Uvular Trill
Get Uvular Trill essential facts below. View Videos or join the Uvular Trill discussion. Add Uvular Trill to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Uvular Trill
Uvular trill
?
IPA Number123
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʀ
Unicode (hex)U+0280
X-SAMPAR\
Braille? (braille pattern dots-35)? (braille pattern dots-1235)
Audio sample

The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, a small capital letter R. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R.

Voiced uvular trill

Features

Features of the uvular trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over an articulator so that it vibrates. Unlike in tongue-tip trills, it is the uvula, not the tongue, that vibrates.[1]
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Distribution of guttural r (such as [? ? ?]) in Europe in the mid-20th century.[2]
  not usual
  only in some educated speech
  usual in educated speech
  general

There are two main theories regarding the origination of the uvular trill in European languages. According to one theory, the uvular trill originated in Standard French around the 17th century and spread to the standard varieties of German, Danish, Portuguese and some of those of Dutch, Norwegian and Swedish. It is also present in other areas of Europe, but it is not clear if such pronunciations are due to French influence.[3] In most cases, varieties have shifted the sound to a voiced uvular fricative or a voiced uvular approximant .

The other main theory is that the uvular R originated within Germanic languages by the weakening of the alveolar R, which was replaced by an imitation of the alveolar R (vocalisation).[4] Against the "French origin" theory, it is claimed that there are many signs that the uvular R existed in some German dialects long before the 17th century.[]

Apart from modern Europe, uvular R also exists in some Semitic languages, including North Mesopotamian Arabic and probably Tiberian Hebrew.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Parts of the former Cape Province[5] rooi [?o:i?] 'red' May be a fricative instead.[5] See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic North Mesopotamian Arabic ['q?m] 'moon' Corresponds to [r, ?] in most other varieties. See Arabic Phonology
Catalan Some northern dialects[6] rrer [ko'?e] 'to run' See Catalan phonology
Dutch[7][8][9][10] Belgian Limburg[11][12] rood 'red' More commonly a tap.[13] Uvular pronunciations appear to be gaining ground in the Randstad.[14] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Central Netherlands[15]
Randstad[15]
Southern Netherlands[15]
Flemish Brabant[12] More commonly a tap.[13] It is one of the least common realizations of /r/ in these areas.[16] See Dutch phonology
Northern Netherlands[15]
West Flanders[12]
English Cape Flats[17] red [d] 'red' Possible realization of /r/; may be [? ~ ~ ? ~ r] instead.[17] See South African English phonology
Northumbrian dialect[18] More often a fricative.[18] Dialectal "Northumbrian Burr", mostly found in eastern Northumberland, declining. See English phonology
Sierra Leonean[18] More often a fricative.[18]
French[19] rendez-vous 'rendezvous', 'appointment' Dialectal. More commonly an approximant or a fricative . See French phonology
German Standard[20] rot About this sound[?o:t]  'red' In free variation with a voiced uvular fricative and approximant. See Standard German phonology
Hebrew ?? [ja'?ok] 'green' May also be a fricative or approximant. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Italian[1] Some speakers[21] raro ['?ä:?o] 'rare' Rendition alternative to the standard Italian alveolar trill , due to individual orthoepic defects and/or regional variations that make the alternative sound more prevalent, notably in Alto Adige (bordering with German-speaking Austria), Val d'Aosta (bordering with France) and in parts of the Parma province, more markedly around Fidenza. Other alternative sounds may be a voiced uvular fricative or a labiodental approximant .[21] See Italian phonology.
Judaeo-Spanish mujer [mu'] 'woman', 'wife'
Luxembourgish Standard[22] Rou [?] 'silence' Pre-vocalic allophone of /?/; less often realized as a fricative .[23] See Luxembourgish phonology
Older speakers[23] Mauer ['m] 'wall' Realized as [? ~ ?] by younger speakers.[23] See Luxembourgish phonology
Occitan Eastern garric [?a?i] 'oak' Contrasts with alveolar trill ([?ari] 'cured')
Provençal parts [pa?] 'parts' See Occitan phonology
Southern Auvergnat garçon [?a?'su] 'son'
Southeastern Limousin filh [f?i?]
Portuguese European[24] rarear [i'a?] 'to get scarcer' Alternates with other uvular forms and the older alveolar trill. See Portuguese phonology
Fluminense[25] mercado [me'kaðu] 'market', 'fair' Tendency to be replaced by fricative pronunciations. In coda position, it is generally in free variation with , , , and before non-voicing environments
Sulista[25] repolho [?e?'po] 'cabbage' Alternates with the alveolar trill and depending on the region. Never used in coda.
Romani Some dialects rom [?om] 'man' Allophone of a descendant of the Indic retroflex set, so often transcribed /?/. A coronal flap, approximant or trill in other dialects; in some it merges with /r/
Selkup Northern dialects ? ['qa?l] 'sledge' Allophone of /q/ before liquids
Sioux Lakota[26][27] ?í [?í] 'it's brown' Allophone of /?/ before /i/
Sotho Regional variant moriri [mo?i?i] 'hair' Imported from French missionaries. See Sesotho phonology
Swedish Southern[28] räv [:v] 'fox' See Swedish phonology
Yiddish Standard[29] ? [bk] 'bridge' More commonly a flap ; can be alveolar [? ~ r] instead.[29] See Yiddish phonology

