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Varying Permeability Model
Decompression model and algorithm based on bubble physics
The VPM presumes that microscopic bubble nuclei always exist in water and tissues that contain water. Any nuclei larger than a specific "critical" size, which is related to the maximum dive depth (exposure pressure), will grow upon decompression (when the diver ascends again). The VPM aims to minimize the total volume of these growing bubbles by keeping the external pressure large, and the inspired inert gas partial pressures low during decompression. The model depends on the assumptions that different sizes of bubbles exist within the body; that the larger bubbles require less reduction in pressure to begin to grow than smaller ones; and that fewer large bubbles exist than smaller ones. These are used to construct an algorithm that provides decompression schedules designed to allow the larger, growing bubbles to be eliminated before they can cause problems.
This bibliography list was compiled by E.B. Maiken and E.C. Baker as reference material for the V-Planner web site in 2002.
Primary Modeling Sources
Yount, D.E. and Hoffman, D.C. 1984. Decompression theory: A dynamic critical-volume hypothesis. In: Bachrach A.J. and Matzen, M.M. eds. Underwater physiology VIII: Proceedings of the eighth symposium on underwater physiology. Undersea Medical Society, Bethesda, 131-146.
Yount, D.E.; Hoffman, D.C. (1986). "On the use of a bubble formation model to calculate diving tables". Aviat Space Environ Med. 57 (2): 149-156. ISSN0095-6562. PMID3954703.
Yount, D.E. and Hoffman, D.C. 1989. On the use of a bubble formation model to calculate nitrogen and helium diving tables. In: Paganelli, C.V. and Farhi, L.E. eds. Physiological functions in special environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, 95-108.
Yount, D.E., Maiken, E.B., and Baker, E.C. 2000. Implications of the Varying Permeability Model for Reverse Dive Profiles. In: Lang, M.A. and Lehner, C.E. (eds.). Proceedings of the Reverse Dive Profiles Workshop. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. pp. 29-61.
VPM Research and Development Sources
D'Arrigo, J.S. (1978). "Improved method for studying the surface chemistry of bubble formation". Aviat Space Environ Med. 49 (2): 358-361. ISSN0095-6562. PMID637789.