fees" from developers for securing the money. See: Brill, Steven. The Teamsters. Paperback ed. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1979. ISBN0-671-82905-X; Sloane, Arthur A. Hoffa. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1991. ISBN0-262-19309-4
^"Board Acts on Succession." New York Times. March 1, 1967; Jones, David R. "Successor Choice Named By Hoffa." New York Times. May 4, 1966; Jones, David R. "Hoffa's Candidate Gets Clear Field as Potential President of Teamsters." New York Times. June 29, 1966; Jones, David R. "Hoffa Re-Elected Teamsters' Chief." New York Times. July 8, 1966.
^Shabecoff, Philip. "Hoffa Is Stepping Aside As Teamsters' President." New York Times. June 4, 1971; Salpuka, Agis. "Teamsters Elect Fitzsimmons To Succeed Hoffa as President." New York Times. July 9, 1971.
^ abWilliams, Nancy A. and Whayne, Jeannie M. Arkansas Biography: A Collection of Notable Lives. Little Rock, Ark.: University of Arkansas Press, 2000. ISBN1-55728-587-X
^De Stefano, George. An Offer We Can't Refuse: The Mafia in the Mind of America. New York: Macmillan, 2006. ISBN0-571-21157-7; Maas, Peter. The Valachi Papers. New York: Putnam, 1968; Kelly, Robert J. Encyclopedia of Organized Crime in the United States. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000. ISBN0-313-30653-2; Sifakis, Carl. The Encyclopedia of American Crime. 2d ed. New York: Facts on File, 2001. ISBN0-8160-4633-6
^McClellan, John L. Crime Without Punishment. New York: Duell Sloan and Pearce, 1962.
^Levy, Leonard Williams. A License to Steal: The Forfeiture of Property. Chapel Hill, N.C.: UNC Press, 1995. ISBN0-8078-2242-6; Batista, Paul A. Civil RICO Practice Manual. 3rd ed. New York: Aspen Publishers, 2007. ISBN0-7355-6782-4
^"M'Namara Quits Rackets Inquiry." New York Times. April 1, 1958.
^Sen. McNamara resigned after the committee's first year of operation, and was replaced by Sen. Frank Church. See: Witwer, Corruption and Reform in the Teamsters Union, 2003.
^Sen. Joseph McCarthy served until his death on May 2, 1957. He was replaced by Sen. Carl T. Curtis. See: Lee, Eisenhower & Landrum-Griffin: A Study in Labor-management Politics, 1990.
Hearings before the Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor or Management Field. 85th Congress, 1st session, 1957; 85th Congress, 2nd session, 1958; and 86th Congress, 1st Session, 1959.