United States Presidential Election in Wisconsin, 1988
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United States Presidential Election in Wisconsin, 1988
1988 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

← 1984 November 8, 1988 1992 →
  1988 Dukakis.jpg 1988 Bush.jpg
Nominee Michael Dukakis George H. W. Bush
Party Democratic Republican
Home state Massachusetts Texas
Running mate Lloyd Bentsen Dan Quayle
Electoral vote 11 0
Popular vote 1,126,794 1,047,499
Percentage 51.41% 47.80%

WI1988.svg
County Results

President before election

Ronald Reagan
Republican

Elected President

George H. W. Bush
Republican

The 1988 United States presidential election in Wisconsin took place on November 8, 1988. All 50 states and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1988 United States presidential election. State voters chose 11 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Wisconsin was won by Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis who was running against incumbent United States Vice President George H. W. Bush of Texas. Dukakis ran with Texas Senator Lloyd Bentsen as Vice President, and Bush ran with Indiana Senator Dan Quayle.

Wisconsin weighed in for this election as 12 points more Democratic than the national average. As of the 2020 presidential election, this is the last election in which Green County voted for a Republican presidential candidate.[1] This was also the first time since 1960 that Wisconsin would back the losing candidate in a presidential election.[2]

Partisan background

The presidential election of 1988 was a very partisan election for Wisconsin, with over 99 percent of the electorate voting for either the Republican or Democratic parties, although five additional candidates were on the ballot.[3] Dukakis and Bush almost evenly split Wisconsin's seventy-two counties - Dukakis won 37 and Bush won 35. Dukakis won the large urban counties containing Madison (Dane County), Milwaukee, Racine and Kenosha, alongside almost entirely Native American Menominee County and the heavily unionized Scandinavian-American counties of the northwest. Bush won the suburban "WOW counties" and the more conservative, historically German Catholic, counties of the rural eastern half of the state.[4] Over the state as a whole, Dukakis did best, as usual, in Menominee County, and Bush did best in Ozaukee County.

Republican national victory

Dukakis won the election in Wisconsin with a 4-point margin. The state has since consistently voted for the Democratic Party, until the narrow victory of Republican Donald Trump in 2016. The narrow election results in the rapidly liberalizing state of Wisconsin are reflective of a nationwide reconsolidation of base for the Republican Party, which took place through the 1980s. Through the passage of some very controversial economic programs, spearheaded by then President Ronald Reagan (called, collectively, "Reaganomics"), the mid-to-late 1980s saw a period of economic growth and stability. The hallmark for Reaganomics was, in part, the wide-scale deregulation of corporate interests, and tax cuts for the wealthy.[5]

Dukakis ran his campaign on a socially liberal platform, and advocated for higher economic regulation and environmental protection. Bush, alternatively, ran on a campaign of continuing the social and economic policies of former President Reagan - which gained him much support with social conservatives and people living in rural areas, who largely associated the Republican Party with the economic growth of the 1980s. Additionally, while the economic programs passed under Reagan, and furthered under Bush and Clinton, may have boosted the economy for a brief period, they are criticized by many analysts as "setting the stage" for economic troubles in the United States after 2007, such as the Great Recession.[6]

Results

1988 United States presidential election in Wisconsin
Party Candidate Votes Percentage Electoral votes
Democratic Michael Stanley Dukakis 1,126,794 51.41% 11
Republican George Herbert Walker Bush 1,047,499 47.80% 0
Independent Ron Paul 5,157 0.24% 0
Independent David Duke 3,056 0.14% 0
Independent James Warren 2,574[a] 0.12% 0
Independent Lyndon LaRouche 2,302[a] 0.11% 0
Write-ins 2,273[a] 0.10% 0
Independent Lenora Fulani 1,953[a] 0.09% 0
Totals 2,191,608 100.0% 11

