United States Elections, 2012
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United States Elections, 2012

2012 United States elections
Presidential election year
Election dayNovember 6
Incumbent presidentBarack Obama (Democratic)
Next Congress113th
Presidential election
Partisan controlDemocratic Hold
Popular vote marginDemocratic +3.9%
Electoral vote
Barack Obama (D)332
Mitt Romney (R)206
2012 United States presidential election in California2012 United States presidential election in Oregon2012 United States presidential election in Washington (state)2012 United States presidential election in Idaho2012 United States presidential election in Nevada2012 United States presidential election in Utah2012 United States presidential election in Arizona2012 United States presidential election in Montana2012 United States presidential election in Wyoming2012 United States presidential election in Colorado2012 United States presidential election in New Mexico2012 United States presidential election in North Dakota2012 United States presidential election in South Dakota2012 United States presidential election in Nebraska2012 United States presidential election in Kansas2012 United States presidential election in Oklahoma2012 United States presidential election in Texas2012 United States presidential election in Minnesota2012 United States presidential election in Iowa2012 United States presidential election in Missouri2012 United States presidential election in Arkansas2012 United States presidential election in Louisiana2012 United States presidential election in Wisconsin2012 United States presidential election in Illinois2012 United States presidential election in Michigan2012 United States presidential election in Indiana2012 United States presidential election in Ohio2012 United States presidential election in Kentucky2012 United States presidential election in Tennessee2012 United States presidential election in Mississippi2012 United States presidential election in Alabama2012 United States presidential election in Georgia2012 United States presidential election in Florida2012 United States presidential election in South Carolina2012 United States presidential election in North Carolina2012 United States presidential election in Virginia2012 United States presidential election in West Virginia2012 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2012 United States presidential election in Maryland2012 United States presidential election in Delaware2012 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania2012 United States presidential election in New Jersey2012 United States presidential election in New York2012 United States presidential election in Connecticut2012 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2012 United States presidential election in Vermont2012 United States presidential election in New Hampshire2012 United States presidential election in Maine2012 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2012 United States presidential election in Hawaii2012 United States presidential election in Alaska2012 United States presidential election in the District of Columbia2012 United States presidential election in Maryland2012 United States presidential election in Delaware2012 United States presidential election in New Jersey2012 United States presidential election in Connecticut2012 United States presidential election in Rhode Island2012 United States presidential election in Massachusetts2012 United States presidential election in Vermont2012 United States presidential election in New HampshireElectoralCollege2012.svg
About this image
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes states/districts won by Democrat Barack Obama, and Red denotes those won by Republican Mitt Romney. Numbers indicate electoral votes allotted to the winner of each state.
Senate elections
Overall controlDemocratic Hold
Seats contested33 of 100 seats
Net seat changeDemocratic +2
2012 Senate election results map
2012 Senate election results map
     Democratic hold      Republican hold      Independent hold
     Democratic gain      Republican gain      Independent gain
House elections
Overall controlRepublican Hold
Seats contestedAll 435 seats
Popular vote marginDemocratic +1.2%
Net seat changeDemocratic +8
2012 House election results map
2012 House election results map
     Democratic hold      Republican hold
     Democratic gain      Republican gain
Gubernatorial elections
Seats contested14 (12 states, 2 territories)
(including a recall election in Wisconsin)
Net seat changeRepublican +1
2012 Gubernatorial election results map
2012 gubernatorial election results map
     Democratic hold
     Republican gain      Republican hold (including recall)

The 2012 United States elections took place on November 6, 2012. Democratic President Barack Obama won election to a second term, though the Republican Party retained control of the House of Representatives.

Obama defeated Republican nominee Mitt Romney to win a second term, taking 51.1 percent of the popular vote and 332 of the 538 electoral votes. Romney defeated Rick Santorum, Newt Gingrich, and several other candidates to win his party's nomination in the 2012 Republican primaries.

Democrats won a net gain of two Senate seats, retaining control of the chamber. In the first election held in the House of Representatives since the round of redistricting following the 2010 United States Census, Democrats picked up eight seats but failed to gain a majority. In the gubernatorial elections, Republicans won a net gain of one seat.

