Vertebrate Mitochondrial Code
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Vertebrate Mitochondrial Code

The vertebrate mitochondrial code (translation table 2) is the genetic code found in the mitochondria of all vertebrata.

Evolution

AGA and AGG were thought to have become mitochondrial stop codons early in vertebrate evolution.[1] However, at least in humans it has now been shown that AGA and AGG sequences are not recognized as termination codons. A -1 mitoribosome frameshift occurs at the AGA and AGG codons predicted to terminate the CO1 and ND6 open reading frames (ORFs), and consequently both ORFs terminate in the standard UAG codon.[2]

Incomplete stop codons

Mitochondrial genes in some vertebrates (including humans) have incomplete stop codons ending in U or UA, which become complete termination codons (UAA) upon subsequent polyadenylation.[3][4][5][6]

Translation table

Amino acids biochemical properties nonpolar polar basic acidic Termination: stop codon
Standard genetic code
1st
base
2nd base 3rd
base
U C A G
U UUU (Phe/F) Phenylalanine UCU (Ser/S) Serine UAU (Tyr/Y) Tyrosine UGU (Cys/C) Cysteine U
UUC UCC UAC UGC C
UUA (Leu/L) Leucine UCA UAA Stop UGA (Trp/W) Tryptophan     A
UUG UCG UAG UGG G
C CUU CCU (Pro/P) Proline CAU (His/H) Histidine CGU (Arg/R) Arginine U
CUC CCC CAC CGC C
CUA CCA CAA (Gln/Q) Glutamine CGA A
CUG CCG CAG CGG G
A AUU (Ile/I) Isoleucine ACU (Thr/T) Threonine         AAU (Asn/N) Asparagine AGU (Ser/S) Serine U
AUC ACC AAC AGC C
AUA (Met/M) Methionine ACA AAA (Lys/K) Lysine AGA Stop A
AUG[A] ACG AAG AGG G
G GUU (Val/V) Valine GCU (Ala/A) Alanine GAU (Asp/D) Aspartic acid GGU (Gly/G) Glycine U
GUC GCC GAC GGC C
GUA GCA GAA (Glu/E) Glutamic acid GGA A
GUG GCG GAG GGG G
A The codon AUG both codes for methionine and serves as an initiation site: the first AUG in an mRNA's coding region is where translation into protein begins.[7]

Differences from the standard code

DNA codons RNA codons This code (2) Standard code (1)
AGA AGA STOP = Ter (*) Arg (R)
AGG AGG STOP = Ter (*) Arg (R)
ATA AUA Met (M) Ile (I)
TGA UGA Trp (W) STOP = Ter (*)

Alternative initiation codons

See also

References

  • This article contains public domain text from the NCBI page compiled by Andrzej (Anjay) Elzanowski and Jim Ostell.[9]
  1. ^ S. Osawa, T. Ohama, T. H. Jukes and K. Watanabe (September 1989). "Evolution of the mitochondrial genetic code. I. Origin of AGR serine and stop codons in metazoan mitochondria". J Mol Evol. 29 (3): 202-7. doi:10.1007/bf02100203. PMID 2506356.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ R J Temperley; R Richter; S Dennerlein; R N Lightowlers; Z M Chrzanowska-Lightowlers (January 2010). "Hungry codons promote frameshifting in human mitochondrial ribosomes". Science. 327 (5963): 301. doi:10.1126/science.1180674. PMID 20075246.
  3. ^ Temperley, R. J.; Wydro, M; Lightowlers, R. N.; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z. M. (2010). "Human mitochondrial mRNAs--like members of all families, similar but different". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Bioenergetics. 1797 (6-7): 1081-5. doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.02.036. PMC 3003153. PMID 20211597.
  4. ^ W. R. Hou, Y. Chen, X. Wu, J. C. Hu, Z. S. Peng, J. Yang, Z. X. Tang, C. Q. Zhou, Y. M. Li, S. K. Yang, Y. J. Du, L. L. Kong, Z. L. Ren, H. Y. Zhang and S. S. Shuai (December 2006). "A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Asian black bear Sichuan subspecies (Ursus thibetanus mupinensis)". Int J Biol Sci. 3 (2): 85-90. doi:10.7150/ijbs.3.85. PMC 1752227. PMID 17205108.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ Oh, D. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Lee, J. A.; Yoon, W. J.; Park, S. Y.; Jung, Y. H. (2007). "Complete mitochondrial genome of the rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens (Perciformes, Siganidae)". DNA Sequence. 18 (4): 295-301. doi:10.1080/10425170701248525. PMID 17541835.
  6. ^ Ki, J. S.; Hwang, D. S.; Park, T. J.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J. S. (2009). "A comparative analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Carnivora; Mustelidae)". Molecular Biology Reports. 37 (4): 1943. doi:10.1007/s11033-009-9641-0. PMID 19757186.
  7. ^ Nakamoto T (March 2009). "Evolution and the universality of the mechanism of initiation of protein synthesis". Gene. 432 (1-2): 1-6. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2008.11.001. PMID 19056476.
  8. ^ P. Desjardins & R. Morais (February 1991). "Nucleotide sequence and evolution of coding and noncoding regions of a quail mitochondrial genome". J Mol Evol. 32 (2): 153-161. doi:10.1007/bf02515387. PMID 1706782.
  9. ^ The Genetic Codes

External links


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