United States Presidential Election in Wisconsin, 1968
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United States Presidential Election in Wisconsin, 1968
1968 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

← 1964 November 5, 1968 1972 →
  Richard Nixon portrait.jpg Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg George C Wallace.jpg
Nominee Richard Nixon Hubert Humphrey George Wallace
Party Republican Democratic Independent
Home state New York[a] Minnesota Alabama
Running mate Spiro Agnew Edmund Muskie S. Marvin Griffin
Electoral vote 12 0 0
Popular vote 809,997 748,804 127,835
Percentage 47.89% 44.27% 7.56%

Wisconsin Presidential Election Results 1968.svg
County Results

President before election

Lyndon B. Johnson
Democratic

Elected President

Richard Nixon
Republican

The 1968 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 5, 1968 as part of the 1968 United States presidential election. State voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Background

Politics in Wisconsin since the Populist movement had been dominated by the Republican Party,[1] as the upper classes, along with the majority of workers who followed them, fled from William Jennings Bryan's agrarian and free silver sympathies.[2] Competition between the "League" under Robert M. La Follette, and the conservative "Regular" faction[3] would develop into the Wisconsin Progressive Party in the late 1930s, which was opposed to the conservative German Democrats and to the national Republican Party, and allied with Franklin D. Roosevelt at the federal level. During the two wartime elections, the formerly Democratic German counties in the east of the state - which had been powerfully opposed to the Civil War because they saw it as a "Yankee" war and opposed the military draft instituted during it[4] - viewed Communism as a much greater threat to America than Nazism and consequently opposed President Roosevelt's war effort.[5] Consequently, these historically Democratic counties became virtually the most Republican in the entire state, and became a major support base for populist conservative Senator Joe McCarthy, who became notorious for his investigations into Communists inside the American government.

The 1958 midterm elections, however, saw a major change in Wisconsin politics, as Gaylord A. Nelson became only the state's second Democratic Governor since 1895, and the state also elected Democrats to the position of treasurer and Senator, besides that party gaining a majority in the State Assembly for only the second time since the middle 1890s. They maintained a close balance in the early 1960s, signalling the state's transition to a swing state. Predicted racial backlash from urban Polish-Americans, seen in the 1964 primaries when George Wallace received over 30 percent of Wisconsin's vote,[6] did not affect Lyndon B. Johnson's big victory in the state in 1964, but would have severe effects when racial unrest began in 1966.

Anti-war Minnesota Senator Eugene McCarthy would easily win Wisconsin's 1968 Democratic presidential primary against incumbent President Johnson, who soon announced he would not run for re-election in 1968.[7] Former Vice-President and 1960 Republican nominee Richard Nixon won eighty percent of the vote in the state's Republican primary.[7]

Vote

At the beginning of the campaign, the deep divisions within the Democratic Party were worrisome for political scientists and for the party itself.[8] The first poll said that Nixon was certain to carry Wisconsin,[9] and this opinion was repeated early in October.[10]

Hopes remained dim as the election neared despite the belief by local Representative Clement J. Zablocki that the independent candidacy of George Wallace was losing its impact in the racial-unrest-stricken southern urban counties around Milwaukee, Racine and Kenosha,[11] where Wallace had campaigned extensively in September in his effort to put the election into the House of Representatives.[12] Although the gap would narrow in the last polls,[13] Wisconsin would be carried by Nixon with 47.89 percent of the vote, over Humphrey with 44.27 percent and Wallace with 7.56 percent. Wallace's fared best in rural northern areas away from Lake Superior, and in southern suburbs affected by racial conflict.