Various other state, territorial, and local races and referenda were held throughout the year. Three state referenda passed legalizing same-sex marriage, while Minnesota became the first state in history to reject a proposed state-level constitutional ban of same sex marriage. Two states approved and one rejected the legalization of recreational marijuana, and one more state voted to approve allowing marijuana for medical use. A referendum was also held in Puerto Rico regarding the future political status of the U.S. unincorporated territory. Following the Supreme Court's Citizens United decision, the 2012 election season became the most expensive in American history.[1]

Issues

Despite various issues during this election cycle, ultimately little overall change occurred on both the Federal and the gubernatorial level.

Unresolved issues from 2008 and 2010

Many of the major issues of the 2012 election were the same as in both 2008 and 2010.[2] Candidates and voters in 2012 were again focused on national economic conditions and jobs, record federal deficits, health care and the effects of the controversial Affordable Care Act, national security and terrorism, education, and energy.[2][3][4]

Immigration reform and the controversial Arizona Senate Bill 1070, passed by the state in 2010 to enhance the power of Arizona's law enforcement agencies to investigate the immigration status of suspected illegal immigrants, also remained important issues.[2] On June 25, 2012, the Supreme Court delivered its decision in Arizona v. United States, striking down three of the four provisions of Arizona's law.

Wisconsin collective bargaining dispute

In 2011, there were a series of demonstrations in Wisconsin, involving at its zenith as many as 100,000 protestors[5] opposing the 2011 Wisconsin Act 10, also called the "Wisconsin budget repair bill." The legislation, passed by the Wisconsin Legislature on June 29, 2011, primarily impacted the following areas: collective bargaining, compensation, retirement, health insurance, and sick leave of the state's public sector employees.

These protests became a major driving force of multiple recall elections, including state senators in 2011 and 2012, Governor Scott Walker in 2012 and a contentious Wisconsin Supreme Court election in 2011.

Rape and pregnancy controversies and the "War on Women"

Starting in August 2012, a series of controversies occurred involving comments made by a number of socially conservative Republican candidates regarding issues regarding rape, pregnancy, and abortion, bringing these issues to the forefront. The first most notable was Republican House Representative Todd Akin of Missouri, who was the Republican nominee for a U.S. Senate seat. He stated that pregnancy from rape rarely occurs as a result of what he referred to as "legitimate rape." Akin's comments had a far-reaching political impact, changing a focus of campaigns across the country onto the so-called "War on Women."[6][7] Another widely covered comment was that of Indiana State Treasurer and U.S. Senate candidate Richard Mourdock, who said that pregnancy from rape was "something that God intended". A number of observers later identified Mourdock's and Akin's comments as a principal factor in their respective election losses.[8] The comments are also credited for having a larger national effect.[9]

Benghazi attack

The major foreign policy controversy during the final weeks of the campaign was the September attack on the American diplomatic mission at Benghazi, Libya by a heavily armed group. Four people were killed, including U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens, and ten others were injured. This was initially blamed on a series of protests and violent attacks began in response to a YouTube trailer for the controversial film Innocence of Muslims, considered blasphemous by many Muslims. According to critics, the consulate site should have been secured better both before and after the attack. Republicans further criticized the Obama administration's response to the attacks, ranging from accusations that they incorrectly attributed the role of anger over the film instead of suspecting it more as a coordinated attack by a terrorist group like al-Qaeda; to complaints with delays in the administration's investigation.

Federal elections

Presidential election

Democratic incumbent President Barack Obama was re-elected, defeating Republican former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney. This was the first presidential election since the 2010 Census, which changed the Electoral College vote apportionment.[10]

With the advantage of incumbency, Obama faced no major challengers in the Democratic Party primaries. Several candidates competed in the Republican Party primaries; by late April, Romney, a former Governor of Massachusetts, was declared the presumptive Republican nominee.[11] Among the third party candidates, former Governor of New Mexico Gary Johnson was the Libertarian Party nominee, Jill Stein was the Green Party nominee, former Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Virginia's 5th congressional district Virgil Goode was the Constitution Party nominee, and former Mayor of Salt Lake City Rocky Anderson was the Justice Party nominee.

