Voiced Dental Stop
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Voiced Dental Stop
Voiced alveolar stop
d
IPA Number104
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d
Unicode (hex)U+0064
X-SAMPAd
Braille? (braille pattern dots-145)
Audio sample
Voiced dental stop
d?
Audio sample

The voiced alveolar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar stops is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨d?⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental stop, and ⟨d?⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.

Features

Features of the voiced alveolar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • There are three specific variants of [d]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Dental or denti-alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[1] ? / demk' 'face' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Western ? / dal [dl] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bashkir ? / dürt 'four'
Basque diru [d?i?u] 'money' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Belarusian[2] ? [päd?ä'roä] 'travel' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Bengali ''? [d?ud] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3] dit ['d?it?] 'finger' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Wu ? [d] 'the Tang dynasty'
Dinka[4] dhek [d?ek] 'distinct' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
Dutch Belgian ding [d] 'thing' Laminal denti-alveolar.
English Dublin[5] then [dn] 'then' Laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to in other dialects; in Dublin it may be instead.[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6]
Geordie[7] Word-initial allophone of /ð/; may be realized as instead.[7]
Ulster[8] dream [dim] 'dream' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperanto mondo ['mondo] 'world' See Esperanto phonology
French[9] dais [d] 'canopy' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Georgian[10] ?? ['k'ud?i] 'tail' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Georgian phonology
Hindustani[11] / ? [d?u:d] 'milk' Laminal denti-alveolar. Hindustani contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Irish dorcha ['dx?] 'dark' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Irish phonology
Italian[12] dare ['d?ä:re] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Kashubian[13] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[14] ? [d?os?] 'friend' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[15] drudzis ['d?rudz?is?] 'fever' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Marathi ? [d] 'stone' Laminal denti-alveolar. Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Pashto ['d?w?] 'two' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Polish[16] dom 'home' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[17] Many dialects dar ['d?a?] 'to give' Laminal denti-alveolar. May palatalize or lenite in certain environments, depending on dialect. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi [d:l] 'lentils' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Russian[18] ? [d'?at?] 'to breathe' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with a palatalized alveolar variant. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19] ? / duga [d:gä] 'rainbow' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[20] danes ['d?à:n?s?] 'today' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[21] hundido [?n?'d?ið?o?] 'sunken' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Turkish dal [d?ä?] 'twig' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[22][23] ? ['dr?] 'tree' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[24] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[25] dan [d?a?] 'countryside' Laminal denti-alveolar.

Alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ? [da:xa] 'pretty'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic wada [wa:da] 'to do' Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to in other varieties.
Bengali ? [d?ab] 'green coconut' True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. See Bengali phonology.
Czech do [do] 'into' See Czech phonology
Dutch[26] dak [d?k] 'roof' See Dutch phonology
English Most speakers dash 'dash' See English phonology
Finnish sidos ['sido?s] 'bond' See Finnish phonology
Greek ? / dropí [dro?'pi] 'shame' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew ? ['do?a?] 'mail' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian adó ['?do:] 'tax' See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian[27] dacing ['dät] 'balancing scale'
Japanese[28] / danseiteki [dãnse?:te?ki] 'masculine' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian ? [da:xa] 'pretty'
Korean / adeul [?d?l] 'son' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[29] brudder ['bud?] 'brother' More often voiceless .[29] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay dahan [dähän] 'branch'
Maltese dehen [den] 'wit'
Thai [da:w] 'star'
West Frisian doarp ['dw?rp] 'village'
Yi ?/dda [da?] 'competent'

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic ? [di:n] 'religion' Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the dialect. See Arabic phonology.
English Broad South African[30] dawn [do:n] 'dawn' Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[30][31][32]
Scottish[31] [d?n]
Welsh[32] [d?:n]
German Standard[33] oder 'or' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[33] See Standard German phonology
Norwegian Urban East[34] dans [dns] 'dance' Partially voiced or fully voiceless . Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[34] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[35] [eda:re] 'office' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[35] See Persian phonology
Slovak[36][37] do 'into' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[36][37] See Slovak phonology
Swedish Central Standard[38] dag [d?:?] 'day' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[38] May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  2. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  4. ^ Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 115, 121.
  5. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  6. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 24.
  7. ^ a b Watt & Allen (2003), p. 270.
  8. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  12. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  13. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  14. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  15. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  16. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  17. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  18. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 99.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  21. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  22. ^ S. Buk; J. Ma?utek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". arXiv:0802.4198.
  23. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  24. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 10.
  25. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  26. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  27. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.
  28. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  29. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67-68.
  30. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 120.
  31. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  32. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  33. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 47.
  34. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000:22)
  35. ^ a b Mahootian (2002:287-289)
  36. ^ a b Krá? (1988), p. 72.
  37. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 98-99.
  38. ^ a b Riad (2014:46)

References

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  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (PDF) (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Danyenko, Andrii; Vakulenko, Serhii (1995), Ukrainian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783929075083
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "Illustrations of the IPA:French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 23 (2): 73-76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 67-74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 22 (2): 45-47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103-107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895868434
  • Krá?, Ábel (1988), Pravidlá slovenskej výslovnosti, Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladate?stvo
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.), Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052
  • Maddieson, Ian (1984), Patterns of Sound, Cambridge University Press
  • Mahootian, Shahrzad (1997), Persian, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-415-02311-4
  • Mangold, Max (2005) [First published 1962], Das Aussprachewörterbuch (6th ed.), Mannheim: Dudenverlag, ISBN 978-3-411-04066-7
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lon?ari?a, Mijo; Horga, Damir; ?kari?, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66-69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 255-259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107-114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Nau, Nicole (1998), Latvian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-228-2
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117-119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Padluzhny, Ped (1989), Fanetyka belaruskai litaraturnai movy, ISBN 5-343-00292-7
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný ?asopis, 55: 87-109
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  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 117-121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006). "Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview" (PDF). Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Soderberg, Craig D.; Olson, Kenneth S. (2008), "Indonesian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (2): 209-213, doi:10.1017/s0025100308003320
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 267-271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397
  • Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links


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