Ch? Qu?c Ng?
|Languages||Vietnamese, other indigenous languages of Vietnam|
|Creator||Portuguese Jesuits,Alexandre de Rhodes|
The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: Ch? Qu?c Ng?; Ch? Nôm: /; lit. 'national language script') is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language. It uses the Latin script based on Romance languages, in particular, the Portuguese alphabet, with some digraphs and the addition of 9 accent marks or diacritics - four of them to create sounds and the other five to indicate tone. These many diacritics, often two on the same vowel, make written Vietnamese recognizable among localized variants of Latin alphabets.
Compared to English, there are 29 "letters" in the Vietnamese alphabet. There are six tones, each with a separate diacritic, which are marked in the IPA as suprasegmentals following the phonemic value. It uses all 22 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet plus 6 additional "letters" where 4 letters are with the other 3 diacrtiics/?, Â/â, Ê/ê, Ô/ô, ?/?, ?/? and the letter ?/? except for F/f, J/j, W/w and Z/z. The aforementioned 4 letters are only used to write loanwords, languages of other ethnic groups in the country based on Vietnamese phonetics to differentiate the meanings or even Vietnamese dialects, for example: dz or z for Northern Vietnamese pronunciation of gi in standard Vietnamese or to distinguish the English D from the Vietnamese D.
used in spelling
|Hà N?i||Sài Gòn|
|G g||giê||/?e?/||/?e?, ?e?/||g?||/:/|
|H h||hát, h?t||/ha:t/||/hak/||h?||/h?:/|
|I i||i ng?n||/i? ?an/||/?i ?a/|
|L l||en l?||/?n? l?:/||/ l?:/||l?||/l?:/|
|M m||em m?||/?m? m?:/||/?m? m?:/||m?||/m?:/|
|N n||en n?, anh n?||/?n? n?:/||/an? n?:/||n?||/n?:/|
|P p||pê, bê ph?||/pe?/||/pe?/||p?||/p?:/|
|Q q||quy||/ku?, kwi?/||/kwi?/||qu?
|R r||e r?||/ r?:/||/ :/||r?||/r?:/|
|S s||ét xì, ét x?||/?t si/||/?t, ?:t (s)/||s?||/:/|
|X x||ích xì||/ik si/||/t (si)/||x?||/s?:/|
|Y y||y dài||/i? za:j/||/?i ja:j/|
The alphabet is largely derived from the Portuguese, although the usage of gh and gi was borrowed from Italian (compare ghetto, Giuseppe) and that for c/k/qu from Greek and Latin (compare canis, kinesis, qu? v?dis), mirroring the English usage of these letters (compare cat, kite, queen).
|C c||⟨k⟩ is used instead when preceding ⟨i y e ê⟩. K is also used before U in the Vietnamese city Pleiku.|
⟨qu⟩ is used instead of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.
Realized as in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.
|Ch ch||/?k/||Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨ch⟩ have been proposed (main article).|
In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨d⟩ represented . ⟨d⟩ was used to write native Vietnamese words and ⟨gi⟩ was used to write words of Chinese origin.
|Gh gh||Spelling used ⟨gh⟩ instead of ⟨g⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩, seemingly to follow the Italian convention. ⟨g⟩ is not allowed in these environments.|
|Gi gi||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨gi⟩ represented . The distinction between ⟨d⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ is now purely etymological (and is the only one) in most modern dialects. Realized as [?] in Northern spelling pronunciation. Spelled ⟨g⟩ before another ⟨i⟩.[a]|
|K k||Spelling used instead of ⟨c⟩ before ⟨i y e ê⟩ to follow the European tradition. ⟨c⟩ is not allowed in these environments.|
|Kh kh||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨kh⟩ was pronounced|
|N n||In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨n⟩ is realized as if not following ⟨i ê⟩.|
|Ng ng||Realized as [m] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.|
|Ngh ngh||Spelling used instead of ⟨ng⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩ in accordance with ⟨gh⟩.|
|Nh nh||//||Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨nh⟩ have been proposed (main article).|
|P p||Only occurs initially in loanwords. Some Vietnamese pronounce it as a "b" sound instead (as in Arabic).|
|Ph ph||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨ph⟩ was pronounced|
|Qu qu||Spelling used in place of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.|
|R r||Variably pronounced as a fricative , approximant , flap or trill in Southern speech.|
|S s||Realized as [?] in Northern spelling pronunciation.|
|T t||In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨t⟩ is realized as if not following ⟨i ê⟩.|
|Tr tr||Realized as [t?] in Northern spelling pronunciation.|
|V v||In Middle Vietnamese, it was represented by a b with flourish ⟨⟩ and was pronounced .|
Can be realized as in Southern speech through spelling pronunciation and in loanwords.
|X x||In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨x⟩ was pronounced .|
The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is somewhat complicated. In some cases, the same letter may represent several different sounds, and different letters may represent the same sound. This is because the orthography was designed centuries ago and the spoken language has changed, as shown in the chart directly above that contrasts the difference between Middle and Modern Vietnamese.