Congressional elections

Senate elections

The 33 seats of Class I of the United States Senate were up for election. Democrats were expected to have 23 seats up for election, including 2 independents who caucus with the Democrats, while Republicans were only expected to have 10 seats up for election. The Democrats ended up retaining majority control of the Senate, picking up two net seats. One of the Democratic winners was Wisconsin's Tammy Baldwin, who became the first openly LGBT member of the US Senate.[12]

House of Representatives elections

This was the first congressional election using the congressional districts that were apportioned based on the 2010 Census. Elections were held for all 435 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Elections were also held for the delegates from the District of Columbia and five major U.S. territories. Although House Democrats won a plurality of the popular vote (48.8% vs 47.6%),[13] House Republicans were still able to retain a 234 to 201 seat majority.

A special election in Oregon's 1st congressional district was held on January 31 to determine a replacement for David Wu, who resigned in August 2011. Another special election in Arizona's 8th congressional district was held on June 12 to elect the replacement of Gabrielle Giffords, who resigned in January 2012. The winners of these two special elections (Suzanne Bonamici from Oregon, Ron Barber from Arizona) both ran in attempts to keep their seats.

As a matter of convenience and cost saving, the special election in New Jersey's 10th congressional district and the special election in Michigan's 11th congressional district were held in conjunction with the regularly-scheduled general election on November 6, 2012. New Jersey congressman Donald M. Payne died in March 2012 while Michigan's Thaddeus McCotter resigned in July 2012. In both districts, voters were asked on the November ballot to select two candidates: one to serve the remainder of Payne or McCotter's term, respectively, and the other to serve their respective district's full 2-year term beginning in January 2013.

State and territorial elections

Gubernatorial elections

12 state and two territory governorships were up for election. In addition, Scott Walker of Wisconsin survived a recall election on June 5. Only one state governorship changed hands: In North Carolina, Republican Pat McCrory was elected to replace the retiring Democratic Governor Bev Perdue.

The territorial governorships of American Samoa and Puerto Rico were also up for election.[needs update]

Other state-wide officer elections

In many states where if the following positions are elective offices, voters will cast votes for candidates for the state executive branch offices of Lieutenant Governor (though some will be voted for on the same ticket as the gubernatorial nominee), Secretary of state, state Treasurer, state Auditor, state Attorney General, state Superintendent of Education, Commissioners of Insurance, Agriculture, or Labor, etc., and state judicial branch offices (seats on state Supreme Courts and, in some states, state appellate courts).

State and territorial legislative elections

Many states across the nation held elections for their state legislatures. Ten chambers shifted party control, with seven turning Democratic while three(not including the de facto only control in the WA senate)turned Republican. Republicans had gained many chambers in the 2010 mid-term elections, and this was seen as a modest rebalancing.[14]

Chambers gained by Democrats:

Chambers gained by Republicans:

The Colorado House, Maine Legislature, Minnesota Legislature and New Hampshire House had all flipped to Republican rule in 2010 elections, only to flip back to Democratic control in 2012. The Oregon House regained the democratic majority that it had lost in 2010 elections, which produced a 30-30 party split.

The transition in the Wisconsin Senate was notable since it undid a brief period of Democratic control following contentious recall efforts in 2011 and earlier in 2012. The Arkansas chambers had been under Democratic control since the end of the Reconstruction Era.

Puerto Rican status referendum

A referendum regarding the political status of Puerto Rico was held. Puerto Rican voters were asked two questions: First, whether they prefer the status quo of remaining a U.S. unincorporated territory--a majority (54%), rejected the status quo. The second question asked whether they prefer statehood, independence or free association--a majority (61% of votes cast) supported statehood for Puerto Rico.[15]

However, one-third of all votes cast left the second question blank. Governor-elect Alejandro García Padilla, who had been critical of the process, then sent a message to President Obama, asking him to reject the results because of their ambiguity.[16] On November 8, 2012, Washington, D.C. newspaper The Hill published an article saying that Congress will also likely ignore the results of the referendum due to the circumstances behind the votes.[17]