Results by county

County Michael Stanley Dukakis
Democratic
George Herbert Walker Bush
Republican
Ronald Ernest Paul
Independent
David Ernest Duke
Independent
Margin Total votes cast[7]
# % # % # % # % # %
Adams 3,598 52.27% 3,258 47.33% 8 0.12% 19 0.28% 340 4.94% 6,883
Ashland 4,526 60.49% 2,926 39.11% 10 0.13% 20 0.27% 1,600 21.38% 7,482
Barron 8,951 50.94% 8,527 48.53% 45 0.26% 47 0.27% 424 2.41% 17,570
Bayfield 4,323 57.96% 3,095 41.50% 12 0.16% 28 0.38% 1,228 16.47% 7,458
Brown 41,788 48.62% 43,625 50.75% 196 0.23% 344 0.40% -1,837 -2.14% 85,953
Buffalo 3,481 55.14% 2,783 44.08% 23 0.36% 26 0.41% 698 11.06% 6,313
Burnett 3,537 54.71% 2,884 44.61% 11 0.17% 33 0.51% 653 10.10% 6,465
Calumet 6,481 44.06% 8,107 55.12% 21 0.14% 99 0.67% -1,626 -11.06% 14,708
Chippewa 11,447 53.61% 9,757 45.69% 53 0.25% 97 0.45% 1,690 7.91% 21,354
Clark 6,642 50.95% 6,296 48.30% 19 0.15% 79 0.61% 346 2.65% 13,036
Columbia 9,132 46.28% 10,475 53.09% 45 0.23% 78 0.40% -1,343 -6.81% 19,730
Crawford 3,608 52.34% 3,238 46.98% 22 0.32% 25 0.36% 370 5.37% 6,893
Dane 105,414 59.92% 69,143 39.30% 543 0.31% 834 0.47% 36,271 20.62% 175,934
Dodge 12,663 42.31% 17,003 56.81% 66 0.22% 195 0.65% -4,340 -14.50% 29,927
Door 5,425 43.67% 6,907 55.60% 20 0.16% 70 0.56% -1,482 -11.93% 12,422
Douglas 13,907 68.01% 6,440 31.49% 34 0.17% 68 0.33% 7,467 36.52% 20,449
Dunn 9,205 55.47% 7,273 43.83% 37 0.22% 79 0.48% 1,932 11.64% 16,594
Eau Claire 21,150 54.20% 17,664 45.27% 60 0.15% 149 0.38% 3,486 8.93% 39,023
Florence 1,018 47.53% 1,106 51.63% 4 0.19% 14 0.65% -88 -4.11% 2,142
Fond du Lac 15,887 41.62% 21,985 57.59% 86 0.23% 217 0.57% -6,098 -15.97% 38,175
Forest 2,142 53.43% 1,845 46.02% 4 0.10% 18 0.45% 297 7.41% 4,009
Grant 9,421 48.12% 10,049 51.32% 44 0.22% 66 0.34% -628 -3.21% 19,580
Green 5,153 43.27% 6,636 55.73% 41 0.34% 78 0.66% -1,483 -12.45% 11,908
Green Lake 3,033 36.55% 5,205 62.72% 21 0.25% 40 0.48% -2,172 -26.17% 8,299
Iowa 4,268 49.93% 4,240 49.60% 13 0.15% 27 0.32% 28 0.33% 8,548
Iron 2,090 56.26% 1,599 43.04% 5 0.13% 21 0.57% 491 13.22% 3,715
Jackson 3,924 52.20% 3,555 47.29% 11 0.15% 27 0.36% 369 4.91% 7,517
Jefferson 11,816 44.86% 14,309 54.32% 74 0.28% 143 0.54% -2,493 -9.46% 26,342
Juneau 3,734 43.11% 4,869 56.21% 18 0.21% 41 0.47% -1,135 -13.10% 8,662
Kenosha 30,089 57.72% 21,661 41.55% 120 0.23% 259 0.50% 8,428 16.17% 52,129
Kewaunee 4,786 52.14% 4,330 47.17% 8 0.09% 55 0.60% 456 4.97% 9,179
La Crosse 22,204 50.39% 21,548 48.90% 100 0.23% 214 0.49% 656 1.49% 44,066
Lafayette 3,521 48.70% 3,665 50.69% 15 0.21% 29 0.40% -144 -1.99% 7,230
Langlade 4,254 46.31% 4,884 53.17% 16 0.17% 32 0.35% -630 -6.86% 9,186
Lincoln 5,819 52.06% 5,257 47.03% 33 0.30% 69 0.62% 562 5.03% 11,178
Manitowoc 19,680 54.69% 16,020 44.52% 63 0.18% 224 0.62% 3,660 10.17% 35,987
Marathon 24,658 49.79% 24,482 49.44% 125 0.25% 256 0.52% 176 0.36% 49,521
Marinette 8,030 45.20% 9,637 54.25% 26 0.15% 71 0.40% -1,607 -9.05% 17,764
Marquette 2,463 44.24% 3,059 54.95% 15 0.27% 30 0.54% -596 -10.71% 5,567
Menominee 1,028 72.55% 381 26.89% 0 0.00% 8 0.56% 647 45.66% 1,417
Milwaukee 268,287 61.04% 168,363 38.30% 1,082 0.25% 1,813 0.41% 99,924 22.73% 439,545
Monroe 6,437 47.38% 7,073 52.06% 29 0.21% 46 0.34% -636 -4.68% 13,585
Oconto 6,549 47.75% 7,084 51.65% 23 0.17% 60 0.44% -535 -3.90% 13,716