The letters y and i are mostly equivalent, and there is no concrete rule that says when to use one or the other, except in sequences like ay and uy (i.e. tay ("arm, hand") is read /tj/ while tai ("ear") is read /t?j/). There have been attempts since the late 20th century to standardize the orthography by replacing all the vowel uses of y with i, the latest being a decision from the Vietnamese Ministry of Education in 1984. These efforts seem to have had limited effect. In textbooks published by Nhà Xu?t b?n Giáo d?c ("Publishing House of Education"), y is used to represent /i/ only in Sino-Vietnamese words that are written with one letter y alone (diacritics can still be added, as in ý, ?), at the beginning of a syllable when followed by ê (as in y?m, y?t), after u and in the sequence ay; therefore such forms as *lý and *k? are not "standard", though they are much preferred elsewhere. Most people and the popular media continue to use the spelling that they are most accustomed to.
|a|| /a/ ([æ] in some dialects) except as below|
/?/ in au /?w/ and ay /?j/ (but /a/ in ao /aw/ and ai /aj/)
/?j/ before syllable-final nh /?/ and ch /k/, see
Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
// in ?a //, ia /i/ and ya /i/
// in ua except after q[note 1]
|ê|| /e/ except as below|
/j/ before syllable-final nh /?/ and ch /k/, see
Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
// in iê /i/ and yê /i/
|i|| /i/ except as below|
/j/ after any vowel letter
|o|| /?/ except as below|
/?w/ before ng and c[note 2]
/w/ after any vowel letter (= after a or e)
/w/ before any vowel letter except i (= before ?, a or e)
|ô|| /o/ except as below|
/w/ before ng and c except after a u that is not preceded by a q[note 3]
// in uô except after q[note 4]
|?|| /?/ except as below|
// in //
|u|| /u/ except as below|
/w/ after q or any vowel letter
/w/ before any vowel letter except a, ô and i
Before a, ô and i: /w/ if preceded by q, /u/ otherwise
|y|| /i/ except as below|
/j/ after any vowel letter except u (= after â and a)
The uses of the letters i and y to represent the phoneme /i/ can be categorized as "standard" (as used in textbooks published by Nhà Xu?t b?n Giáo d?c) and "non-standard" as follows.
|In one-lettered non-Sino-Vietnamese syllables||i (e.g.: i t?, í ?i, ì ?ch, ? ôi, ?i ?)|
|In one-lettered Sino-Vietnamese syllables||y (e.g.: y h?c, ý ki?n, ? l?i)|
|Syllable-initial, not followed by ê||i (e.g.a ?ái, im l?ng, ích l?i, ?u xìu)|
|Syllable-initial, followed by ê||y (e.g.: y?u ?t, y?m dãi, y?t h?u)|
|After u||y (e.g.: uy l?c, huy hoàng, khuya kho?t, tuy?n m?, khuy?t t?t, khu?u tay, huýt sáo, khuynh hng)|
|After qu, not followed by ê, nh||y (e.g.: quý giá, qu?n quýt)||i (e.g.: quí giá, qu?n quít)|
|After qu, followed by ê, nh||y (e.g.: quyên góp, x?o quy?t, m?ng quýnh, hoa qu?nh)|
|After b, d, ?, r, x||i (e.g.: b?a t, diêm dúa, ch th?, r? r?, tri?u i, xinh x?n)|
|After g, not followed by a, ?, â, e, ê, o, ô, ?, u, ?||i (e.g.: cái gì?, gi? gìn)|
|After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in non-Sino-Vietnamese syllables||i (e.g.: ti hí, kì c?, lí nhí, mí m?t, tí xíu)|
|After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in Sino-Vietnamese syllables||i (e.g.: hi v?ng, kì thú, lí lu?n, m? thu?t, gi? Tí)||y (e.g.: hy v?ng, k? thú, lý lu?n, m? thu?t, gi? Tý)|
|After ch, gh, kh, nh, ph, th||i (e.g.: chíp hôi, ghi nh?, ý ngh?a, khiêu khích, nhí nh?, phi?n ?á, bu?n thiu)|
|After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in non-proper-noun syllables||i (e.g.: ni cô, si tình, vi khu?n)|
|After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in proper nouns||i (e.g.: Ni, Thu? S?, Vi)||y (e.g.: Ny, Th?y S?, Vy)|
|After h, k, l, m, n, s, t, v, followed by a letter||i (e.g.: thng hi?u, kiên trì, b?i li?t, ngôi mi?u, n?ng n?u, siêu ng, m?n ti?p, c vi?c)|
|In Vietnamese personal names, after a consonant||i||either i or y, depending on personal preference|
This "standard" set by Nhà Xu?t b?n Giáo d?c is not definite. It is unknown why the literature books use Lí while the history books use Lý.