State and territory initiatives and referenda

Vote for same-sex marriage initiative by counties in Maryland, Maine, and Washington:
Vote for same-sex marriage ban by counties in Minnesota:
  70-80%
  60-70%
  50-60%
Vote against same-sex marriage initiative by counties in Maryland, Maine, and Washington:
Vote against same-sex marriage ban by counties in Minnesota:
  70-80%
  60-70%
  50-60%
  <50%

Maine, Maryland and Washington approved same sex marriage by popular vote, the first time any states have done so, bringing the number of states that allow same sex marriage from 6 to 9 states. In Minnesota, a proposed constitutional amendment to ban same sex marriage was defeated, the first time such an amendment has not passed.

A measure in Massachusetts resulted in that state becoming the 18th US state to allow medical cannabis. By ballot measure, voters in both Colorado and Washington chose to legalize cannabis outright, the first states to do so,[18] whereas voters in Oregon chose to reject it.[19]

Local elections

Nationwide, cities, counties, school boards, special districts and others held elections in 2012.

Some of the major American cities that held mayoral elections in 2012 included:

Election financing

The 2012 election cycle was the first to be impacted by the Supreme Court's Citizens United decision, which prohibited the government from restricting independent political expenditures by corporations and unions.[20] The projected cost of the 2012 federal election races is estimated to be over 5.8 billion dollars,[21] with approximately $1 billion of that coming from "outside" groups (groups not directly controlled by the candidate's campaign or officially controlled by the party).[22] During the elections there was much spending by the lobbies, particularly the fossil fuels lobby.[23]

Table of federal and state results

Bold indicates a change in control. Note that not all states held gubernatorial, state legislative, and United States Senate elections in 2012.

