Victory in Europe Day
Get Victory in Europe Day essential facts below. View Videos or join the Victory in Europe Day discussion. Add Victory in Europe Day to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Victory in Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day
Winston Churchill waves to crowds in Whitehall in London as they celebrate VE Day, 8 May 1945. H41849.jpg
Winston Churchill waving to crowds in Whitehall on 8 May celebrating the end of the war
Also called
  • VE Day
  • V-E Day
Observed by Full list see below
TypeInternational
SignificanceEnd of World War II in Europe
Date8 May
Next time8 May 2021 (2021-05-08)
FrequencyAnnual
First time8 May 1945
Related toVictory over Japan Day, Victory Day (9 May) and Europe Day

Victory in Europe Day is the day celebrating the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces on Tuesday, 8 May 1945, marking the end of World War II in Europe. Several countries observe public holidays on the day each year, also called Victory Over Fascism Day, Liberation Day or Victory Day. In the UK it is often abbreviated to VE Day, or V-E Day in the US, a term which existed as early as September 1944,[1] in anticipation of victory.

Several former Soviet bloc countries like Russia, Belarus, and Serbia celebrate on 9 May as the end of all combat actions was specified at 23:01 Central European Time, which was already 9 May in the Soviet Union. Israel also marks VE Day on 9 May, as a result of the large number of immigrants from the former Soviet bloc, but it is not a public holiday.

History

Crowds gathering in celebration at Piccadilly Circus, London during VE Day on 8 May 1945
Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel signing the final surrender terms on 8 May 1945 in Berlin
Final positions of the Allied armies, May 1945.
United States military policemen reading about the German surrender in the newspaper Stars and Stripes

Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader, had committed suicide on 30 April during the Battle of Berlin and Germany's surrender was authorised by his successor, Reichspräsident Karl Dönitz. The administration headed by Dönitz was known as the Flensburg Government. The act of military surrender was first signed at 02:41 on 7 May in SHAEF HQ at Reims,[2] and a slightly modified document, considered the definitive German Instrument of Surrender, was signed on 8 May 1945 in Karlshorst, Berlin at 21:20 local time.

The German High Command will at once issue orders to all German military, naval and air authorities and to all forces under German control to cease active operations at 23.01 hours Central European time on 8 May 1945...

Upon the defeat of Germany, celebrations erupted throughout the western world, especially in the UK and North America. More than one million people celebrated in the streets throughout the UK to mark the end of the European part of the war. In London, crowds massed in Trafalgar Square and up the Mall to Buckingham Palace, where King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, accompanied by their daughters and Prime Minister Winston Churchill, appeared on the balcony of the palace before the cheering crowds. Churchill went from the palace to Whitehall where he addressed another large crowd:[3]

God bless you all. This is your victory. In our long history, we have never seen a greater day than this. Everyone, man or woman, has done their best.

At this point he asked Ernest Bevin to come forward and share the applause. Bevin said: "No, Winston, this is your day", and proceeded to conduct the people in the singing of For He's a Jolly Good Fellow.[3] Later, Princess Elizabeth (the future Queen Elizabeth II) and her sister Princess Margaret were allowed to wander incognito among the crowds and take part in the celebrations.[4]

In the United States, the event coincided with President Harry Truman's 61st birthday.[5] He dedicated the victory to the memory of his predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had died of a cerebral hemorrhage less than a month earlier, on 12 April.[6] Flags remained at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period.[7][8] Truman said of dedicating the victory to Roosevelt's memory and keeping the flags at half-staff that his only wish was "that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day".[6] Later that day, Truman said that the victory made it his most enjoyable birthday.[5] Great celebrations took place in many American cities, especially in New York's Times Square.[9]

Tempering the jubilation somewhat, both Churchill and Truman pointed out that the war against Japan had not yet been won. In his radio broadcast at 15:00 on 8 May, Churchill told the British people that: "We may allow ourselves a brief period of rejoicing (as Japan) remains unsubdued".[10][11] In America, Truman broadcast at 09:00 and said it was "a victory only half won".[12]

National celebrations

VE Day is celebrated across European nations as public holidays and national observances.