Results

1968 United States presidential election in Wisconsin[14]
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Republican Richard Nixon 809,997 47.89% 12
Democratic Hubert Humphrey 748,804 44.27% 0
Independent George Wallace 127,835 7.56% 0
Write-ins -- 2,342 0.14% 0
Independent Henning A. Blomen 1,338[b] 0.08% 0
Independent Fred Halstead 1,222[b] 0.07% 0
Totals 1,691,538 100.0% 12

Results by county

County Richard Milhous Nixon
Republican
Hubert Horatio Humphrey
Democratic
George Corley Wallace
Independent
Various candidates
Other parties
Margin Total votes cast[15]
# % # % # % # % # %
Adams 1,691 44.81% 1,614 42.77% 461 12.22% 8 0.21% 77 2.04% 3,774
Ashland 2,557 35.74% 4,147 57.96% 401 5.60% 50 0.70% -1,590 -22.22% 7,155
Barron 7,526 55.38% 5,183 38.14% 867 6.38% 13 0.10% 2,343 17.24% 13,589
Bayfield 2,333 40.92% 3,036 53.24% 323 5.66% 10 0.18% -703 -12.33% 5,702
Brown 30,133 53.67% 21,615 38.50% 4,341 7.73% 54 0.10% 8,518 15.17% 56,143
Buffalo 2,992 54.21% 2,112 38.27% 413 7.48% 2 0.04% 880 15.94% 5,519
Burnett 2,056 45.81% 2,010 44.79% 414 9.22% 8 0.18% 46 1.02% 4,488
Calumet 5,792 56.77% 3,609 35.37% 792 7.76% 10 0.10% 2,183 21.40% 10,203
Chippewa 7,772 47.38% 7,335 44.72% 1,282 7.82% 14 0.09% 437 2.66% 16,403
Clark 6,325 51.20% 4,601 37.24% 1,398 11.32% 30 0.24% 1,724 13.95% 12,354
Columbia 8,633 52.60% 6,698 40.81% 1,067 6.50% 16 0.10% 1,935 11.79% 16,414
Crawford 3,316 54.09% 2,391 39.00% 419 6.84% 4 0.07% 925 15.09% 6,130
Dane 39,917 38.36% 59,951 57.61% 3,771 3.62% 422 0.41% -20,034 -19.25% 104,061
Dodge 14,909 57.88% 8,949 34.74% 1,875 7.28% 26 0.10% 5,960 23.14% 25,759
Door 5,647 63.34% 2,728 30.60% 535 6.00% 6 0.07% 2,919 32.74% 8,916
Douglas 5,656 29.59% 12,506 65.43% 930 4.87% 23 0.12% -6,850 -35.84% 19,115
Dunn 5,415 51.44% 4,392 41.73% 709 6.74% 10 0.10% 1,023 9.72% 10,526
Eau Claire 11,799 46.66% 12,302 48.65% 1,169 4.62% 17 0.07% -503 -1.99% 25,287
Florence 821 48.32% 718 42.26% 157 9.24% 3 0.18% 103 6.06% 1,699
Fond du Lac 18,184 55.59% 12,563 38.41% 1,934 5.91% 28 0.09% 5,621 17.18% 32,709
Forest 1,264 40.14% 1,470 46.68% 412 13.08% 3 0.10% -206 -6.54% 3,149
Grant 10,789 62.49% 5,414 31.36% 1,054 6.11% 7 0.04% 5,375 31.13% 17,264
Green 6,502 61.03% 3,501 32.86% 641 6.02% 10 0.09% 3,001 28.17% 10,654
Green Lake 4,893 63.69% 2,299 29.92% 488 6.35% 3 0.04% 2,594 33.76% 7,683
Iowa 4,005 54.03% 2,897 39.08% 509 6.87% 2 0.03% 1,108 14.95% 7,413
Iron 1,137 34.30% 1,913 57.71% 262 7.90% 3 0.09% -776 -23.41% 3,315
Jackson 3,172 52.88% 2,293 38.22% 529 8.82% 5 0.08% 879 14.65% 5,999
Jefferson 12,478 54.97% 8,716 38.40% 1,470 6.48% 34 0.15% 3,762 16.57% 22,698
Juneau 3,828 53.60% 2,595 36.33% 712 9.97% 7 0.10% 1,233 17.26% 7,142
Kenosha 17,089 40.57% 21,427 50.86% 3,548 8.42% 62 0.15% -4,338 -10.30% 42,126
Kewaunee 4,467 57.25% 2,622 33.61% 703 9.01% 10 0.13% 1,845 23.65% 7,802
La Crosse 17,433 55.76% 11,570 37.00% 2,214 7.08% 50 0.16% 5,863 18.75% 31,267
Lafayette 4,084 55.10% 2,853 38.49% 470 6.34% 5 0.07% 1,231 16.61% 7,412