State[24] Before 2012 elections[25] After 2012 elections[26]
State PVI Governor State leg. US Senate US House President Governor State leg. US Senate US House
Alabama R+13 Rep Rep Rep Rep 6-1 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 6-1
Alaska R+13 Rep Split Split Rep 1-0 Rep Rep Rep Split Rep 1-0
Arizona R+6 Rep Rep Rep Rep 5-3 Rep Rep Rep Rep Dem 5-4
Arkansas R+9 Dem Dem Split Rep 3-1 Rep Dem Rep Split Rep 4-0
California D+7 Dem Dem Dem Dem 34-19 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 38-15
Colorado Even Dem Split Dem Rep 4-3 Dem Dem Dem Dem Rep 4-3
Connecticut D+7 Dem Dem Split D/I[a] Dem 5-0 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 5-0
Delaware D+7 Dem Dem Dem Dem 1-0 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 1-0
Florida R+2 Rep Rep Split Rep 19-6 Dem Rep Rep Split Rep 17-10
Georgia R+7 Rep Rep Rep Rep 8-5 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 9-5
Hawaii D+12 Dem Dem Dem Dem 2-0 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 2-0
Idaho R+17 Rep Rep Rep Rep 2-0 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 2-0
Illinois D+8 Dem Dem Split Rep 11-8 Dem Dem Dem Split Rep 12-6
Indiana R+6 Rep Rep Rep Rep 6-3 Rep Rep Rep Split Rep 7-2
Iowa D+1 Rep Split Split Dem 3-2 Dem Rep Split Split Split 2-2
Kansas R+11 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4-0 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 4-0
Kentucky R+10 Dem Split Rep Rep 4-2 Rep Dem Split Rep Rep 5-1
Louisiana R+10 Rep Split Split Rep 6-1 Rep Rep Rep Split Rep 5-1
Maine D+5 Rep Rep Rep Dem 2-0 Dem Rep Dem Split R/I[b] Dem 2-0
Maryland D+9 Dem Dem Dem Dem 6-2 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 7-1
Massachusetts D+12 Dem Dem Split Dem 10-0 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 9-0
Michigan D+4 Rep Rep Dem Rep 9-6 Dem Rep Rep Dem Rep 9-5
Minnesota D+2 Dem Rep Dem Split 4-4 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 5-3
Mississippi R+10 Rep Dem Rep Rep 3-1 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 3-1
Missouri R+3 Dem Rep Split Rep 6-3 Rep Dem Rep Split Rep 6-2
Montana R+7 Dem Rep Dem Rep 1-0 Rep Dem Rep Dem Rep 1-0
Nebraska R+13 Rep NP Split Rep 3-0 Rep Rep NP Rep Rep 3-0
Nevada D+1 Rep Dem Split Rep 2-1 Dem Rep Dem Split Split 2-2
New Hampshire D+2 Dem Rep Split Rep 2-0 Dem Dem Split Split Dem 2-0
New Jersey D+4 Rep Dem Dem Dem 7-6 Dem Rep Dem Dem Split 6-6
New Mexico D+2 Rep Dem Dem Dem 2-1 Dem Rep Dem Dem Dem 2-1
New York D+10 Dem Split Dem Dem 21-8 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 21-6
North Carolina R+4 Dem Rep Split Dem 7-6 Rep Rep Rep Split Rep 9-4
North Dakota R+10 Rep Rep Split Rep 1-0 Rep Rep Rep Split Rep 1-0
Ohio R+1 Rep Rep Split Rep 13-5 Dem Rep Rep Split Rep 12-4
Oklahoma R+17 Rep Rep Rep Rep 4-1 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 5-0
Oregon D+4 Dem Split Dem Dem 4-1 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 4-1
Pennsylvania D+2 Rep Rep Split Rep 12-7 Dem Rep Rep Split Rep 13-5
Rhode Island D+11 Ind Dem Dem Dem 2-0 Dem Ind Dem Dem Dem 2-0
South Carolina R+8 Rep Rep Rep Rep 5-1 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 6-1
South Dakota R+9 Rep Rep Split Rep 1-0 Rep Rep Rep Split Rep 1-0
Tennessee R+9 Rep Rep Rep Rep 7-2 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 7-2
Texas R+10 Rep Rep Rep Rep 23-9 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 24-12
Utah R+20 Rep Rep Rep Rep 2-1 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 3-1
Vermont D+13 Dem Dem Split D/I[c] Dem 1-0 Dem Dem Dem Split D/I[c] Dem 1-0
Virginia R+2 Rep Split Dem Rep 8-3 Dem Rep Split Dem Rep 8-3
Washington D+5 Dem Dem Dem Dem 5-4 Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem 6-4
West Virginia R+8 Dem Dem Dem Rep 2-1 Rep Dem Dem Dem Rep 2-1
Wisconsin D+2 Rep Rep Split Rep 5-3 Dem Rep Rep Split Rep 5-3
Wyoming R+20 Rep Rep Rep Rep 1-0 Rep Rep Rep Rep Rep 1-0
United States Even Rep 29-20 Rep 25-16 Dem 53-47 Rep 242-193 Dem Rep 29-21 Rep 27-19 Dem 55-45 Rep 233-199
Washington, D.C. D+43 Dem[d] Dem[d] N/A Dem Dem Dem Dem N/A Dem
American Samoa N/A NP/D[e] NP Dem N/A NP/I[f] NP Rep
Guam Rep Dem Dem Rep Dem Dem
N. Mariana Islands CP Rep Dem CP Split Dem
Puerto Rico PNP/R[g] PNP PNP/D[h] PDP/D[i] PDP PNP/D[h]
U.S. Virgin Islands Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem Dem
Subdivision PVI Governor State leg. U.S. Senate U.S. House President Governor State leg. U.S. Senate U.S. House
Subdivision and PVI Before 2012 elections After 2012 elections

