Voiced Alveolar Plosive
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Voiced Alveolar Plosive
Voiced alveolar plosive
IPA Number104
Entity (decimal)d
Unicode (hex)U+0064
Braille? (braille pattern dots-145)
Audio sample
Voiced dental plosive
IPA Number104 408
Entity (decimal)d​̪
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+032A
Braille? (braille pattern dots-145)? (braille pattern dots-6)? (braille pattern dots-1456)
Audio sample

The voiced alveolar, dental and postalveolar plosives (or stops) are types of consonantal sounds used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨d?⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental plosive, and ⟨d?⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

There are only a few languages which distinguishes dental and alveolar stops, Kota, Toda, Venda and some Irish dialects being a few of them.


Features of the voiced alveolar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a plosive.
  • There are three specific variants of [d]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.


Dental or denti-alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[1] ? / demk' 'face' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Western / dal [dl] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bashkir ? / dürt 'four'
Basque diru [d?i?u] 'money' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Belarusian[2] ?/padaroa [päd?ä'roä] 'travel' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Bengali ?/d?dh [d?ud] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] dit ['d?it?] 'finger' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Wu ?/da [d] 'the Tang dynasty'
Dinka[4] dhek [d?ek] 'distinct' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
Dutch Belgian ding [d] 'thing' Laminal denti-alveolar.
English Dublin[5] then [dn] 'then' Laminal denti-alveolar. In Dublin it may be .[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6] Corresponds to .
Geordie[7] Word-initial allophone of /ð/; may be realized as instead.[7]
Ulster[8] dream [dim] 'dream' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperanto mondo ['mondo] 'world' See Esperanto phonology.
French[9] dais [d] 'canopy' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Georgian[10] ?? ['k'ud?i] 'tail' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Georgian phonology
Hindustani[11] Hindi ? / d?dh [d?u:d] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Hindustani contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. Contrasts with aspirated form <?>. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Urdu ?‎ / d?dh Contrasts with aspirated form <>.
Irish dorcha ['dx?] 'dark' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Irish phonology
Italian[12] dare ['d?ä:re] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Japanese[13] / danseiteki [d?äse?:t?e?k?i] 'masculine' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Japanese phonology
Kashubian[14] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[15] ? [d?os?] 'friend' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[16] drudzis ['d?rudz?is?] 'fever' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Marathi ?/daga? [d] 'stone' Laminal denti-alveolar. Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Nepali ?/din [d?in] 'daytime' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali Phonology
Odia ??/da?a [ds?] 'ten' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Pashto ‎/dwa ['d?w?] 'two' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Polish[17] dom 'home' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[18] Many dialects dar ['d?a?] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. May palatalize or lenite in certain environments, depending on dialect. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi Gurmukhi /d?l [d:l] 'lentils' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Shahmukhi /d?l
Russian[19] ?/ dva ['d?va] 'two' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with a palatalized alveolar variant. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[20] ? / duga [d:gä] 'rainbow' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[21] danes ['d?à:n?s?] 'today' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[22] hundido [?n?'d?ið?o?] 'sunken' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Turkish dal [d?ä?] 'twig' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23][24] ?/derevo ['dr?] 'tree' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[25] sifatida [si?ætidæ] 'as' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[26] dan [d?a?] 'countryside' Laminal denti-alveolar.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ?/daah? [da:xa] 'pretty'
Assyrian ? werda [w?rda] 'flower' Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to in other varieties.
Bengali ?/?ab [d?ab] 'green coconut' True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. Usually transcribed in IPA as [?]. See Bengali phonology.
Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology
Dutch[27] dak [d?k] 'roof' See Dutch phonology
English Most speakers dash 'dash' See English phonology
Finnish sidos ['sido?s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology
Greek ? / dropí [dro?'pi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew ?‎/ do'ar ['do?.ä] 'mail' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian adó ['?do:] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology
Kabardian ?/ daah? [da:xa] 'pretty'
Korean / adeul [?d?l] 'son' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Northern diran [dä:n] 'tooth' See Kurdish phonology
Central ?/ dadân [dædä:n]
Southern ?/dîân [di:ä:n]
Luxembourgish[28] brudder ['bud?] 'brother' More often voiceless .[28] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay Standard (incl. Malaysian) dahan [dähän] 'branch' See Malay phonology
Kelantan-Pattani [dah?:] See Kelantan-Pattani Malay
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Thai / d?w [da:w] 'star'
Welsh diafol [djav?l] 'devil' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian doarp ['dw?rp] 'village'
Yi ?/dda [da?] 'competent'
Yonaguni / dunan [duna?] 'Yonaguni'


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic ?‎/diin [di:n] 'religion' Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the dialect. See Arabic phonology.
English Broad South African[30] dawn [do:n] 'dawn' Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[30][31][32]
Scottish[31] [d?n]
Welsh[32] [d?:n]
German Standard[33] oder 'or' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[33] See Standard German phonology
Norwegian Urban East[34] dans [dns] 'dance' Partially voiced or fully voiceless . Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[34] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[35] ‎/ed?re [eda:re] 'office' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[35] See Persian phonology
Slovak[36][37] do 'into' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[36][37] See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[38] dag [d?:?] 'day' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[38] May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology

See also


  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  2. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  4. ^ Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 115, 121.
  5. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  6. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 24.
  7. ^ a b Watt & Allen (2003), p. 270.
  8. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  12. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  13. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  14. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  15. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  16. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  17. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  19. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 99.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  22. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  23. ^ S. Buk; J. Ma?utek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63-79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  24. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  25. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 10.
  26. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  27. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  28. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67-68.
  29. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.
  30. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 120.
  31. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  32. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  33. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 47.
  34. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000:22)
  35. ^ a b Mahootian (2002:287-289)
  36. ^ a b Krá? (1988), p. 72.
  37. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 98-99.
  38. ^ a b Riad (2014:46)


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External links

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