The table below matches the vowels of Hanoi Vietnamese (written in the IPA) and their respective orthographic symbols used in the writing system.
|Rising Vowels||Rising-Falling Vowels||Falling Vowels|
|nucleus (V)||/w/ on-glides||/w/ + V + off-glide||/j/ off-glides||/w/ off-glides|
|front||e||/w?/ oe/(q)ue*||/w?w/ oeo/(q)ueo*||/?w/ eo|
|ê||/we/ uê||/ew/ êu|
|i||/wi/ uy||/wiw/ uyu||/iw/ iu|
|ia/iê/yê*||/wi/ uyê/uya*||/iw/ iêu/yêu*|
|central||a||/wa/ oa/(q)ua*||/waj/ oai/(q)uai, /waw/ oao/(q)uao*||/aj/ ai||/aw/ ao|
|?||/w?/ o?/(q)u?*||/w?j/ oay/(q)uay*||/?j/ ay||/?w/ au|
|â||/w/ uâ||/wj/ uây||/j/ ây||/w/ âu|
|?||/w?/ u?||/?j/ ?i||/?w/ ?u|
|?||/?j/ ?i||/?w/ ?u|
|?a/*||/j/ i||/w/ u|
The glide /w/ is written:
The off-glide /j/ is written as i except after â and ?, where it is written as y; note that /?j/ is written as ay instead of *?y (cf. ai /aj/) .
The diphthong /i/ is written:
The diphthong /u/ is written:
The diphthong // is written:
Vietnamese is a tonal language, i.e., the meaning of each word depends on the "tone" (basically a specific tone and glottalization pattern) in which it is pronounced. There are six distinct tones in the standard northern dialect. In the south, there is a merging of the h?i and ngã tones, in effect leaving five basic tones. The first one ("level tone") is not marked and the other five are indicated by diacritics applied to the vowel part of the syllable. The tone names are chosen such that the name of each tone is spoken in the tone it identifies.
|Name||Contour||Diacritic||Vowels with diacritic|
|Ngang or B?ng||mid level, ?||unmarked||A/a, ?/?, Â/â, E/e, Ê/ê, I/i, O/o, Ô/ô, ?/?, U/u, ?/?, Y/y|
|Huy?n||low falling,||grave accent||À/à, ?/?, ?/?, È/è, ?/?, Ì/ì, Ò/ò, ?/?, ?/?, Ù/ù, ?/?, ?/?|
|H?i||mid falling, (Northern); dipping, (Southern)||hook above||?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?|
|Ngã||glottalized rising, (Northern); slightly lengthened D?u H?i tone (Southern)||tilde||Ã/ã, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, Õ/õ, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?|
|S?c||high rising,||acute accent||Á/á, ?/?, ?/?, É/é, ?/?, Í/í, Ó/ó, ?/?, ?/?, Ú/ú, ?/?, Ý/ý|
|N?ng||glottalized falling, (Northern); low rising, (Southern)||dot below||?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?, ?/?|
In syllables where the vowel part consists of more than one vowel (such as diphthongs and triphthongs), the placement of the tone is still a matter of debate. Generally, there are two methodologies, an "old style" and a "new style". While the "old style" emphasizes aesthetics by placing the tone mark as close as possible to the center of the word (by placing the tone mark on the last vowel if an ending consonant part exists and on the next-to-last vowel if the ending consonant doesn't exist, as in hóa, h?y), the "new style" emphasizes linguistic principles and tries to apply the tone mark on the main vowel (as in hoá, hu?). In both styles, when one vowel already has a quality diacritic on it, the tone mark must be applied to it as well, regardless of where it appears in the syllable (thus thu? is acceptable while thúê is not). In the case of the diphthong, the mark is placed on the ?. The u in qu is considered part of the consonant. Currently, the new style is usually used in textbooks published by Nhà Xu?t b?n Giáo d?c, while most people still prefer the old style in casual uses. Among Overseas Vietnamese communities, the old style is predominant for all purposes.
In lexical ordering, differences in letters are treated as primary, differences in tone markings as secondary and differences in case as tertiary differences. (Letters include for instance A and ? but not ?. Older dictionaries also treated digraphs and trigraphs like CH and NGH as base letters.) Ordering according to primary and secondary differences proceeds syllable by syllable. According to this principle, a dictionary lists tuân th? before tu?n chay because the secondary difference in the first syllable takes precedence over the primary difference in the second.