Voiced uvular fricative trill

Voiced uvular fricative trill
IPA Number123 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAR\_r

Features

Features of the voiced uvular fricative trill:

Occurrence

It is phonemic in the Maastrichtian and Weert dialects of Limburgish, but it does not contrast with a plain uvular trill in either.[30][31]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Danish[32] rød [oeð?] 'red' Word-initial allophone of /?/, used only sometimes when emphasising a word.[32] Otherwise a continuant, described variously as uvular and pharyngeal . See Danish phonology
Dutch Belgian[33] sturen ['sty:(n)] 'to send' Only when following a vowel, otherwise it is voiceless.[34] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[30] drei [di?] 'three' Either uvular [] or pre-uvular [].[30][31]
Weert dialect[31] drej [dæj]
Portuguese Lisbon[32] ritmo ['it?mu] 'rhythm' Common realization of word-initial /?/.[32] See Portuguese phonology
West Flemish Bruges dialect[35] onder ['u?] 'under' A trill with little friction. An alveolar is used in the neighbouring rural area.[35]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 225.
  2. ^ Map based on Trudgill (1974:220)
  3. ^ Trudgill (1974:221), citing Moulton (1952), Ewert (1963), and Martinet (1969)
  4. ^ Bisiada (2009).
  5. ^ a b Donaldson (1993), p. 15.
  6. ^ Wheeler (2005), pp. 24.
  7. ^ Booij (1999), p. 8.
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), pp. 42, 54, 77, 165, 199-200.
  9. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001), pp. 91-92, 94-97, 99-104.
  10. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), pp. 45-46, 51, 53-55, 58.
  11. ^ Verhoeven (2005), pp. 243 and 245.
  12. ^ a b c Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), p. 52.
  13. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 42.
  14. ^ Collins & Mees (2003), p. 209.
  15. ^ a b c d Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), p. 54.
  16. ^ Verstraten & van de Velde (2001), pp. 52 and 54.
  17. ^ a b Finn (2004), p. 976.
  18. ^ a b c d Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  19. ^ Grevisse & Goosse (2008), pp. 22-36.
  20. ^ Hall (1993), p. 89.
  21. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98-101.
  22. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67-68.
  23. ^ a b c Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 68.
  24. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  25. ^ a b Acoustic analysis of vibrants in Brazilian Portuguese (in Portuguese)
  26. ^ Rood & Taylor (1996).
  27. ^ Lakota Language Consortium (2004). Lakota letters and sounds.
  28. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:225-226)
  29. ^ a b Kleine (2003:263)
  30. ^ a b c Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  31. ^ a b c Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  32. ^ a b c d Grønnum (2005), p. 157.
  33. ^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  34. ^ Tops (2009), p. 83.
  35. ^ a b Hinskens & Taeldeman (2013), p. 167.

References

  • Bisiada, Mario (2009), "[R] in Germanic Dialects -- Tradition or Innovation?", Vernacular, 1: 84-99
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X
  • Canepari, Luciano (1999) [1992], Il MªPi - Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian) (2 ed.), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Donaldson, Bruce C. (1993), "1. Pronunciation", A Grammar of Afrikaans, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1-35, ISBN 9783110134261
  • Ewert, A. (1963), The French Language, London: Faber
  • Finn, Peter (2004), "Cape Flats English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 964-984, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67-74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Goeman, Ton; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /?/ in Dutch dialects", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland (eds.), 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91-112, ISSN 0777-3692
  • Grevisse, Maurice; Goosse, André (2008), Le Bon Usage (14th ed.), De Boeck et Larcier
  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155-166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hall, Tracy Alan (1993), "The phonology of German /?/", Phonology, 10 (1): 83-105, doi:10.1017/S0952675700001743, JSTOR 4615428
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), "The Dutch dialect of Weert" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 28: 107-112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307
  • Hinskens, Frans; Taeldeman, Johan, eds. (2013), Dutch, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018005-3
  • Kleine, Ane (2003), "Standard Yiddish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 261-265, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001385
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Martinet, A. (1969), Le Français sans fard, Paris: Presses Universitaires
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Moulton, W.G. (1952), "Jacob Böhme's uvular r", Journal of English and Germanic Philology, 51: 83-89
  • Rood, David S.; Taylor, Allan R. (1996), "Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouan Language, Part I", Handbook of North American Indians, 17, Smithsonian Institution, pp. 440-482, archived from the original on 2012-07-12, retrieved
  • Tops, Evie (2009), Variatie en verandering van de /r/ in Vlaanderen, Brussels: VUBPress, ISBN 9789054874713
  • Trudgill, Peter (1974), "Linguistic change and diffusion: Description and explanation in sociolinguistic dialect", Language in Society, 3 (2): 215-246, doi:10.1017/S0047404500004358
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 243-247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173
  • Verstraten, Bart; van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of /r/ in standard Dutch", in van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland (eds.), 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45-61, ISSN 0777-3692
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-925814-7

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Uvular_trill
 



 



 
Music Scenes