Veliki %C5%BEupan
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Veliki %C5%BEupan

Grand, Great or Chief ?upan (transl. Grand Prince, Latin: magnus iupanus, Greek: , zoupanos megas) is the English rendering of a South Slavic title which relate etymologically to ?upan (originally a pater familias, later the tribal chief of a unit called ?upa) like a Russian Grand Prince to a Knyaz (rendered as Prince or Duke depending on administration).


A decorated silver cup with a Medieval Greek inscription attests to the use of the title in 9th-century Bulgaria. The inscription refers to a certain Sivin, who appears to have held that position at the time of Kniaz Boris I (852-889). Sivin was among the Bulgarian boyars who supported the official Christianization, as the subsequently added line "May God help" suggests.[1][2]


In the Middle Ages, the Serbian veliki ?upan ( ) was the supreme chieftain in the multi-tribal society. The title signifies overlordship as the leader of lesser chieftains titled ?upan.[3] It was used by the Serb rulers in the 11th and 12th centuries.[4] In Greek, it was known as archizoupanos (), megazoupanos () and megalos zoupanos (? ).[4]

In the 1090s, Vukan became the veliki ?upan in Ra?ka (Rascia).[5]Stefan Nemanja expelled his brother Tihomir in 1168 and assumed the title of veliki ?upan,[6] as described in the Charter of Hilandar (? ? ? ).[7] A Latin document used mega iupanus for King Stefan the First-Crowned (Stephanus dominus Seruie siue Rasie, qui mega iupanus).[8] Afterwards, it was a high noble rank with notable holders such as Altoman Vojinovi? (fl. 1335-59).

It was used in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (1922-29) as a governmental title for the head of the oblast (an administrative division),[9] the state being divided into 33 oblasts.


  1. ^ , ? (1981). ? [Bulgar Epigraphic Records] (in Bulgarian). ? . pp. 160-162. OCLC 8554080.
  2. ^ ?, ; ?, ?; , (1999). ? ? ? [Who is Who in Medieval Bulgaria] (in Bulgarian). . p. 338. ISBN 978-954-402-047-7.
  3. ^ Francis William Carter; David Turnock (1999). The States of Eastern Europe. Ashgate. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-85521-512-2.
  4. ^ a b ? ; ? (1999). ? ? ?. Knowledge. p. 73. - 1. ? ? ? XI ? XII ?. ? ? ? ? , - ^?, ?^?, ? ^, - ^, § ...
  5. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. University of Michigan Press. pp. 225-. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
  6. ^ Paul Stephenson (29 June 2000). Byzantium's Balkan Frontier: A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900-1204. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267-. ISBN 978-0-521-77017-0.
  7. ^ Jovo Rado? (2000). Po?eci filozofije prava kod Srba. Prometej.
  8. ^ Radovi. 19. 1972. p. 29.
  9. ^ Yugoslavia. (1922). Stenografske beles ke Narodne skups tine Kraljevine Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca: Redovan saziv. p. 29.

Further reading

  • ?irkovi?, S. (1999) Veliki ?upan 1. inirkovi? S.i R.Mihalj?i? [ed.] Leksikon srpskog srednjeg veka, Beograd, str. 73
  • Mihalj?i?, R. (1999) Veliki ?upan 2. inirkovi? S.i R.Mihalj?i? [ed.] Leksikon srpskog srednjeg veka, Beograd, str. 73

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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