In the past, syllables in multisyllabic words were concatenated with hyphens, but this practice has died out and hyphenation is now reserved for word-borrowings from other languages. A written syllable consists of at most three parts, in the following order from left to right:
Since the Tri?u dynasty in the 2nd century BC, Vietnamese literature, government papers, scholarly works and religious scripture were all written in classical Chinese (ch? Hán). Since the 12th century, several Vietnamese words started to be written in ch? Nôm, using variant Chinese characters, each of them representing one word. The system was based on ch? Hán, but was also supplemented with Vietnamese-invented characters (ch? thu?n nôm, proper Nôm characters) to represent native Vietnamese words.
As early as 1620 with the work of Francisco de Pina, Portuguese and Italian Jesuit missionaries in Vietnam began using Latin script to transcribe the Vietnamese language as an assistance for learning the language. The work was continued by the Avignonese Alexandre de Rhodes. Building on previous dictionaries by Gaspar do Amaral and Antonio Barbosa, Rhodes compiled the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, a Vietnamese–Portuguese–Latin dictionary, which was later printed in Rome in 1651, using their spelling system. These efforts led eventually to the development of the present Vietnamese alphabet. Still, ch? Nôm remained the dominant script in Vietnamese Catholic literature until late 19th century.
In 1910, French colonial administration enforced ch? Qu?c ng?. The Latin alphabet became a means to publish Vietnamese popular literature, which were disparaged as vulgar by the Chinese-educated imperial elites. Historian Pamela A. Pears asserted that by instituting the Latin alphabet in Vietnam, the French cut the Vietnamese from their traditional Hán Nôm literature. Nowadays, although the Vietnamese majorly use ch? Qu?c ng?, new Vietnamese terms for new items or words are often calqued from Hán Nôm. Some French had originally planned to replace Vietnamese with French, but this never was a serious project, given the small number of French settlers compared with the native population. The French had to reluctantly accept the use of ch? Qu?c ng? to write Vietnamese since this writing system, created by Portuguese missionaries, is based on Portuguese orthography, not French.
Between 1907 and 1908 the short-lived Tonkin Free School promulgated ch? qu?c ng? and taught French to the general population.
By 1917, the French had suppressed Vietnam's Confucian examination system, viewed as an aristocratic system linked with the "ancient regime", thereby forcing Vietnamese elites to educate their offspring in the French language education system. Emperor Kh?i nh declared the traditional writing system abolished in 1918. While the most traditional nationalists favoured the Confucian examination system and the use of ch? Hán, Vietnamese revolutionaries and progressive nationalists as well as pro-French elites viewed the French education system as a means to liberate the Vietnamese from old Chinese domination, to democratize education and to link the Vietnamese to ideals expressed by the French republic.
The French colonial regime then set up another educational system, teaching Vietnamese as first language using ch? qu?c ng? in primary school and then French as a second language (taught in ch? qu?c ng?). Hundreds of thousands of textbooks for primary education began to be published in ch? qu?c ng?, with the unintentional result of turning the script into the popular medium for the expression of Vietnamese culture.
Prior to the advent of 21st-century computer-assisted typesetting methods, the act of typesetting and printing Vietnamese has been described as a "nightmare" due to the number of accents and diacritics. Contemporary Vietnamese texts sometimes included words which have not been adapted to modern Vietnamese orthography, especially for documents written in Chinese characters. The Vietnamese language itself has been likened to a system akin to "ruby characters" elsewhere in Asia. See Vietnamese language and computers for usage on computers and on the internet.
The universal character set Unicode has full support for the Vietnamese writing system, although it does not have a separate segment for it. The required characters that other languages use are scattered throughout the Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A and Latin Extended-B blocks; those that remain (such as the letters with more than one diacritic) are placed in the Latin Extended Additional block. An ASCII-based writing convention, Vietnamese Quoted Readable and several byte-based encodings including VSCII (TCVN), VNI, VISCII and Windows-1258 were widely used before Unicode became popular. Most new documents now exclusively use the Unicode format UTF-8.
Unicode allows the user to choose between precomposed characters and combining characters in inputting Vietnamese. Because in the past some fonts implemented combining characters in a nonstandard way (see Verdana font), most people use precomposed characters when composing Vietnamese-language documents (except on Windows where Windows-1258 used combining characters).
Most keyboards used by Vietnamese-language users do not support direct input of diacritics by default. Various free software such as Unikey that act as keyboard drivers exist. They support the most popular input methods, including Telex, VNI, VIQR and its variants.