Langlade 3,712 49.44% 3,064 40.81% 718 9.56% 14 0.19% 648 8.63% 7,508
Lincoln 4,793 51.37% 3,858 41.35% 670 7.18% 9 0.10% 935 10.02% 9,330
Manitowoc 13,562 44.23% 15,298 49.89% 1,790 5.84% 11 0.04% -1,736 -5.66% 30,661
Marathon 16,907 44.40% 18,063 47.43% 3,051 8.01% 60 0.16% -1,156 -3.04% 38,081
Marinette 7,134 48.24% 6,415 43.37% 1,223 8.27% 18 0.12% 719 4.86% 14,790
Marquette 2,374 61.15% 1,228 31.63% 279 7.19% 1 0.03% 1,146 29.52% 3,882
Menominee 179 24.19% 531 71.76% 30 4.05% 0 0.00% -352 -47.57% 740
Milwaukee 160,022 39.81% 206,027 51.26% 35,056 8.72% 831 0.21% -46,005 -11.45% 401,936
Monroe 6,938 57.74% 4,012 33.39% 1,056 8.79% 9 0.07% 2,926 24.35% 12,015
Oconto 5,680 53.74% 3,737 35.36% 1,141 10.80% 11 0.10% 1,943 18.38% 10,569
Oneida 5,077 48.55% 4,435 42.41% 941 9.00% 5 0.05% 642 6.14% 10,458
Outagamie 25,080 59.29% 14,224 33.63% 2,956 6.99% 41 0.10% 10,856 25.66% 42,301
Ozaukee 12,155 58.11% 7,246 34.64% 1,505 7.19% 13 0.06% 4,909 23.47% 20,919
Pepin 1,493 49.98% 1,263 42.28% 231 7.73% 0 0.00% 230 7.70% 2,987
Pierce 4,990 48.76% 4,783 46.74% 453 4.43% 8 0.08% 207 2.02% 10,234
Polk 5,593 48.88% 5,179 45.26% 656 5.73% 15 0.13% 414 3.62% 11,443
Portage 6,180 36.10% 10,014 58.49% 900 5.26% 27 0.16% -3,834 -22.39% 17,121
Price 3,096 47.44% 2,794 42.81% 621 9.52% 15 0.23% 302 4.63% 6,526
Racine 28,028 44.78% 27,045 43.21% 7,457 11.91% 56 0.09% 983 1.57% 62,586
Richland 4,141 59.82% 2,288 33.05% 485 7.01% 8 0.12% 1,853 26.77% 6,922
Rock 25,229 50.97% 20,567 41.56% 3,655 7.38% 42 0.08% 4,662 9.42% 49,493
Rusk 2,666 44.74% 2,559 42.94% 726 12.18% 8 0.13% 107 1.80% 5,959
Sauk 8,608 53.64% 6,406 39.92% 1,019 6.35% 15 0.09% 2,202 13.72% 16,048
Sawyer 2,475 52.17% 1,830 38.58% 435 9.17% 4 0.08% 645 13.60% 4,744
Shawano 8,444 63.75% 3,602 27.20% 1,181 8.92% 18 0.14% 4,842 36.56% 13,245
Sheboygan 17,764 44.86% 20,170 50.93% 1,592 4.02% 76 0.19% -2,406 -6.08% 39,602
St. Croix 6,595 46.61% 6,807 48.11% 735 5.20% 11 0.08% -212 -1.50% 14,148
Taylor 3,043 43.96% 2,910 42.04% 959 13.85% 10 0.14% 133 1.92% 6,922
Trempealeau 4,861 50.69% 3,971 41.41% 747 7.79% 10 0.10% 890 9.28% 9,589
Vernon 5,824 55.18% 3,666 34.73% 1,062 10.06% 3 0.03% 2,158 20.45% 10,555
Vilas 3,339 58.12% 1,798 31.30% 598 10.41% 10 0.17% 1,541 26.82% 5,745
Walworth 15,040 61.85% 7,505 30.87% 1,755 7.22% 15 0.06% 7,535 30.99% 24,315
Washburn 2,425 47.63% 2,273 44.65% 384 7.54% 9 0.18% 152 2.99% 5,091
Washington 12,439 54.96% 8,104 35.81% 2,065 9.12% 23 0.10% 4,335 19.16% 22,631
Waukesha 47,557 54.98% 31,947 36.93% 6,921 8.00% 79 0.09% 15,610 18.05% 86,504
Waupaca 10,606 67.13% 3,978 25.18% 1,206 7.63% 9 0.06% 6,628 41.95% 15,799
Waushara 4,187 65.35% 1,652 25.78% 566 8.83% 2 0.03% 2,535 39.57% 6,407
Winnebago 25,361 53.84% 18,605 39.50% 3,045 6.46% 93 0.20% 6,756 14.34% 47,104
Wood 11,795 48.29% 10,921 44.71% 1,695 6.94% 16 0.07% 874 3.58% 24,427
Totals 809,997 47.89% 748,804 44.27% 127,835 7.56% 2,342 0.14% 61,193 3.62% 1,691,538