Notes

  1. ^ Joe Lieberman was elected as an independent but continued to caucus with Senate Democrats. Connecticut's other Senator was a Democrat.
  2. ^ One of Maine's Senators is a Republican, the other (Angus King) is an independent who has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2013.
  3. ^ a b Bernie Sanders was elected as an independent but caucused with Senate Democrats. Vermont's other Senator was a Democrat.
  4. ^ a b Washington, D.C. does not elect a governor or state legislature, but it does elect a mayor and a city council.
  5. ^ Although elections for governor of American Samoa are non-partisan, Governor Togiola Tulafono affiliates with the Democratic party at the national level.
  6. ^ Although elections for governor of American Samoa are non-partisan, Governor Lolo Matalasi Moliga was elected in 2012 as an Independent.
  7. ^ Puerto Rican Governor Luis Fortuño is a member of the New Progressive Party but affiliates with the Republican Party at the national level.
  8. ^ a b Puerto Rico's Resident Commissioner, Pedro Pierluisi, was elected as a member of the New Progressive Party and has caucused with the Democrats since taking office in 2009.
  9. ^ Puerto Rican Governor Alejandro García Padilla is a member of the Popular Democratic Party but affiliates with the Democratic Party at the national level.

References

  1. ^ "Little to Show for Cash Flood by Big Donors". The New York Times. November 7, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c "For Voters, It's Still the Economy: Energy, Terrorism, Immigration Less Important than in 2008". Pew Research Center. September 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  3. ^ "Why it matters: Issues at stake in election". Associated Press. The Durango Herald. October 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Economy is Top Issue Among Latino Voters". Fox News Latino. September 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  5. ^ "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. February 27, 2011.
  6. ^ Robinson, Eugene (August 20, 2012). "Todd Akin's comment brings 'war on women' back to prominence". The Washington Post.
  7. ^ SCHULTHEIS, EMILY. "Rape comments bring down Mourdock, Akin". Politico. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ Black, Jeff. "Rape remarks sink two Republican Senate hopefuls". NBC News. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ "President Obama's reelection: 12 takeaways". Politico. Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ "Table 1. APPORTIONMENT POPULATION AND NUMBER OF REPRESENTATIVES, BY STATE: 2010 CENSUS" (PDF). December 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  11. ^ "RNC officially names Mitt Romney the party's 'presumptive nominee'". Los Angeles Times. April 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  12. ^ "Election 2012 results Liveblog: In Senate, Democrats ward off challenges". CSMonitor.com. April 23, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ "Election Statistics, 1920 to Present". United States House of Representatives.
  14. ^ John Celock (November 7, 2012). "State Legislative Elections: Democrats Gain Control Of Eight Chambers". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2012.
  15. ^ Associated Press (September 28, 2012). "Puerto Rico's voters endorse seeking US statehood but ballot results raise questions". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2012.
  16. ^ García Padilla, Alejandro (November 9, 2012). "Alejandro García Padilla letter to Barack Obama".
  17. ^ Kasperowicz, Pete (November 8, 2012). "Congress expected to ignore Puerto Rico's vote for statehood". The Hill.
  18. ^ David Crary (November 7, 2012). "Gay marriage, marijuana backed in historic votes". Yahoo! News. AP. Retrieved 2012.
  19. ^ "All Results Statewide" (PDF). Oregon Secretary of State, Elections Division. November 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  20. ^ DAVE GRAM, AP (November 7, 2012). "Despite Citizens United decision, Vt. officials say money and TV don't win political campaigns". The Republic. Columbus Indiana. Retrieved 2012.[permanent dead link]
  21. ^ "The Money Behind the Elections". OpenSecrets. Retrieved 2012.
  22. ^ MICHAEL KIRKLAND (November 11, 2012). "Karl Rove, using post-Citizens United funds, comes up a cropper". United Press International. Retrieved 2012.
  23. ^ Fossil Fuel Industry Ads Dominate TV Campaign September 13, 2012
  24. ^ "Partisan Voter Index by State, 1994-2014" (PDF). Cook Political Report. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 13, 2017. Retrieved 2018. PVI in 2012
  25. ^ "2012 State and Legislative Partisan Composition" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ "2013 State and Legislative Partisan Composition" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 2018.

Further reading

  • Barone, Michael, et al., The Almanac of American Politics 2014 (2013), detailed coverage of every election for Congress and governor excerpt
  • Jacobson, Gary C. "How the Economy and Partisanship Shaped the 2012 Presidential and Congressional Elections." Political Science Quarterly (2013) 128#1 pp: 1-38. online
  • Nelson, Michael, ed. The Elections of 2012 (2013) excerpt and text search; topical essays by experts

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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