Oneida 7,414 47.31% 8,130 51.88% 55 0.35% 71 0.45% -716 -4.57% 15,670
Outagamie 27,771 45.32% 33,113 54.04% 103 0.17% 291 0.47% -5,342 -8.72% 61,278
Ozaukee 12,661 35.35% 22,899 63.94% 107 0.30% 145 0.40% -10,238 -28.59% 35,812
Pepin 1,906 58.68% 1,311 40.36% 8 0.25% 23 0.71% 595 18.32% 3,248
Pierce 8,659 58.55% 6,045 40.87% 33 0.22% 52 0.35% 2,614 17.68% 14,789
Polk 8,981 56.22% 6,866 42.98% 43 0.27% 85 0.53% 2,115 13.24% 15,975
Portage 16,317 57.18% 12,057 42.25% 48 0.17% 113 0.40% 4,260 14.93% 28,535
Price 3,987 53.18% 3,450 46.02% 12 0.16% 48 0.64% 537 7.16% 7,497
Racine 39,631 51.72% 36,342 47.42% 213 0.28% 445 0.58% 3,289 4.29% 76,631
Richland 3,643 47.26% 4,026 52.23% 16 0.21% 23 0.30% -383 -4.97% 7,708
Rock 29,576 50.83% 28,178 48.43% 158 0.27% 276 0.47% 1,398 2.40% 58,188
Rusk 3,888 55.51% 3,063 43.73% 18 0.26% 35 0.50% 825 11.78% 7,004
Sauk 8,324 44.54% 10,225 54.72% 35 0.19% 103 0.55% -1,901 -10.17% 18,687
Sawyer 3,231 49.43% 3,260 49.88% 20 0.31% 25 0.38% -29 -0.44% 6,536
Shawano 6,587 43.78% 8,362 55.57% 21 0.14% 77 0.51% -1,775 -11.80% 15,047
Sheboygan 23,429 49.66% 23,471 49.75% 86 0.18% 191 0.40% -42 -0.09% 47,177
St. Croix 11,392 52.90% 9,960 46.25% 62 0.29% 119 0.55% 1,432 6.65% 21,533
Taylor 3,785 46.73% 4,254 52.52% 15 0.19% 46 0.57% -469 -5.79% 8,100
Trempealeau 6,212 55.59% 4,902 43.87% 16 0.14% 45 0.40% 1,310 11.72% 11,175
Vernon 5,754 51.94% 5,226 47.17% 35 0.32% 63 0.57% 528 4.77% 11,078
Vilas 3,781 38.89% 5,842 60.09% 21 0.22% 78 0.80% -2,061 -21.20% 9,722
Walworth 12,203 39.77% 18,259 59.50% 91 0.30% 132 0.43% -6,056 -19.74% 30,685
Washburn 3,393 52.15% 3,074 47.25% 13 0.20% 26 0.40% 319 4.90% 6,506
Washington 15,907 39.24% 24,328 60.01% 109 0.27% 195 0.48% -8,421 -20.77% 40,539
Waukesha 57,598 38.68% 90,467 60.76% 402 0.27% 426 0.29% -32,869 -22.08% 148,893
Waupaca 7,078 37.74% 11,559 61.62% 30 0.16% 90 0.48% -4,481 -23.89% 18,757
Waushara 3,535 41.33% 4,953 57.91% 18 0.21% 47 0.55% -1,418 -16.58% 8,553
Winnebago 28,508 44.54% 35,085 54.82% 119 0.19% 294 0.46% -6,577 -10.28% 64,006
Wood 16,074 48.93% 16,549 50.38% 52 0.16% 173 0.53% -475 -1.45% 32,848
Totals 1,126,794 51.41% 1,047,499 47.80% 5,157 0.24% 3,056 0.14% 79,295 3.62% 2,191,608

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Votes for this candidate were not separated by county but listed only as a statewide total.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; 'How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century'; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016
  2. ^ "Presidential General Election Results Comparison - Wisconsin". Dave Leip's U.S. Election Atlas.
  3. ^ "1988 Presidential General Election Results - Wisconsin". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Phillips, Kevin P.; The Emerging Republican Majority, pp. 381-382, 414 ISBN 978-0-691-16324-6
  5. ^ "Since 1980s, the Kindest of Tax Cuts for the Rich". The New York Times. 2012-01-18. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Jerry Lanson (2008-11-06). "A historic victory. A changed nation. Now, can Obama deliver?". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved .
  7. ^ a b "WI US President Race, November 08, 1988". Our Campaigns.

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