Notes

  1. ^ Although he was born in California and he served as a U.S. Senator from California, in 1968 Richard Nixon's official state of residence was New York, because he moved there to practice law after his defeat in the 1962 California gubernatorial election. During his first term as president, Nixon re-established his residency in California. Consequently, most reliable reference books list Nixon's home state as New York in the 1968 election and his home state as California in the 1972 (and 1960) election.
  2. ^ a b Votes for this candidate were not separated by county but listed only as a state-wide total. They are included in the statewide total are the bottom of the county table.[15]

References

  1. ^ Burnham, Walter Dean; 'The System of 1896: An Analysis'; in The Evolution of American Electoral Systems, pp. 178-179 ISBN 0313213798
  2. ^ Sundquist, James; Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Johnson Years, p. 526 ISBN 0815719094
  3. ^ Hansen, John Mark; Shigeo Hirano, and Snyder, James M. Jr.; 'Parties within Parties: Parties, Factions, and Coordinated Politics, 1900-1980'; in Gerber, Alan S. and Schickler, Eric; Governing in a Polarized Age: Elections, Parties, and Political Representation in America, pp. 165-168 ISBN 978-1-107-09509-0
  4. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 381-382, 414 ISBN 978-0-691-16324-6
  5. ^ Phillips; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 387-388
  6. ^ Phillips; The Emerging Republican Majority, p. 396
  7. ^ a b Kenworthy, E.W.; 'M'Carthy Wins Wisconsin: Polls 57% to Johnson's 35; G.O.P. Gives 80% to Nixon: Reagan Gets 10% Kennedy Write-in 6%'; Special to The New York Times ; April 3, 1968, p. 1
  8. ^ Otten, Allen L.; 'A Party Divided: Democrats' Rifts Pose Problems for Candidates As Campaign Develops'; The Wall Street Journal, August 29, 1968, p. 1
  9. ^ Broder, David; 'Nixon, Wallace have 22 states all sewed up', The Boston Globe, September 11, 1968, p. 15
  10. ^ 'Electoral Vote: Nixon 359, HHH 46'; The Boston Globe, October 7, 1968, p. 24
  11. ^ Lyons, Richard L.; 'Wisconsin's Nelson Likely to Buck GOP Tide: Campaign '68 House Fight Sees Wallace Decline Knowles Popular'; The Washington Post, Times Herald, October 29, 1968, p. A4
  12. ^ Evans, Rowland and Novak, Robert; 'Growing Wallace Strength Poses a Threat to Nixon in Key States'; The Washington Post, September 20, 1968, p. A25
  13. ^ 'A Final State-by-State Political Survey...: ...A Last Reading on the Campaign of 1968'; The Washington Post, Times-Herald, November 3, 1968, p. B4
  14. ^ "1968 Presidential General Election Results - Wisconsin". Retrieved 2016.
  15. ^ a b "WI US President Race, November 05, 1968". Our Campaigns.

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