Austria

On the eve of the diamond jubilee in 2020, Russian President Vladimir Putin, at the request of Chancellor Sebastian Kurz, gave a live address broadcast Austrian TV channel ORF.[13] The Festival of Joy is an Austrian event held in honor of VE Day. The Mauthausen Committee Austria (MKÖ) has organised the Festival of Joy since 2013, in cooperation with the Austrian Government and the City of Vienna. The festival is held annually on Heldenplatz.[14]

France

France celebrates VE Day on 8 May, being a national and public holiday. Orléans simultaneously celebrates both VE Day and the anniversary of the Siege of Orléans being lifted by French forces led by Joan of Arc during the Hundred Years War on this date.[]

Germany

Events in Berlin occur on 8 May to commemorate those who fought against Nazism in the German Resistance and lost their lives in World War II. In 2020, a regional holiday in Berlin occurred on 8 May to mark the 75th anniversary of surrender.[15]East Germany celebrated 8 May as its Tag der Befreiung (Day of Liberation), first celebrated under Walter Ulbricht's government in 1950 and repeated annually until the fall of communism.[16] Between 1975 and 1990, it was Tag des Sieges (Victory Day).[]

Poland

8 May is known in Poland as "Narodowy Dzie? Zwyci?stwa" (National Victory Day). Poland officially recognised 9 May from 1945 until 2014, and on 24 April 2015, Poland officially recognised National Victory Day.[17] On 8 May 1945, a meeting of the Council of Ministers was held, debating whether to establish the holiday on 8 May (proposed by Marshal Micha? Rola-?ymierski) or 10 May (proposed by the government)[18]. Finally, in Poland, the National Day of Victory and Freedom was established by a decree of 9 May. From 1946-1989, it was celebrated with Russian traditions being a socialist state at the time. The main celebrations were carried out at Plac Zwyci?stwa or Plac Defilad in Warsaw (most notably in 1985). After 1990, no official ceremonies were organized, however many cities and military units together with local governments organized their own festivities. The Russian minority in Poland continues to celebrate 9 May traditions to this date. At the end of March 2015, due to the upcoming 70th anniversary of the end of World War II in Europe, the President of the Institute of National Remembrance ?ukasz Kami?ski sent a letter to the Speaker of the Sejm requesting the change from 9 May to 8 May.[19] On 24 April, the Sejm adopted the Act on National Victory Day celebrated on May 8, at the same time abolishing the National Day of Victory and Freedom celebrated on May 9.[20]

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom celebrates Victory in Europe Day on 8 May as a national commemorative holiday. VE Day is not an annual public holiday because of the proximity of the May Day bank holiday on the first Monday in May. In 1995 and 2020 the bank holiday was moved from the preceding Monday to 8 May to commemorate the 50th and 75th anniversaries of VE Day, respectively.[21][22]

