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In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5. The simplest vanadate ion is the tetrahedral, orthovanadate, anion, which is present in e.g. sodium orthovanadate and in solutions of V2O5 in strong base (pH > 13). Conventionally this ion is represented with a single double bond, however this is a resonance form as the ion is a regular tetrahedron with four equivalent oxygen atoms.
Additionally a range of polyoxovanadate ions exist which include discrete ions and "infinite" polymeric ions. There are also vanadates, such as rhodium vanadate, RhVO4, which has a statistical rutile structure where the Rh3+ and V5+ ions randomly occupy the Ti4+ positions in the rutile lattice, that do not contain a lattice of cations and balancing vanadate anions but are mixed oxides.
In chemical nomenclature when vanadate forms part of the name, it indicates that the compound contains an anion with a central vanadium atom, e.g. ammonium hexafluorovanadate is a common name for the compound (NH4)3VF6 with the IUPAC name of ammonium hexafluoridovanadate(III).
In these ions vanadium exhibits tetrahedral, square pyramidal and octahedral coordination. In this respect vanadium shows similarities to tungstate and molybdate, whereas chromium however has a more limited range of ions.
Dissolution of vanadium pentoxide in strongly basic aqueous solution gives the colourless ion. On acidification, this solution's colour gradually darkens through orange to red at around pH 7. Brown hydrated V2O5 precipitates around pH 2, redissolving to form a light yellow solution containing the [VO2(H2O)4]+ ion. The number and identity of the oxyanions that exist between pH 13 and 2 depend on pH as well as concentration. For example, protonation of vanadate initiates a series of condensations to produce polyoxovanadate ions:
pH 9-12; ,
pH 4-9; , ,
pH 2-4; H3VO4,
Vanadate is a potent inhibitor of certain plasma membrane ATPases, such as Na+/K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA). Acting as a transition-state analog of phosphate, vanadate undergoes nucleophillic attack by water during phosphoryl transfer, essentially "trapping" P-type ATPases in their phosphorylated E2 state. However, it does not inhibit other ATPases, such as SERCA (sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase), actomyosin ATPase and mitochondrial ATPase.
Aureliano, Manuel; Crans, Debbie C. (2009). "Decavanadate and oxovanadates: Oxometalates with many biological activities". Journal Inorganic Biochemistry103: 536-546. doi:10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2008.11010.
^Guang-Chuan Ou.; Long Jiang; Xiao-Long Feng; Tong-Bu Lu (2009). "Vanadium polyoxoanion-bridged macrocyclic metal complexes: from one-dimensional to three-dimensional structures". Dalton Transactions. 1: 71-76. doi:10.1039/B810802A.