Usul (music)
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Usul Music

In Ottoman classical music, usul is an underlying rhythmic cycle that complements the melodic rhythm and sometimes helps shape the overall structure of a composition. An usul can be as short as two beats or as long as 128 beats. Usul is often translated as "meter", but usul and meter are not exactly the same. Both are repeating rhythmic patterns with more or less complex inner structures of beats of differing duration and weight. But a student learning Turkish music in the traditional me?k system first memorizes the usul kinetically by striking the knees with the hands. The student then sings the vocal or instrumental composition while performing the underlying usul. This pedagogical system helps the student memorize the composition while internalizing the underlying rhythmic structure.

Usul patterns have standard pronounceable vocables built from combinations of the syllables düm, dü-üm, tek, tekkyaa, teke, te-ek, where düm, dü-üm indicate a strong low beat of single or double duration, and tek, tekkya, teke, te-ek indicate various combinations of light beats of half, single or double duration. Long usuls (e.g., 28/4, 32/4, 120/4) are compound metric structures that underlie longer sections of entire compositions.

In Ottoman times, the usul was realized by drummers. Drums are generally omitted in modern performances except for Mevlevi. When performing music for the Mevlevi ceremony, drummers traditionally play embellished (velveleli) versions of the usuls.

Instrumental improvisations (taksim) and vocal improvisations (gazel, mersiye, etc.) are generally performed in "free" rhythm, with no usul.

The melodic counterpart to usul rhythmic mode is makam melodic mode. The parallel system to usul in Indian music is tala.


Usuls based on number of beats per bar

  • 2-) Nimsofyan
  • 3-) Semâî
  • 4-) Sofyan
  • 5-) Zafer, Türk Aksa (Süreyya)
  • 6-) Yürüksemâî, Sengin Semaî , Ar Semai
  • 7-) Devr-i Hindî, Devr-i Turan (Mandra), Devr-i Aryân
  • 8-) Düyek, Ardüyek, Katakofti (Müsemmen)
  • 9-) Aksak, Ar Aksak, Oynak, Evfer, Ar Evfer, Bulgar Darb? (Darb?bulgar), Çiftesofyan (Raksaksa)
  • 10-) Aksaksemaî, Ar Aksaksemaî
  • 12-) Frenkçin
  • 13-) Nimevsat
  • 14-) Devrirevan
  • 16-) Nimhafîf
  • 32-) Hafîf, Muhammes
  • 88-) Darb?fetih

Additional usuls

  1. Gül?en
  2. Art?k Aksaksemaî
  3. Türk Aksaksemaîsi
  4. Arab Aksaksemaîsi
  5. Aksak Sofyan
  6. Kadîm Evfer
  7. Nimevfer
  8. Durakevferi
  9. Firengi Fer'
  10. Fer'
  11. Türk Darb? (1. ?ekil)
  12. Türk Darb? (2. ?ekil)
  13. Türk Darb? (3. ?ekil)
  14. Hünerdarb
  15. Tekvuru?
  16. Karadeniz
  17. Raksan
  18. Aksak Semaî Evferi
  19. Hefta
  20. Nimdevir
  21. Mevlevi Devrirevani
  22. Dolap
  23. Devritürkî
  24. Darb?arabî
  25. Nazl? Devrihindî
  26. Devrikebîr
  27. Evsat
  28. Dilruba
  29. Fahte
  30. Lenkfahte (Nimfahte)
  31. ?irin
  32. Hezeç
  33. Harzem
  34. Çenber
  35. Ar Çenber
  36. Nimberef?an
  37. Beref?an
  38. Nimsakîl
  39. Sakîl
  40. Remel
  41. Havî
  42. Zencîr
  43. Darbeyn
  44. Bekta?îraks?
  45. Darb?kürdî

See also

External links

  • [1] Rhythmic layers in Turkish art music

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