Other commemorative events

List of associated holidays

Country Holiday name Date Type Notes
 Armenia Victory and Peace Day 9 May National public [33]
Shushi Liberation Day 9 May National public It is celebrated jointly with VE Day
 Azerbaijan Victory Day 9 May National public [33]
 Bailiwick of Guernsey Liberation Day, Guernsey 9 May Regional public British Channel Islands have three Liberation Days: 9 May in Jersey and Guernsey;[34] 10 May in Sark;[35] and 16 May in Alderney
Liberation Day, Sark 10 May Regional public [35]
Liberation Day, Alderney 16 May Regional public [34]
 Belarus Victory Day 9 May National public [36]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Victory Day 9 May Regional public Public holiday only in Republika Srpska but celebrated across the nation[37]
 Estonia Remembrance Day 8 May National commemorative Not a public holiday; commemorative services are held during the day.[38]
 Georgia Victory over Fascism Day 9 May National public As " " (Victory over Fascism Day)[39][40]
 Israel VE Day 9 May National commemorative Considered a national day of remembrance.[41]
 Jersey Liberation Day 9 May Regional public [42]
 Kazakhstan Victory Day 9 May National public [43]
 Kyrgyzstan Victory Day 9 May National public [33]
 Latvia Remembrance Day 8 May National commemorative As Nacisma sagr?ves un Otr? pasaules kara upuru piemi?as diena (The Crushing of Nazism and Commemoration Day of Victims of World War II). Not a public holiday; commemorative services are held during the day.[44]
 Lithuania Remembrance Day 8 May National commemorative As Antrojo pasaulinio karo auk? atminimo diena (Day of Remembrance of the Victims of the World War II).[45] Not a public holiday; commemorative services are held by the President and other officials.
 Moldova Victory Day and Commemoration of the Fallen Heroes for the Independence of the Fatherland 9 May National public [33][46]
 Netherlands Liberation Day 5 May National commemorative as "Bevrijdingsdag" (Liberation Day), a public holiday once every five years.[]
 Norway Liberation Day 8 May National commemorative as "Frigjøringsdagen" (Liberation Day) and The National Veterans Day, an official flag day, not a public holiday.[47]
 Russia Victory Day 9 May National public as "? " (Victory Day)[48][49]
 Serbia Victory Day 9 May National public [50]
 Slovakia Victory over Fascism Day 8 May National public [51]
 Tajikistan Victory Day 9 May National public [33]
 Turkmenistan Day of Remembrance of National Heroes of Turkmenistan in the 1941-1945 World War 9 May National public [52]
 Ukraine Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation 8 May National commemorative [53]
Victory over Fascism Day 9 May National public [54]
 Uzbekistan Day of Remembrance and Honour 9 May National public [55] Known as "? ? "; before 1999, it was known as " ?" or "? " (Victory Day).[]

Soviet Victory Day

The instrument of surrender signed 7 May 1945 stipulated that all hostilities must cease at 23:01 (CET), 8 May 1945. Since that point in time would be on 9 May in local time in the USSR, most Soviet states including Russia celebrated Victory Day on 9 May.[56][57]

Gallery

See also

Bibliography

  • Hermiston, Roger (2016). All Behind You, Winston - Churchill's Great Coalition, 1940-45. London: Aurum Press. ISBN 978-17-81316-64-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Telfer, Kevin (2015). The Summer of '45. Islington: Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 978-17-81314-35-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)

References

  1. ^ Harper, Douglas. "VE Day". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ Hamilton, Charles (1996). Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 2. San Jose, CA: R. James Bender Publishing. pp. 285, 286. ISBN 978-0-912138-66-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ a b Hermiston 2016, p. 355.
  4. ^ Barr, Sabrina (8 May 2020). "How Princess Elizabeth celebrated VE Day". The Independent. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Truman Marks Birthday". The New York Times. 9 May 1945. p. 6.
  6. ^ a b "Victory Wreath From Truman Is Laid On Hyde Park Grave of War President". New York Times. Associated Press. 9 May 1945. p. 15.
  7. ^ "Army Extends Mourning Period". New York Times. Associated Press. 12 May 1945. p. 13.
  8. ^ United Press (15 May 1945). "30 Days of Mourning For Roosevelt Ended". New York Times. p. 4.
  9. ^ Telfer 2015, p. 75.
  10. ^ Telfer 2015, p. 33.
  11. ^ Hermiston 2016, p. 356.
  12. ^ Telfer 2015, p. 76.
  13. ^ "Putin: Russia grateful to Austria for careful treatment of wartime burial sites". TASS.
  14. ^ "Organizer | Festival of Joy | Day of liberation 8 May". www.festderfreude.at.
  15. ^ Schereck, Sabine (8 May 2020). "Berlin marks end of WW2 with unprecedented holiday". BBC News. Retrieved 2020.
  16. ^ "May 8, 1945: Total defeat or day of liberation? | DW | 05.05.2020". Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com). Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ "Mamy nowe ?wi?to pa?stwowe. Po raz pierwszy obchodzimy Narodowy Dzie? Zwyci?stwa". TVN24.pl. Retrieved 2019.
  18. ^ "Jak Moskwa narzuci?a nam 9 maja jako Dzie? Zwyci?stwa i jak ?wi?towali?my ten dzie? tu? po wojnie | Szcz Bo?e Stalinowi - strona 1 - Polityka.pl" (in Polish). www.polityka.pl. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ "Informacja o dzia?alno?ci Instytutu Pami?ci Narodowej Komisji ?cigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu w okresie 1 stycznia 2015 r. - 31 grudnia 2015 r., Warszawa 2016, s. 107 i 109" (PDF) (in Polish). Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ "Ustawa z dnia 24 kwietnia 2015 r. o ustanowieniu Narodowego Dnia Zwyci?stwa". isap.sejm.gov.pl.
  21. ^ Bowman, Verity; Hayes, Georgina (8 May 2020). "VE Day 2020: Britons celebrate 75th anniversary of Victory in Europe Day" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  22. ^ "2020 May bank holiday will be moved to mark 75th anniversary of VE Day". GOV.UK. 7 June 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ "8. kv?ten - Den vít?zství | Svátky Centrum.cz". svatky.centrum.cz. Retrieved 2020.
  24. ^ "National Holidays in Czech Republic in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  25. ^ "World War II Liberation Commemorations Culminate in Pilsen| U.S. Embassy in The Czech Republic". U.S. Embassy in The Czech Republic. 7 May 2016. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Morning, Prague (5 May 2019). "Czechs Commemorate Anniversary of Prague Uprising". Prague Morning. Retrieved 2020.
  27. ^ DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: Czech and Slovak Republics: Czech and Slovak Republics. Penguin. 2013. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-4654-1265-2.
  28. ^ "Praha za?ila vojenskou p?ehlídku, po 23 letech | Domov". Lidovky.cz (in Czech). 28 October 2008. Retrieved 2019.
  29. ^ "Prahou má burácet velkolepá vojenská p?ehlídka". Novinky.cz. Retrieved 2019.
  30. ^ Anonymous (16 June 2016). "Europe Day". European Union. Retrieved 2020.
  31. ^ "Thousands mark Soviet Victory Day in Riga". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. 9 May 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  32. ^ "Crowds mark Soviet 'Victory Day' in R?ga". Public Broadcasting of Latvia. 9 May 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d e "Victory Day around the world in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  34. ^ a b "The History of Liberation Day in Guernsey". www.visitguernsey.com.
  35. ^ a b "Sark celebrates Liberation Day". ITV News.
  36. ^ "National Holidays, Belarus | Belarus.by". www.belarus.by. Retrieved 2020.
  37. ^ "Bosnia and Herzegovina Public Holidays 2019". PublicHolidays.eu. Retrieved 2020.
  38. ^ "Statement by the Government of the Republic of Estonia". Government of the Republic of Estonia.
  39. ^ "9 , , ? ". (in Georgian). Retrieved 2020.
  40. ^ "National Holidays in Georgia in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  41. ^ "Knesset Creates Victory in Europe Day". Knesset. Retrieved 2019.
  42. ^ Jersey, States of. "Government of Jersey". gov.je.
  43. ^ "National Holidays in Kazakhstan in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  44. ^ [1]
  45. ^ http://genocid.lt/centras/en/511/c/
  46. ^ "Europe Day around the world in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ Frigjøringen Store norske leksikon in (in Norwegian)
  48. ^ "National Holidays in Russia in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  49. ^ "! 75 - ?". www.may9.ru. Retrieved 2020.
  50. ^ "Europe Day in Serbia in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  51. ^ "National Holidays in Slovakia in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  52. ^ "TURKMENISTAN MARKS DAY OF REMEMBRANCE OF THE FALLEN IN WORLD WAR II | Turkmenistan.ru". www.turkmenistan.ru.
  53. ^ "Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation in Ukraine in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ "Victory Day (in lieu) in Ukraine in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ "Memorial Day in Uzbekistan in 2020". Office Holidays. Retrieved 2020.
  56. ^ Earl F. Ziemke, 1990, Washington DC, CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY, CHAPTER XV:The Victory Sealed Page 258 last 2 paragraphs
  57. ^ Parfitt, Tom (9 May 2015). "Russia's Victory Day Parade marks new East-West divide". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2016.

External links

Media related to VE Day at Wikimedia Commons


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Victory_in_Europe_Day
 



 



 
Music Scenes